Beirut

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Globe icon.svg Beirut
Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon
Beirutcity.jpg
Flag of beirut.gif BlasonBeyrouth4.jpg
Administration (en) Fassara
Sovereign state (en) FassaraLebanon
Governorate of Lebanon (en) FassaraBeirut Governorate (en) Fassara
babban birniBeirut
Labarin ƙasa
Map of Lebanon.png
 33°53′13″N 35°30′47″E / 33.8869°N 35.5131°E / 33.8869; 35.5131
Yawan fili 20,000,000 m²
Altitude (en) Fassara 0 m
Demography (en) Fassara
Yawan jama'a 361,366 inhabitants (2012)
Population density (en) Fassara 18,068.3 inhabitants/km²
Other (en) Fassara
Lambar kiran gida 01
Time zone (en) Fassara UTC+02:00 (en) Fassara
Twin town (en) Fassara Kairo, Istanbul, Amman (en) Fassara, Athens, Damascus, Dubai, Yerevan (en) Fassara, Los Angeles, Lyon, Marseille, Moscow, Kebek (birni), Trieste (en) Fassara, Montréal, Buenos Aires, Mexico, Bagdaza, Tripoli, Karachi, Rio de Janeiro, Île-de-France (en) Fassara da Dubai (birni)
beirut.gov.lb

Beirut, Beyrouth, Bayrut ko Bairut (harshen Larabci: بيروت), itace babban birni kuma gari mafi yawan al'ummah a kasar Lebanon. Dukda cewar babu wani kidaya da aka gudanar a kwanan nan, amma dai a 2007 an kiyasta mutanen zasukai yawan mutane miliyan 1 zuwa miliyan 2.2 a matsayin bangaren Greater Beirut.[1] Garin na nan ne a wani peninsula dake tsakiyar gabar kogin Mediterranean, Beirut itace babban tashar Ruwa na kasar Lebanon.

Tana daya daga cikin Tsoffin Birane a duniya, an samu mazauna a garin tun a shekaru 5,000 da suka shude. A tarihi anfara samun sunan Beirut na farko ne a wani Haruffan Amarna daga sabuwar New Kingdom of Egypt, wanda akace a shekara ta 15th century BC.

A Beirut ne cibiyar gwamnatin kasar Lebanon take, kuma tana taka muhimmiyar rawa a fannin tattalin arzikin kasar, tareda samun mafi yawan bankuna da wasu cibiyoyin hada hadar kudi a birnin, kamar Central District, Badaro, Rue Verdun, Hamra, Ryad el Soloh street, da Achrafieh. Sakamakon mummunar Lebanese Civil War, Beirut's cultural landscape underwent major reconstruction.[2][3][4] Identified and graded for accountancy, advertising, banking/finance and law, Beirut is ranked as a Beta World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.[5]

Suna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sunan turancin Beirut ansamo sa ne daga Kalmar Larabci wato Bayrūt (بيروت). Kuma sunan ne a harshen Faransanci wato Beyrouth, wanda aka taba amfani dashi Lokacin da Kasar Faransa ta mamaye Lebanon. The Arabic name derives from Phoenician language Berot ko Birut. Wannan wani sauyi ne daga harshen Canaanite da harshen Phoenician Kalmar be'rot, dake nufin "rijiya", in reference the site's accessible water table.[6][7] Asalin sunan da iri da sunan birnin biblical Beeroth (lang-he|בְּאֵרוֹת)[8] Wanda shima wani garin ne daban dake kusan da Jerusalem. Sunan anfara samun sa ne tun a Karni na 15th BC, Lokacin da aka ambace ta sau uku a Akkadian cuneiform[7] tablets of the Amarna letters,[9] wasikar da King Ammunira sarkin "Biruta" ya aika[10] zuwa nowrap|Amenhotep III ko IV na Egypt.[11] an taba samun ambaton "Biruta" a kalmomin Armana na King Rib-Hadda dake Byblos.[12]

Tsohon Greeks hellenized sunan dake matsayin Bērytós (lang-grc-gre|Βηρυτός), wanda Romans latinized da Berytus. efn|The Roman name was taken in 1934 for the archaeological journal published by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at the American University of Beirut.[13] yayin da takai ga kimanin samun Roman colony, sai aka canja ta kuma sunan aka mayar dashi zuwa lang|la|Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus dan yahada da yan asalin da suka taimakawa garin.

A karkashin Daular Seleucid, ancanja garin kuma aka fara kiransa da Laodicea Dan girmamawa ga mother of Seleucus the Great. Anbanbanta shi da sauran wurare da dama wadanda aka sanya wa suna Dan girmama ta daga dogon sunan Laodicea in Phoenicia (lang-grc-gre|Λαοδίκεια ἡ ἐν Φοινίκῃ, Laodíkeia hē en Phoiníkēi) ko Laodicea in Canaan (lang-phn|𐤋‬𐤋‬𐤀𐤃‬𐤊𐤀 𐤀𐤔 𐤁‬𐤊𐤍𐤏‬𐤍, sc|llʾdkʾ ʾš bknʿn).

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Questions & Answers: Water Supply Augmentation Project, Lebanon". The World Bank. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
  2. Reconstruction of Beirut, Macalester College
  3. Lebanon's Reconstruction: A Work in Progress dead link|date=March 2017|bot=medic bignore|bot=medic, VOA News
  4. Beirut: Between Memory And Desire webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160303175036/http://worldviewcities.org/beirut/elipsis.html |date=3 March 2016, Worldview
  5. cite web|url=http://www.diserio.com/gawc-world-cities.html |title=GAWC World Cities – The World's Most Important Cities |publisher=Diserio.com |accessdate=26 March 2013
  6. The New Encyclopædia Britannica (1993) volume 14, macropaedia, 15th edition, Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Profile of Lebanon: History Lebanese Embassy of the U.S.
  8. citation |contribution=Strong's #881: בְּאֵרוֹת |contribution-url=https://www.studylight.org/lexicons/hebrew/881.html |title=Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary |url=https://www.studylight.org/lexicons/hebrew.html |date=2018 |location=Gdansk |publisher=StudyLight |editor=Jeff Garrison |display-editors=0.
  9. EA 141-43.
  10. Phoenicia in Encyclopaedia Biblica, Case Western Reserve University
  11. Phoenicia, Jrank.org
  12. E.g., EA 105, where he complains to the pharaoh that Beirut's king had stolen two of his merchants' ships.
  13. Berytus Archeological Studies, American University of Beirut (AUB)