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Fatah

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Fatah
Bayanai
Iri jam'iyyar siyasa
Ƙasa State of Palestine
Ideology (en) Fassara Palestinian nationalism (en) Fassara da secularism (en) Fassara
Political alignment (en) Fassara Bangaren hagu
Aiki
Mamba na Progressive Alliance (en) Fassara da Socialist International (en) Fassara

Palestinian Legislative Council
45 / 132
Mulki
Shugaba Mahmoud Abbas
Sakatare Jibril Rajoub (en) Fassara
Hedkwata Ramallah (en) Fassara
Tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1959
Wanda ya samar
fatehmedia.ps

Fatah ( Larabci: فتح‎, Fatḥ ), tsohuwar Ƙungiyar 'Yancin Falasɗinawa ta Falasdinu, jam'iyyar siyasa ce ta Falasɗinawa mai kishin ƙasa da zamantakewa . Wannan dai shi ne bangare mafi girma na jam'iyyu masu fafutukar 'yantar da 'yancin Falasdinu (PLO) kuma jam'iyya ta biyu mafi girma a Majalisar Dokokin Falasdinu (PLC). Mahmoud Abbas, shugaban hukumar Falasdinu, shi ne shugaban kungiyar Fatah.

An yi la'akari da cewa kungiyar Fatah ta kasance da hannu a cikin gwagwarmayar juyin juya hali a baya kuma ta ci gaba da rike kungiyoyin 'yan ta'adda da dama . [1] Fatah dai an san shi da shugabancin wanda ya kafa kuma shugaban kungiyar Yasser Arafat, har zuwa rasuwarsa a shekara ta 2004, lokacin da Farouk Kaddoumi bisa tsarin mulki ya gaje shi zuwa mukamin shugaban Fatah, ya kuma ci gaba da rike mukamin har zuwa shekara ta 2009, lokacin da aka zabi Abbas a matsayin shugaba. Tun bayan rasuwar Arafat, qungiyoyin bangaranci a cikin harkar aqida sun fara bayyana.

A zaben 2006 na PLC, jam'iyyar ta rasa rinjaye a PLC a hannun Hamas . Nasarar majalisar dokokin Hamas ta haifar da rikici tsakanin Fatah da Hamas, tare da Fatah ta ci gaba da rike ikon Hukumar Falasdinawa a Yammacin Kogin Jordan ta hannun shugabanta. Har ila yau, Fatah na taka rawa wajen kula da sansanonin 'yan gudun hijirar Falasdinu .

Asalin suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Cikakken sunan wannan yunkuri shi ne حركة التحرير الوطني الفلسطيني ḥa rakat al- ta ḥrīr al-waṭanī al- F ilasṭīnī, ma'ana "Falasdinawa National Liberation Movement". Daga wannan aka ƙirƙira juzu'i da juzu'i فتح Fatḥ (wanda aka fassara shi da Ingilishi a matsayin "Fatah") ma'ana "buɗe", "ci", ko "nasara". Ana amfani da kalmar “fatḥ” ko “fatah” a cikin jawaban addini don ma’anar fadada Musulunci a ƙarni na farko na tarihin Musulunci. – kamar yadda yake a cikin Fatḥ al-Sham, “Masarautar ‘ yan Shi’a ”. “Fatah” kuma yana da ma’ana ta addini domin ita ce sunan <i id="mwWQ">sura</i> ta 48 (babi) na Alqur’ani wanda a cewar manyan malaman tafsirin musulmi ya yi cikakken bayani kan labarin yarjejeniyar Hudaibiyyah . A cikin shekaru biyu na zaman lafiya bayan yarjejeniyar Hudaibiyya, da dama sun musulunta, wanda hakan ya kara wa bangaren musulmi karfi. Sabanin wannan yarjejeniya da kuraishawa [2] suka yi ne ya jawo mamaye Makka . Yasser Arafat ya ba da misali da wannan kafa ta Musulunci a matsayin hujjar sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar Oslo da Isra'ila.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kafuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yasser Arafat shine farkon wanda ya kafa Fatah kuma shugabanta har zuwa mutuwarsa a shekara ta 2004.

An kafa kungiyar Fatah a shekara ta 1959 daga wasu 'yan uwa na Palasdinawa, musamman kwararrun da ke aiki a kasashen Tekun Fasha wadanda suka yi karatu a Alkahira ko Beirut kuma suka kasance 'yan gudun hijira a Gaza . Wadanda suka kafa sun hada da Yasser Arafat, sannan shugaban kungiyar daliban Falasdinawa (GUPS) a jami'ar Alkahira ; Salah Khalaf ; Khalil al-Wazirir ; da Khaled Yashruti, sannan GUPS shugaban a Beirut. [3] Fatah ta amince da akidar kishin kasa ta Falasdinu wadda larabawan Falasdinawan za su sami 'yanci ta hanyar ayyukansu.

