Nasarar Makka

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Wikidata.svgNasarar Makka
Filin Da-ga
Bayanai
Kwanan wata 629 da 630
Wuri
 21°25′21″N 39°49′34″E / 21.4225°N 39.8261°E / 21.4225; 39.8261

Nasarar Makka (Larabci: فتح مكة fatḥ makkah) shine kwace garin Makka da musulmai karkashin jagorancin annabi Muhammad a watan Disamba 629 ko kuma Janairu 630 AD[1][2] (Julian), 10-20 Ramadan, 8 AH.[1] Nasarar ita ce ta kawo karshen yaƙe -yaƙe tsakanin mabiya Muhammadu da ƙabilar Quraishawa.

Kwanaki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asalin tushe ya bambanta dangane da kwanakin waɗannan abubuwan.

  • An ba da ranar da Muhammad ya tashi zuwa Makka a matsayin 2, 6 ko 10 Ramadan 8 AH.[1]
  • An ba da ranar da Muhammadu ya shiga Makka daban -daban a matsayin 10, 17/18, 19 ko 20 Ramadan 8 AH.[1]

Juyowar waɗannan kwanakin zuwa kalandar Julian ya dogara da abin da ake tsammani game da kalandar da ake amfani da ita a Makka a lokacin. Misali, 18 Ramadan 8 AH na iya canzawa zuwa 11 ga Disamba 629 Miladiyya, 10 ko 11 Janairu 630, ko 6 Yuni 630 AD.[1]

Bayan Fage[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 628, ƙabilar Makka ta Quraishawa da al'ummar Musulmi a Madina sun sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar sulhu na shekaru 10 da ake kira Yarjejeniyar Hudaibiyya.

A shekara ta 630, wannan tsagaita wuta ta karye lokacin da Banu Bakr, abokin Kuraishawa, ya kai wa Banu Khuza'ah hari, wanda a baya -bayan nan ya zama kawayen Musulmi.

Dangane da sharuddan Yarjejeniyar Hudaibiyyah, an baiwa kabilun larabawa zabin shiga ko wanne bangare: Musulmi ko Kuraishawa. Idan wani daga cikin waɗannan kabilun ya fuskanci tashin hankali, jam'iyyar da ta yi ƙawance da ita za ta sami damar ɗaukar fansa. A sakamakon haka, Banu Bakr ya shiga cikin Kuraishawa, sannan Banu Khuza'ah ya shiga cikin Musulmai. Ta haka suka zauna cikin kwanciyar hankali na ɗan lokaci; amma munanan manufofi da ke komawa zuwa zamanin jahiliyya, wanda wutar ramuwar gayya ba ta da tushe, ta haifar da sabon tashin hankali. Banu Bakr, ba tare da damuwa da tanadin yarjejeniyar ba, sun kai wa Banu Khuza'ah hari a wani wuri da ake kira Al-Wateer a Sha'aban, a 8 Hijira. Kuraishawa sun taimaki Banu Bakr da maza da makamai, suna cin gajiyar dare mai duhu. Maƙiyansu sun matsa su, kabilun Banu Khuza'ah sun nemi Wuri Mai Tsarki, amma a nan ma rayuwarsu ba ta kare ba, kuma, sabanin duk al'adun da aka yarda da su, Nawfal, shugaban Banu Bakr, ya bi su a wuri mai tsarki. - inda bai kamata a zubar da jini ba - kuma ya kashe maƙiyansa. Nan take Banu Khuza'ah ya aika da tawaga zuwa Madina don sanar da Muhammad wannan karya doka da neman taimako daga Musulman Madina.

