Khalid ibn al-Walid

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Khalid ibn al-Walid
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Makkah, 592 (Gregorian)
ƙasa Khulafa'hur-Rashidun
ƙungiyar ƙabila Larabawa
Harshen uwa Larabci
Mutuwa Madinah da Homs (en) Fassara, 642
Makwanci Khalid ibn al-Walid Mosque (en) Fassara
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Walid dan al-Mughirah
Mahaifiya Loubaba bint Al-Harith
Yara
Siblings Najiyah bint al-Walid (en) Fassara, Walid ibn Walid (en) Fassara da Bin Al Walid (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a Shugaban soji
Aikin soja
Fannin soja Rashidun army (en) Fassara
Digiri commander-in-chief (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Khalid ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughira al-Makhzumi (Larabci: خالد بن الوليد بن المغيرة المخزومي, romanized: Khālid ibn al-Walīd ibn al-Mughīra al-Makhzūmī; ya rasu 642) ya kasance kwamandan Musulmin Larabawa a cikin hidimar Annabin Musulunci Muhammad da halifofin Abubakar (r. 632-634) da Umar (r. 634-644) wadanda suka taka rawar gani a yakin Ridda da aka yi da kabilun ‘yan tawaye a Arabiya a 632–633 da farkon nasarar da Musulmi suka yi na Iraqi Iraqi Sasanian. a 633-634 da Byzantine Syria a 634-638.

Wani mai doki na dangin Makhzum na kabilar Kuraishawa, wanda ya yi hamayya da Muhammad, Khalid ya taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen fatattakar Musulmai a yakin Uhudu a shekarar 625. Bayan musuluntarsa ​​a 627 ko 629, Muhammad ya mai da shi kwamanda, wanda ya bashi lakabin Sayf Allah (Takobin Allah). Khalid ya shirya ficewar sojojin musulmi lafiya lokacin balaguron balaguro zuwa Mu'ta a kan kawancen Larabawa na Rumawa a cikin 629 kuma ya jagoranci sojojin Badawiyya na sojojin Musulmi a lokacin kwace Makka da yakin Hunayn a c. 630. Bayan rasuwar Muhammadu, an naɗa Khalid don murƙushe ko mamaye kabilun Larabawa a Najd da Yamama (duka yankuna biyu a tsakiyar Larabawa) waɗanda ke adawa da sabuwar ƙasar Musulmi, ta kayar da shugabannin 'yan tawaye Tulayha a Yaƙin Buzakha a 632 da Musaylima a Yakin Aqraba a shekarar 633.

Daga baya Khalid ya yi gaba da manyan kabilun Larabawa na Kiristanci da garuruwan Farisa na Sasanian na kwarin Euphrates a Iraki. Abu Bakr ya sake tura shi ya jagoranci rundunar Musulmi a Siriya kuma ya jagoranci mutanensa zuwa can a wani tafiya da ba a saba yi ba a kan dogon hamadar Siriya mara ruwa, wanda ya inganta martabarsa a matsayin mai dabarun soji. Sakamakon nasarorin da aka samu a kan Rumawa a Ajnadayn (634), Fahl (634), Damascus (634-635) da Yarmouk (636), Musulmai a ƙarƙashin Khalid sun ci yawancin Siriya. Daga baya Umar ya sauke shi daga babban mukamin Umar saboda dalilai da dama da kafofin gargajiya na Musulunci da na zamani suka kawo. Khalid ya ci gaba da hidima a matsayin babban magajin magajinsa Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah a cikin sigogin Homs da Aleppo da Yakin Qinnasrin, duk a cikin 637-638, wanda gaba ɗaya ya haifar da koma baya daga Siriya na sojojin daular Byzantine a ƙarƙashin Sarki Heraclius. Umar ya kori Khalid daga kujerar gwamnan Qinnasrin daga baya kuma ya rasu a Madina ko Homs a 642.

Gabaɗaya masana tarihi suna ɗaukar Khalid a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin fitattun janar -janar na Islama na farko kuma ana tunawa da shi a duk ƙasashen Larabawa har zuwa yau. Addinin Musulunci ya yaba wa Khalid don dabarun fagen fama da ingantaccen jagoranci na yaƙin musulmin farko, amma ya zarge shi da halaka ƙabilun Larabawa waɗanda suka karɓi Musulunci, wato membobin Banu Jadhima a lokacin rayuwar Muhammad da Malik ibn Nuwayra a lokacin yaƙin Ridda. , da kuma rashin da'a da na kasafin kuɗi a Siriya. Shahararsa ta soja ta tayar da hankalin wasu masu tsoron Allah, wadanda suka musulunta na farko, ciki har da Umar, wadanda ke fargabar hakan zai iya zama dabi'ar mutumci.