1967-93[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fatah ta zama mai karfi a siyasar Falasdinu bayan yakin kwanaki shida a shekarar 1967.

Fatah ya shiga kungiyar 'yantar da Falasdinu (PLO) a cikin 1967, kuma an kasafta kujeru 33 cikin 105 a cikin kwamitin gudanarwa na PLO . Yasser Arafat na Fatah ya zama Shugaban PLO a 1969, bayan Yahya Hammuda ya ba shi mukamin. A cewar BBC, "Mr Arafat ya karbi ragamar shugabancin kwamitin zartarwa na PLO a shekara ta 1969, a shekarar da aka ce Fatah ta kai hare- hare 2,432 a kan Isra'ila."

Yaƙin Karameh[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sojojin Isra'ila sun yi artabu a Karameh

A cikin 1968, Fatah da sauran kungiyoyin Falasdinawa masu dauke da makamai sun kasance wani babban hari da dakarun tsaron Isra'ila (IDF) suka kai a kauyen Karameh na Jordan, inda hedkwatar Fatah. – da kuma sansanin 'yan gudun hijirar Falasdinu masu matsakaicin girma – sun kasance. Sunan garin shi ne kalmar larabci da ake kira "daraja" wanda ya daga darajarsa ga al'ummar Larabawa, musamman bayan shan kayen da Larabawa suka yi a shekarar 1967. An kai harin ne a matsayin martani ga hare-haren da ake kai wa Isra'ila, ciki har da makaman roka da kungiyar Fatah da wasu mayakan Falasdinawa suka harba a yankin yammacin gabar kogin Jordan da ta mamaye. An samu ilimin aikin tun kafin lokaci, kuma gwamnatin Jordan (da kuma wasu kwamandojin Fatah) sun sanar da Arafat game da manyan shirye-shiryen soji na Isra'ila. Da jin wannan labari, kungiyoyin 'yan daba da dama a yankin da suka hada da sabuwar kungiyar George Habash da aka kafa ta Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) da kungiyar Nayef Hawatmeh ta ballewar kungiyar Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), sun janye dakarunsu daga garin. Wani kwamandan sashin da ke goyon bayan Fatah na Jordan ya shawarci shugabannin Fatah da su janye mutanensu da hedkwatarsu zuwa tsaunuka da ke kusa, amma bisa umarnin Arafat, Fatah ta ci gaba da zama, kuma Sojojin Jordan sun amince su mara musu baya idan aka yi kazamin fada. [3]

A daren ranar 21 ga Maris, IDF ta kai hari Karameh da manyan makamai, motoci masu sulke da jiragen yaki. [3] Fatah dai ta rike madafun iko, tana ba sojojin Isra'ila mamaki. Yayin da sojojin Isra'ila ke kara kaimi, sojojin Jordan sun shiga hannu, lamarin da ya sa Isra'ilawa suka ja da baya domin gudun kada a gwabza yaki. A karshen yakin, an kashe mayakan Fatah kusan 150, da kuma sojojin Jordan 28 da sojojin Isra'ila ashirin da takwas. Duk da yawan mutuwar Larabawa, Fatah sun dauki kansu a matsayin masu nasara saboda saurin janyewar sojojin Isra'ila. [3]

Baƙar Satumba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A karshen shekarun 1960, rikici tsakanin Palasdinawa da gwamnatin Jordan ya karu matuka; Ƙungiyoyin juriya na Larabawa masu ɗauke da makamai sun haifar da "kasa a cikin ƙasa" a cikin Jordan, wanda a ƙarshe ya mallaki wurare masu mahimmanci a wannan ƙasa. Bayan nasarar da suka samu a yakin Karameh, Fatah da sauran mayakan Falasdinawa sun fara mamaye harkokin rayuwar jama'a a Jordan. Sun kafa shingayen hanya, sun wulakanta jami'an 'yan sandan Jordan a bainar jama'a, suna lalata da mata da kuma karbar harajin da ba bisa ka'ida ba - wanda Arafat ya amince ko ya yi watsi da su. [4] [5]