Bayan faruwar lamarin, Kuraishawa sun aika da wakilai zuwa ga Muhammad, suna rokon a kiyaye yarjejeniyar da Musulmai tare da bayar da diyya ta kayan aiki. Sojojin Musulmai sun taru da ƙarfi don daidaita lissafi tare da Kuraishawa da kai hari na ƙarshe da buɗe Makka.[3][4]

Farkon cin nasara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sojojin musulmi, wadanda suka kunshi maza 10,000, sun tashi zuwa Makka ranar Talata 31 ga watan Oktoba 629 (10 Ramadan, AH 8).[5][6][7][1] Wannan ita ce runduna mafi girma ta Musulmi da aka taru tun lokacin. Muhammadu ya umarci kowane mutum da ya kunna wuta don sa mutanen Makka su yi ƙima da girman rundunar.

A halin da ake ciki, Abu Sufyan bn Harb ya yi ta kai da kawowa tsakanin Muhammad da Makka, har yanzu yana kokarin cimma matsaya don gujewa mamayewa. A cewar majiyoyin, ya sami taimako a cikin kawun Muhammad Al-Abbas, duk da cewa wasu masana suna ganin cewa masana tarihi da ke rubutu a ƙarƙashin mulkin zuriyar Abbas, daular Abbasiyya, sun yi girman aikin Abbas kuma sun raina matsayin Abu Sufyan , wanda zuriyarsa su ne abokan gaban Abbasiyawa.[8]

Tafiyar mil 200 zuwa Marr-uz-Zahran, wacce ke da nisan mil goma arewa maso yammacin Makka, ta ɗauki kimanin mako guda. Sojojin sun isa can ranar Litinin, 16 ga Ramadan, kuma harin da aka kai Makka ya fara washegari. Makka tana cikin kwarin Ibrahim, kewaye da duwatsu baƙaƙƙen duwatsu waɗanda ke kaiwa tsayin 1,000 ft (300 m) a wasu wurare. Akwai hanyoyin shiga hudu ta hanyar wucewa a cikin tsaunuka. Waɗannan sun fito ne daga arewa maso yamma, kudu maso yamma, kudu, da arewa maso gabas. Muhammadu ya raba rundunar musulmai zuwa ginshiƙai huɗu: ɗaya don ci gaba ta kowane wucewa. Babban shafi wanda Muhammad ya kasance a ciki Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah ne ya umarce shi. An daura damarar shiga Makka ta babban hanyar Madina, daga arewa maso yamma kusa da Azakhir. Dan uwan ​​Muhammad Zubayr ibn al-Awam ya umarci shafi na biyu, wanda ke shirin shiga Makka daga kudu maso yamma, ta hanyar wucewa ta yamma da tudun Kuda. Shafin da ke shiga daga kudu ta hanyar Kudai yana karkashin jagorancin dan uwan ​​Muhammad Ali ibn Abi Talib. Shafi na ƙarshe, ƙarƙashin Khalid ibn al-Walid, ya yi niyyar shiga daga arewa maso gabas, ta hanyar Khandama da Lait.[9]

Dabararsu ita ce ta ci gaba lokaci guda daga dukkan bangarorin da ke niyyar manufa ɗaya ta tsakiya. Wannan zai haifar da tarwatsa sojojin abokan gaba kuma ya hana maida hankali akan kowanne bangare. Wani muhimmin dalili na wannan dabarar ita ce ko da ɗaya ko biyu daga cikin ginshiƙan da ke kai hari sun fuskanci tsayayya mai ƙarfi kuma sun kasa tsallakewa, harin na iya ci gaba a sauran bangarorin. Wannan kuma zai hana wani daga cikin Kuraishawa tserewa.

Muhammadu ya nanata cewa ya kamata Musulmai su guji fada sai dai idan Quraishawa sun kawo hari. Sojojin Musulmi sun shiga Makka ranar Litinin, 11 ga Disamba 629 (18 Ramadan 8 AH).[1] Shigowar cikin lumana kuma ba jini a fannoni uku in ban da na Khalid. Masu taurin kai masu kyamar Musulmi kamar Ikrimah da Sufwan sun tattara gungun mayaƙan Quraishawa suka fuskanci ginshiƙin Khalid. Kuraishawa sun far ma Musulmai da takubba da baka, kuma Musulmai sun caje matsayin Quraishawa. Bayan ɗan gajeruwar faɗa, wanda Quraishawa suka rasa maza goma sha biyu yayin da Musulmi suka rasa biyu, Quraishawa suka ja da baya.