Asali da farkon aikin soja[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mahaifin Khalid shi ne al-Walid ibn al-Mughira, mai sasanta rigingimun cikin gida a Makka a Hejaz (yammacin Arabiya).[1] Masana tarihi Ibn Hisham (d. 833), Ibn Habib (d. 859) da Ibn Durayd (d. 837) sun bayyana Al-Walid a matsayin "mai izgili" ga annabin musulunci Muhammad da aka ambata a cikin surorin Makka (surori) na Kur'ani.[1] Ya kasance daga cikin Banu Makhzum, babban dangin kabilar Quraishawa da makka kafin jahiliyyar Musulunci.[2] Ana yaba Makhzum don gabatar da kasuwancin Makka zuwa kasuwannin waje,[3] musamman Yemen da Abisiniya (Habasha),[2] kuma ya sami suna a tsakanin Kuraishawa saboda basirarsu, martabarsu da dukiyarsu.[3] Darajarsu ta kasance ta jagorancin kakan mahaifin Khalid al-Mughira ibn Abd Allah.[3] An san kawun mahaifin Khalid Hisham da "ubangijin makka" kuma Kuraishawa sun yi amfani da ranar mutuwarsa a matsayin farkon kalandar su.[4] Masanin tarihin Muhammad Abdulhayy Shaban ya bayyana Khalid a matsayin "mutum mai matsayi mai girma" a cikin danginsa da makka gaba ɗaya.[5]

Mahaifiyar Khalid ita ce al-Asma bint al-Harith ibn Hazn, wanda aka fi sani da Lubaba al-Sughra ("Lubaba Ƙarami", don bambanta ta da babban 'yar uwarta Lubaba al-Kubra) na kabilar Banu Hilal.[6] Lubaba al-Sughra ya musulunta game da c. 622 da ƙanwar mahaifiyarta Maymuna ta zama matar Muhammadu.[6] Ta hanyar dangin mahaifiyarsa Khalid ya zama sananne sosai game da salon rayuwar Badawiyya (Balarabe mai kiwo).[7]

Adawar farko ga Muhammadu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dutsen Uhudu (hoton 2009) inda Khalid da mahayan dawakansa suka fatattaki sojojin musulmi wanda annabin musulunci Muhammad ke jagoranta a 625

Makhzum sun yi adawa da Muhammad sosai, kuma babban jagoran dangin Amr ibn Hisham (Abu Jahl), dan uwan ​​Khalid na farko, ya shirya kauracewa dangin Muhammad, Banu Hashim na Quraishawa, a c. 616–618.[1] Makhzum karkashin Abu Jahl ya ba da umarni a yaki annabin musulunci, wanda ya yi hijira daga Makka zuwa Madina a 622, har sai da aka fatattake su a yakin Badar a shekarar 624.[1] Kimanin ashirin da biyar daga cikin kakannin mahaifin Khalid, ciki har da Abu Jahl, da yawa an kashe wasu dangi a cikin wannan alkawari.[1] A shekara mai zuwa Khalid da dan uwansa Ikrima, dan Abu Jahl, bi da bi sun umarci gefen dama da na hagu na sojan doki a cikin sojojin Makka wanda ya fuskanci Muhammad a yakin Uhud a arewacin Madina.[8][9] A cewar masanin tarihi Donald Routledge Hill, maimakon kaddamar da farmaki na gaba a kan layin Musulmai a kan gangaren Dutsen Uhudu, "Khalid ya yi amfani da dabarun sauti" na zagawa da dutsen da tsallake gefen Musulmi.[10] Ya ci gaba ta rafin Wadi Qanat da ke yammacin Uhud har sai da maharba Musulmi suka duba shi a kudancin kwarin a Dutsen Ruma.[10] Musulmai sun sami fa'idar farko a cikin yaƙin, amma bayan yawancin maharba na musulmi sun yi watsi da matsayinsu don shiga cikin farmakin sansanin 'yan Makka, Khaled ya tuhumci sakamakon fashewar da aka samu a lamuran tsaron musulmi na baya.[8][10] A cikin farmakin da ya biyo baya, an kashe Musulmai da dama.[8] Labarin yaƙin ya bayyana Khalid yana hawa cikin filin, yana kashe musulmai da mashinsa.[11] Shaban ya yaba wa “hazikin soja” na Khalid don nasarar da Kuraishawa suka samu a Uhudu, wanda kawai ƙabilar ta ci Muhammadu.[12]