A cikin 1970, gwamnatin Jordan ta koma don dawo da ikon yankinta, kuma washegari. </link> Sarki Hussein ya ayyana dokar ta-baci . [5] A ranar 25 ga watan Satumba, sojojin Jordan sun sami galaba a yakin, kuma bayan kwana biyu Arafat da Hussein sun amince da tsagaita wuta. Sojojin Jordan sun yi mummunar barna kan Falasdinawa - ciki har da fararen hula - wadanda suka yi asarar kusan 3,500. Mayakan Fatah dubu biyu ne suka yi nasarar shiga Syria . Sun tsallaka kan iyakar kasar ta Labanon ne domin hada kai da dakarun Fatah a kasar, inda suka kafa sabuwar hedikwatarsu. Wani babban gungun mayakan sa-kai karkashin jagorancin kwamandan yankin Fatah Abu Ali Iyad ne suka kaddamar da farmakin da sojojin Jordan suka kai a garin Ajlun da ke arewacin kasar har zuwa lokacin da aka fatattake su a watan Yulin shekarar 1971. An kashe Abu Ali Iyad tare da wasu daga cikin dakarunsa da suka tsira sun kafa kungiyar ta Fatah ta Black September . A watan Nuwamban 1971, kungiyar ta kashe firaministan kasar Jordan Wasfi al-Tal a matsayin ramuwar gayya ga hukuncin kisa na Abu Ali Iyad. [6]

A shekarun 1960 da 1970, Fatah ta ba da horo ga kungiyoyin 'yan tada kayar baya na Turai, Gabas ta Tsakiya, Asiya, da Afirka da dama, tare da kai hare-hare da dama kan wuraren da Isra'ila ta harba a yammacin Turai da Gabas ta Tsakiya a cikin shekarun 1970s. Wasu kungiyoyin 'yan ta'addan da ke da alaka da Fatah, da wasu daga cikin ' yan ta'addan da ke cikin Fatah ita kanta, sun kai hare-haren ta'addanci na farar hula da hare-haren ta'addanci, tare da alakanta su da Black September, Majalisar Fatah-Revolutionary Council Abu Nidal, kungiyar Abu Musa, PFLP, da PFLP-GC. Fatah ta samu makamai da bama-bamai da horo daga Tarayyar Soviet da wasu daga cikin jahohin gurguzu na Gabashin Turai. Kasashen Sin da Aljeriya su ma sun ba da kayan yaki. Fatah ta taimaka wa Uganda a lokacin Yaƙin Uganda-Tanzaniy. Mambobin kungiyar sun yi yaki tare da sojojin Uganda da na Libya da sojojin kasar Tanzaniya a lokacin yakin Lukaya da faduwar Kampala, amma daga karshe aka tilasta musu ja da baya daga kasar.

Lebanon[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tun bayan mutuwar Eljamal a shekara ta 1968, lamarin Falasdinu yana da babban sansanin magoya baya a Lebanon.

Ko da yake da farko sun yi jinkirin shiga cikin rikicin, Arafat da Fatah sun taka muhimmiyar rawa a yakin basasar Lebanon . Da yake mika wuya ga matsin lamba daga kungiyoyin PLO irin su PFLP, DFLP da Palestine Liberation Front (PLF), Fatah ta hada kai da 'yan gurguzu da Nasserist Lebanon National Movement (LNM). Ko da yake tun asali yana da alaka da Fatah, shugaban Syria Hafez al-Assad na fargabar a rasa wani tasiri a Lebanon tare da sauya sheka. Ya aike da sojojinsa tare da kungiyoyin Falasdinawa na As-Sa’iqa da ke samun goyon bayan Siriya da kuma Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command (PFLP-GC) karkashin jagorancin Ahmad Jibril don su yi yaki tare da dakarun Kirista da ke yakar PLO da Farashin LNM. Babban bangaren mayakan kiristoci shine Maronite Phalangists . [7]

Sojojin Phalangist sun kashe masu horar da Fatah ashirin da shida a cikin wata motar safa a cikin watan Afrilun 1975, wanda ke nuna a hukumance fara yakin basasar Lebanon na tsawon shekaru 15. A cikin wannan shekarar, kawancen mayakan sa-kai na Kirista sun mamaye sansanin 'yan gudun hijira na Falasdinawa na Karantina inda suka kashe fararen hula sama da 1,000. PLO da LNM sun yi ramuwar gayya ta hanyar kai hari a garin Damour, wani yanki na Phalangist da Tigers (Ahrar), inda suka kashe fararen hula 684. [7] Yayin da yakin basasar ya ci gaba sama da shekaru 2 na yakin birane, bangarorin biyu sun yi amfani da manyan bindigogi da kuma yin amfani da sandunan sari-ka-noke, yayin da bangarorin biyu suka aikata ta'asa da laifukan yaki.