Bayan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A jajibirin ranar da aka ci nasara, Abu Sufyan ya musulunta lokacin da ya gano cewa babu mafita sai karbar Musulunci. Lokacin da Muhammad ya tambaye shi, ya yarda cewa gumakan Makka sun kasance marasa ƙarfi kuma hakika "babu wanda ya cancanci bauta sai Allah", sashin farko na furcin bangaskiya na Islama. Shi kuma, Muhammad ya ayyana gidan Abu Sufyan wuri mai alfarma domin shi ne sarkin yanzu, kuma duk sauran sun taru akan yankin sa, saboda haka:

"Ko da wanda ya shiga gidan Abu Sufyan zai tsira, Wanda ya ajiye makamai zai tsira, Wanda ya kulle kofarsa zai tsira".[10]

Ya kuma bayyana:

Allah ya mayar da Makka mafaka tun daga ranar da ya halicci sammai da kassai, kuma za ta ci gaba da kasancewa wuri mai tsarki ta hanyar tsarkin da Allah ya yi mata har zuwa ranar tashin kiyama. Ita (fada a cikinta) ba a halatta ta ga kowa ba kafin ni. Kuma ba za a halatta kowa ba a bayana, kuma ba a halatta mini ba sai ga wani dan lokaci. Kada a bi dabbobinsa (wanda za a iya farauta), ko kuma a sare bishiyoyinsa, ko a tumɓuke tsirrai ko ciyawa, ko a ɗebi Luqata (mafi yawan abubuwa) sai wanda ya yi sanarwa game da shi.'[11]

Sannan, tare da sahabbansa, Muhammad ya ziyarci Ka'aba. An karya gumakan kuma an lalata gumakansu. Daga nan sai Muhammad ya karanta ayar Al -Qur'ani mai zuwa: "Ka ce, Gaskiya ta zo kuma ƙarya ta tafi. Lallai ƙarya ta ƙare." ( Al-Qurani 17:81)

Mutanen sun taru a Ka'aba, kuma Muhammad ya gabatar da adireshin mai zuwa:

"Babu abin bautawa da gaskiya sai Allah. Ba shi da abokin tarayya. Ya cika alkawarinsa wanda ya rike ga bawansa kuma ya taimake shi kuma ya kayar da dukkan ƙungiyoyin. Ka tuna cewa kowane da'awar gata, ko ta jini ko ta dukiya ce. An soke sai dai tsarewar Ka'aba da kuma isar da ruwa ga mahajjata.Ku tuna cewa ga duk wanda aka kashe jinin rakumi ɗari ne. lokacin jahilci da duk girman kai a cikin zuriyar ku, saboda dukkan mutane sun fito daga Adamu, kuma Adamu yumɓu ne.”

Sannan Muhammad ya juya ga mutane yace:

"Ya Quraisha, me kuke tunani game da maganin da ya kamata in yi muku?"

Kuma suka ce, "Rahama ya Annabin Allah. Ba ma tsammanin komai sai alheri daga gare ku."

Sai Muhammad yace:

"Ina yi muku magana da kalmomin da Yusufu ya faɗa wa 'yan'uwansa. A yau babu tsautawa a kanku; Ku tafi, domin kun sami' yanci."[12] Darajar Muhammad ta ƙaru bayan mika wuya ga mutanen Makka. Manzanni daga ko’ina na Larabawa sun zo Madina don karbansa.[13]

An ba da umarnin kashe mutane goma:[14] Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl, Abdullah ibn Saad ibn Abi Sarh, Habbar bin Aswad, Miqyas Subabah Laythi, Huwairath bin Nuqayd, Abdullah Hilal da mata hudu da suka aikata laifin kisan kai ko wasu laifuffuka ko kuma suka tayar da hankali. kashe yakin kuma ya dagula zaman lafiya.[14]