A cikin 628 Muhammad da mabiyansa sun nufi Makka don yin umra (ƙaramin aikin hajji a Makka) kuma Quraishawa sun aika da mahayan dawakai 200 don su katse shi bayan jin labarin tafiyarsa.[13] Khalid ya kasance a kan mahayan dawakan kuma Muhammad ya guji fuskantar sa ta hanyar ɗaukar wata hanyar da ba ta saba ba kuma mai wahala, a ƙarshe ya isa Hudaibiyya a gefen Makka.[14] Lokacin da ya fahimci canjin Muhammad na hanya, Khalid ya koma Makka.[15] An cimma sulhu tsakanin Musulmi da Kuraishawa a cikin yarjejeniyar Hudaibiyya a watan Maris.[13]

Juyowa zuwa Musulunci da hidima a ƙarƙashin Muhammadu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 6 bayan hijira (kimanin 627) ko 8 bayan hijira (shekara ta 629) Khalid ya musulunta a gaban Muhammadu tare da Quraishawa Amr bn al-As;[16] masanin tarihin zamani Michael Lecker yayi sharhi cewa asusun da Khalid da Amr suka tuba a 8 AH sun kasance "watakila sun fi amintattu".[17] Masanin tarihin Akram Diya Umari ya ce Khalid da Amr sun musulunta kuma sun koma Madina bayan yarjejeniyar Hudaibiyya, a bayyane bayan Kuraishawa sun yi watsi da bukatar mika sabbin musulmai zuwa Makka.[18] Bayan musuluntar sa, Khalid "ya fara sadaukar da duk manyan baiwarsa ta soji don tallafawa sabuwar ƙasar Musulmi", a cewar ɗan tarihi Hugh N. Kennedy.[19]

Khalid ya shiga cikin balaguron zuwa Mu'ta a cikin Jordan na zamani wanda Muhammad ya ba da umarni a watan Satumba na 629.[20][21] Dalilin kai farmakin na iya kasancewa ya mallaki ganima ne sakamakon rugujewar sojojin Farisa daga Siriya bayan shan kashi da Daular Byzantine ta yi. a watan Yuli.[22] Sojojin Rumawa da suka kunshi galibin kabilun Larabawa karkashin jagorancin kwamandan Byzantine Theodore kuma an kashe manyan kwamandojin Musulmai da dama.[22][23] Khalid ya dauki umurnin sojojin bayan mutuwar kwamandojin da aka nada kuma, tare da wahala, ya sa ido kan ficewar Musulmai cikin aminci.[24][21][25] Muhammadu ya saka wa Khalid ta hanyar ba shi laƙabin girmamawa Sayf Allah (Takobin Allah).[25]

Garin damisa na Dumat al-Jandal (hoton 2007). Khalid ya jagoranci balaguro kan birnin a cikin 630, kuma yana iya jagorantar wani balaguron a cikin 633 ko 634, kodayake masana tarihi na zamani sun jefa shakku game da kamfen na ƙarshe ko rawar Khalid a ciki.

A watan Disambar 629/Janairu 630 Khalid ya shiga cikin kame Muhammad da Makka, bayan haka mafi yawan Kuraishawa sun musulunta. A cikin wannan haɗin gwiwa Khalid ya jagoranci ƙungiyar makiyaya da ake kira muhajirat al-arab (masu hijira daga Bedouin). Ya jagoranci daya daga cikin manyan turawa guda biyu zuwa cikin birni kuma a yaƙin da ya biyo baya da Kuraishawa, an kashe mutum uku daga cikin mutanensa yayin da aka kashe Quraishawa goma sha biyu, a cewar masanin tarihin Muhammad Ibn Ishaq na ƙarni na 8.[26] A yaƙin Hunayn daga baya a waccan shekarar, lokacin da Musulmai, sakamakon kwararar waɗanda Quraishawa suka tuba, suka ci nasara akan Thaqif-abokan hamayyar gargajiya na Quraishawa na Ta'if-da abokansu na Hawazin, Khalid ya umarci Badouin Banu Sulaym. cikin addinin Musulunci. Daga nan aka naɗa Khalid ya rusa gunkin al-Uzza, ɗaya daga cikin allahiya da ake bautawa a addinin Larabawa kafin Jahiliyya, a yankin Nakhla tsakanin Makka da Ta'if.