A cikin 1976, tare da taimakon dabarun tsare-tsare daga Sojojin Labanon, kawancen mayakan sa kai na Kirista, karkashin jagorancin Jam'iyyar Liberal Party ta National Liberal Party na tsohon shugaban kasa Cammille Chamoun reshen tsageru, noumour el ahrar (NLP Tigers), ya dauki wani muhimmin sansanin 'yan gudun hijira a yankin Gabas. na Beirut, sansanin Tel al-Zaatar, bayan da aka shafe watanni shida ana yi masa kawanya, wanda aka fi sani da Tel al-Zaatar, inda daruruwan mutane suka halaka. [8] Arafat da Abu Jihad sun zargi kansu da rashin nasarar shirya wani aikin ceto. [7]

Hare-haren wuce gona da iri na PLO kan Isra'ila ya dan yi girma a karshen shekarun 1970.[ana buƙatar hujja] mafi tsanani – wanda aka fi sani da kisan kiyashin titin Coastal Road – ya faru a ranar 11 ga Maris, 1978. Dakarun mayakan na Fatah kusan goma ne suka sauka da kwale-kwalen su a kusa da wata babbar hanyar gabar teku da ta hada birnin Haifa da Tel Aviv-Yafo . A can ne suka yi awon gaba da wata motar safa tare da yin harbe-harbe a ciki da kuma kan motocin da ke wucewa, inda suka kashe fararen hula talatin da bakwai. Dangane da mayar da martani, dakarun na IDF sun kaddamar da Operation Litani bayan kwanaki uku, da nufin karbe ikon Kudancin Lebanon har zuwa kogin Litani . IDF ta cimma wannan buri, kuma Fatah ta koma arewa zuwa Beirut .

Isra'ila ta sake mamaye Lebanon a 1982. Ba da daɗewa ba IDF ta yi wa Beirut kawanya tare da jefa bama-bamai; [7] don kawo karshen kewayen, gwamnatocin Amurka da na Turai sun kulla yarjejeniya da ke ba da tabbacin wucewa ga Arafat da Fatah. – dakarun kasa da kasa ke gadinsu – don gudun hijira a Tunis . Duk da gudun hijirar, kwamandoji da mayakan Fatah da dama sun kasance a Labanon, kuma sun fuskanci yakin sansanonin a shekarun 1980 a yakin da suka yi da kungiyar Shi'a Amal da ma alaka da rikicin cikin gida a tsakanin bangarorin Palasdinawa. [7]

Bayan 1993[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Zaɓen shugaban ƙasa da na 'yan majalisa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Har zuwa mutuwarsa a shekara ta 2004, Arafat ya jagoranci hukumar Falasdinawa ta Palasdinawa, wanda ya kasance na wucin gadi da aka kirkira a sakamakon yarjejeniyar Oslo. Jim kadan bayan rasuwar Arafat ne aka zabi Farouk Kaddoumi a matsayin wanda yake ci gaba da rikewa.

Fatah ta zabi Mahmoud Abbas a zaben shugaban kasar Falasdinu a shekara ta 2005 .

A cikin 2005, Hamas ta yi nasara a kusan dukkanin gundumomin da ta yi takara . Wani mai sharhi kan harkokin siyasa Salah Abdel-Shafi ya shaida wa BBC irin wahalhalun da shugabancin Fatah ke fuskanta: "Ina ganin abu ne mai matukar tsanani. – a fili yake cewa ba za su iya cimma matsaya kan komai ba.” Ana ganin Fatah “yana matukar bukatar gyara,” kamar yadda “Ayyukan PA din ya kasance labarin cin hanci da rashawa da gazawa. – kuma Fatah ta lalace.”

Bangarorin da ke dauke da makamai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fatah dai na rike da kungiyoyi da dama tun kafuwarta. Babban reshensa na soja shine al-'Asifah . An yi la'akari da cewa Fatah yana da hannu sosai a cikin ayyukan ta'addanci a baya, [1] ko da yake ba kamar kungiyar Hamas mai kishin Islama ba, Fatah ba ta kasance a matsayin kungiyar ta'addanci ba a kowace gwamnati. Fatah ya kasance a matsayin dan ta'adda a karkashin dokokin Isra'ila kuma Ma'aikatar Harkokin Wajen Amurka da Majalisar Dokokin Amurka sun dauke ta a matsayin ta'addanci har sai da ta yi watsi da ta'addanci a 1988. [9] [10]