Duk da haka, ba duka aka kashe su ba; Ikrimah ya rayu don ya karbi addinin musulunci kuma yayi fada a cikin yaƙe -yaƙe na gaba tsakanin musulmai. F Daga cikin girlsan mata biyu masu waƙa waɗanda Mohammad ya hana, an kashe ɗaya amma ɗayan ya tsira saboda ta musulunta.[15] An ba Ibn Abi Sarh kariya a karkashin Uthman bn Affan kuma lokacin da da farko ya ki yin mubaya’ar da ta zama dole ga Muhammad, har yanzu mutanen da ke kusa da wurin ba su kashe shi ba, saboda rashin fahimtar umarnin Mohammad.[13]

Bude Makka ya biyo bayan yakin Hunayn.

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bambanci a kwanakin da aka bayar a cikin tsoffin tushe
Tushen farko Ranar tashi zuwa Makka Ranar shiga Makka Manazarta
Ibrahim 10 Ramadan 8 AH [16]
Abu Sa'id al-Khudri 2 Ramadan 8 AH 17/18 Ramadan 8 AH [17]
Al-Hakam 6 Ramadan 8 AH [18]
ibn 'Abbas, Tabari 10 Ramadan 8 AH [19]
ibn Ishaq 20 Ramadan 8 AH [20]
Waqidi Wednesday 10 Ramadan 8 AH [21]
ibd Sad Wednesday 10 Ramadan 8 AH Friday 19 Ramadan 8 AH [22]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Gabriel, Richard A, Muhammad: Islam’s First Great General, pub University of Oklahoma Press, 2007, 08033994793.ABA.
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events, Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd., London, 2001 pp 3, 72, 134-6.
  2. Gabriel, Richard A. (22 October 2014), Muhammad: Islam's First Great General, pp. 167, 176, ISBN 9780806182506
  3. Peters, Francis E. (1994). Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. SUNY Press. p. 235 & 334. ISBN 978-0-7914-1875-8.
  4. Lewis, Bernard (1967). The Arabs in history. Harper & Row. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-06-131029-4.
  5. Safi-ur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri (1996). The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet. Riyadh. p. 391.
  6. Watt, W Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford: Oxford At The Clarendon Press.
  7. Akram 2007, p. 58.
  8. John Glubb, The Life and Times of Muhammad, Lanham, 1998, pp. 304–310.
  9. Akram 2007, p. 60.
  10. Page 329, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh by Ibn al-Athir (in Larabci).
  11. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 603
  12. Related by Ibn Kathir, recorded by Ibn al-Hajjaj Muslim
  13. 13.0 13.1 [1] Abu Dawood 8:2677 at International Islamic University Malaysia
  14. 14.0 14.1 The Message by Ayatullah Ja'far Subhani, chapter 48 Archived 2 Mayu 2012 at the Wayback Machine referencing Sirah by Ibn Hisham, vol.
  15. [2] Abu Dawood 8:2678 at International Islamic University Malaysia
  16. Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 158: Ibn Sa'd, Kitab at-Tabaqat al-Kabir, 2, translated by Moinul Haq, S., New Delhi, p. 172
  17. Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 159: Ibn Sa'd, Kitab at-Tabaqat al-Kabir, 2, translated by Moinul Haq, S., New Delhi, p. 171
  18. Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 160: Ibn Sa'd, Kitab at-Tabaqat al-Kabir, 2, translated by Moinul Haq, S., New Delhi, p. 177
  19. Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 161: Ibn Hisham, As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, 2, p. 473 al-Tabari (1982), Tarikhul Umam wal-Muluk, 1, Deoband, p. 391
  20. Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 162: Ibn Hisham, As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, 2, p. 522
  21. Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 163: Ishaqun Nabi Alvi (August 1964), "?", Burhan, p. 92
  22. Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 164: Ibn Sa'd, Kitab at-Tabaqat al-Kabir, 2, translated by Moinul Haq, S., New Delhi, p. 167