Daga baya aka tura Khalid don gayyatar Banu Jadhima a cikin Yalamlam, kimanin kilomita 80 (50 mi) kudu da Makka, amma majiyar gargajiya ta Musulunci ta ce ya kai hari kan kabilar ba bisa ka’ida ba. A sigar Ibn Ishaq, Khalid ya lallashe 'yan kabilar Jadhima da su kwance damara da rungumar addinin Islama, wanda ya biyo baya ta hanyar kashe wasu kabilun don ɗaukar fansa kan kisan da Jadhima ta yi wa kawunsa Fakih ibn al-Mughira da ke soyayya tun kafin Khalid ya musulunta.[27] A cikin labarin Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 1449), Khalid bai fahimci yarda da ƙabilanci na imani a matsayin ƙin yarda ko ƙin musulinci ba saboda rashin sanin sautin Jadhima kuma sakamakon haka ya far musu.[28] A cikin juyi biyu Muhammadu ya bayyana kansa ba shi da laifi daga aikin Khalid amma bai sallame shi ko hukunta shi ba.[27] A cewar masanin tarihi W. Montgomery Watt, asusun gargajiya game da abin da ya faru Jadhima "yana da ƙima fiye da ɓatancin Khālid, kuma yana ba da ƙaramin tabbataccen tarihin tarihi".[29]

Daga baya a shekara ta 630, yayin da Muhammad yake Tabuka, ya aika Khalid ya kama garin Dumat al-Jandal da ke kasuwar oasis. Khalid ya samu mika wuya ya kuma sanya hukunci mai tsanani a kan mazauna garin, daya daga cikin sarakunansa, Kindite Ukaydir bn Abd al-Malik al-Sakuni, Khalid ne ya umurce shi da ya rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniyar cin gashin kai da Muhammad a Madina.[30] A cikin watan Yuni 631 Muhammad ya aika Khalid shugaban mutane 480 don ya gayyaci kabilar Balharith gauraye Kirista da mushrikai na Najran su karbi Musulunci.[31] Kabilar ta musulunta, Khalid ya koyar da su kur’ani da shari’o’in Musulunci kafin ya koma Madina tare da tawagar Balharith.[31]

Kwamanda a yakin Ridda[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Map detailing the route of Khalid ibn al-Walid's military campaigns in central Arabia.
Taswirar da ke bayani kan yadda Khalid ya murkushe kabilun Larabawa a tsakiyar Larabawa a lokacin yakin Ridda

Bayan mutuwar Muhammadu a cikin watan Yuni 632, yawancin kabilun Larabawa, in ban da waɗanda ke kewayen Madina, sun daina mubaya'a ga ƙasar Musulmi ta asali ko kuma ba su kulla wata alaƙa da Madina ba. Abokin Muhammad na farko kuma na kud da kud, Abubakar, ya zama shugaban al'ummar musulmi, ya kuma tura mafi yawan sojojin musulmi karkashin Usama bn Zaid a yaki da kasar Sham ta Rumawa, duk da barazanar da kabilun makiyaya suka yi wa garuruwan musulmi na Hijaz da suka yi watsi da ikon musulmi. . Abubakar ya hada runduna ya fatattaki gungun kabilar Ghatafan a Dhu al-Qassa a cikin Hijaz. Bayan da aka yi watsi da barazanar da aka yi wa Madina, Abubakar ya aika Khalid ya yaqi qabilun ‘yan tawaye a Najd (tsakiyar yankin Larabawa). Daga cikin manyan yankunan Larabawa guda shida da aka yi fama da shi a lokacin yakin Ridda (yakukuwan da suka yi ridda da ‘yan ridda), biyu sun kasance a birnin Najd: tawaye na kabilar Asad, Tayy da Ghatafan karkashin Tulayha da tawayen kabilar Tamim karkashin jagorancin. Saja; shugabannin biyu sun yi iƙirarin su annabawa ne. Lecker ya ce an tura Khalid ne kafin dawowar sojojin Usama, yayin da Watt ya ce an aika Khalid ne a shugaban wata babbar runduna bayan dawowar Usama. Khalid shi ne mutum na uku da Abubakar ya nada domin ya jagoranci yakin bayan zabinsa guda biyu na farko, Kuraishawa Zaid bn al-Khattab da Abu Huzaifa bn Utba, suka ki amincewa da wannan aiki. Sojojinsa sun kunshi farkon wadanda suka musulunta, wato Muhajirun (masu hijira daga Makka zuwa Madina) da Ansar ('yan asalin Madina).[32] A duk tsawon yakin, Khalid ya nuna 'yancin kai na aiki kuma bai bi ka'idojin halifa sosai ba. A cikin maganar Shaban, "kawai ya yi nasara a kan duk wanda yake can a ci shi".[33]