Fatah dai tun kafuwarta, ta kirkiri, jagoranci ko daukar nauyin kungiyoyi masu dauke da makamai, wasu daga cikinsu suna da wani jami'i a matsayin reshen kungiyar, wasu kuma ba a san su a bainar jama'a ko a cikin gida ba. Kungiyar ta kuma mamaye dakaru daban-daban na PLO da dakarun gwamnatin Falasdinawa da jami'an tsaro wadanda ba su da alaka da Fatah a hukumance, amma a aikace sun kasance runfunan da ke goyon bayan Fatah gaba daya, kuma mambobin kungiyar ne ke da ma'aikata. Asalin sunan reshen Fatah da ke dauke da makamai shi ne al-'Asifah ("Guguwar Guguwa"), kuma wannan shi ne sunan da Fatah ta fara amfani da shi a cikin bayananta na wani lokaci na kokarin boye sunan ta. Tun daga wannan lokacin ana amfani da wannan sunan gabaɗaya ga dakarun Fatah, kuma bai dace da rukunin guda ɗaya a yau ba. Sauran kungiyoyin da ke da alaka da Fatah sun hada da:

  • Karfi 17 . Yana taka rawa mai kama da Rundunar Tsaron Shugaban kasa ga manyan shugabannin Fatah.
  • Kungiyar Black September . Kungiyar da aka kafa ta manyan mambobin Fatah a cikin 1971, biyo bayan abubuwan da suka faru na " Bakar Satumba " a Jordan, don shirya hare-haren sirri da Fatah ba ta so a bayyana su a fili. Wadannan sun hada da yajin aikin da aka yi kan manyan ‘yan siyasar kasar Jordan a matsayin hanyar daukar fansa da kuma kara farashin kai wa yunkurin Palastinu hari; da kuma, mafi yawan cece-kuce, don "ayyukan kasa da kasa" (misali kisan gillar Olympics na Munich ), da nufin sanya matsin lamba kan Amurka, Turai da Isra'ila, don tada hangen nesa na Palasdinawa da kuma tayar da abokan hamayya kamar PFLP . Fatah dai ta fito fili ta ware kanta daga kungiyar, amma ana kyautata zaton tana jin dadin goyon bayan Arafat kai tsaye ko kuma ta hanyar da ta dace. An dakatar da shi a cikin 1973-1974, yayin da tsarin siyasar Fatah ya sake komawa baya, kuma ana ganin ayyukan Black September da dabarun da ke bayan su sun zama abin alhaki na siyasa, maimakon wata kadara.
  • Fatah Hawks . Mayakan da ke dauke da makamai suna aiki ne har zuwa tsakiyar 1990s.
  • Tanzim . Wani reshe na Fatah a karkashin jagorancin Marwan Barghouti, mai tushe a cikin gwagwarmayar Intifada ta farko, wadda ta kai hare-hare da makamai a farkon Intifada na biyu. Daga baya sojojin shahidai na al-Aqsa suka mamaye ko kuma suka koma gefe.
  • Brigades Shahidai Al-Aqsa . An ƙirƙira a lokacin Intifada na biyu don ƙarfafa ƙungiyar masu fafutuka da ke tsaye ga ƙungiyar Hamas mai adawa, wacce ta jagoranci kai hare-hare a Isra'ila bayan 1993, kuma tana samun karbuwa cikin sauri tare da bayyanar Intifada. Birged din dai na cikin gida ne kuma an ce suna fama da rashin hadin kai da tarbiyyar cikin gida, a wasu lokutan kuma suna yin watsi da tsagaita bude wuta da sauran tsare-tsare da kungiyar ta Fatah ta tsakiya ta sanar. Gabaɗaya ana ganin sun ɗaure su da “matasan masu gadi” na siyasar Fatah, suna shirya matasa a matakin titi, amma ba a bayyana cewa suna kafa ƙungiya a cikin su cikin siyasar Fatah ba; a maimakon haka, ƙungiyoyin Brigades daban-daban na iya ɗaure su da shugabannin ƙungiyoyin Fatah daban-daban.

Tsarin Mulki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A watan Agustan 2009, a babban taron Fatah na shida a Baitalami, wakilan Fatah sun tsara sabuwar "yarjejeniya ta cikin gida".

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Terrorism in Tel Aviv Time Friday, 13 Sep 1968
  2. Empty citation (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Said K. AbusrishAburish, Said K. (1998) Arafat, From Defender to Dictator.
  4. Sayigh, Yezid (1997).
  5. 5.0 5.1 Empty citation (help)
  6. Seale, 1992, pp.81–82.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Empty citation (help)
  8. Disputed; in Faces of Lebanon.
  9. Empty citation (help)
  10. Palestine Information Office v. Shultz, 853 F.2d 932 (D.C.Cir. 1988).