Yakin Buzakha[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun farko Khalid ya mayar da hankali ne a kan danne Tulayha.[34] A shekara ta 632 Khalid ya fafata da dakarun Tulayha a yakin Buzakha, inda Tayyi ya koma musulmi a farkon yakin.[35] Yayin da Tulayha ya bayyana a dab da fatattakar bangaren Banu Fazara na Ghatafan karkashin shugabansu Uyayna ibn Hisn ya fice daga filin, wanda ya tilasta wa Tulayha ya gudu zuwa Sham.[35] Daga baya kabilarsa Asad ta mika wuya ga Khalid, sai kuma Banu Amir mai tsaka-tsaki har ya zuwa yanzu, wanda ya kasance yana jiran sakamakon rikicin kafin ya ba da mubaya'arsa ga kowane bangare.[35]

Kisan Malik bn Nuwayra[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan Buzakha, Khalid ya ci gaba da fafatawa da shugaban ‘yan tawayen Tamimi Malik ibn Nuwayra wanda ke da hedikwata a al-Bitah, a yankin Qassim na yau. Muhammadu mai karbar sadaka (haraji) ne ya nada Malik a kan danginsa ta Tamim, Banu Yarbu, amma ya daina tura wannan harajin zuwa Madina bayan rasuwar Muhammadu. Don haka Abubakar ya yanke shawarar a kashe shi a hannun Khalid.[36] Na baya-bayan nan ya fuskanci rarrabuwar kawuna a cikin rundunarsa dangane da wannan yakin, inda tun farko Ansar suka tsaya a baya, inda suka yi nuni da umarnin Abubakar da kada su kara yin kamfen har sai sun samu umarni kai tsaye daga halifa. Khalid ya yi da’awar cewa irin wannan umarni nasa ne a matsayinsa na kwamandan da halifa ya nada, amma bai tilastawa Ansar shiga ba, ya ci gaba da tafiya tare da dakaru daga Muhajirun da Badawiyya suka fice daga Buzakha da sakamakonsa; A karshe Ansar suka koma Khalid bayan sun gama tattaunawa cikin gida.[37]

Bisa labarin da aka fi sani a majiyoyin gargajiya na musulmi, sojojin Khalid sun ci karo da Malik da goma sha daya daga cikin danginsa na Yarbu a shekara ta 632. Yarbu ba su yi turjiya ba, suka shelanta addininsu na musulinci aka raka su zuwa sansanin Khalid. Khalid ya sa aka kashe su gaba dayansu saboda rashin amincewar wani dan Ansaru, wanda ya kasance cikin masu garkuwa da ‘yan kabilar, kuma ya yi hujjar cewa fursunoni ba za su taba cin karo da su ba saboda wasiyyarsu ta musulmi. Bayan haka Khalid ya auri matar Malik Ummu Tamim bint al-Minhal. Da labarin abin da Khalid ya yi ya isa Madina, babban hadimin Abubakar Umar bn Khattab ya matsa lamba kan a hukunta Khalid ko a sauke shi daga mukaminsa, amma Abubakar ya gafarta masa. Kamar yadda wani masanin tarihi Sayf bn Umar na karni na 8 ya ce, Malik ma ya kasance yana ba da hadin kai da Sajah, 'yar gidansa 'yar 'Yarbu, kuma musulmi sun ci karo da karamar jam'iyyarsa bayan da 'yan kabilar Tamim suka fatattake su. Masanin tarihin zamani Wilferd Madelung ya yi rangwame ga sigar Sayf, yana mai cewa Umar da sauran musulmi ba za su nuna rashin amincewarsu da kisan da Khalid ya yi wa Malik ba da a ce wannan ya bar Musulunci, yayin da Watt ya dauki bayanan da suka shafi Tamim a lokacin Ridda gaba daya a matsayin “batsa ... saboda makiyan khalid b. al-Walid sun karkatar da labaran su bata masa baki”. A ra’ayin ’yar tarihi mai suna Ella Landau-Tasseron, “gaskiya da ke tattare da aiki da mutuwar Malik za ta kasance a binne a ƙarƙashin tarin al’adu masu karo da juna.

Kawar da Musaylima da cin Yamama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taswirar yankin Yamama na Arabiya mai inuwa da ja. Khalid dan kabilar Banu Hanifa karkashin jagorancin Musaylima ne ya mamaye yankin

Bayan da aka samu koma baya a rikicinta da kungiyoyin Tamim masu gaba da juna, Sajah ta bi sahun babban mai adawa da musulmi: Musaylima, shugaban kabilar Banu Hanifa mai zaman kansa a Yamama, yankin gabas na noma na Najd. Musaylima ya yi da'awar annabci tun kafin hijirar Muhammadu daga Makka, kuma roƙon da ya yi wa Muhammadu ya yarda da junansa Muhammadu bai yi watsi da shi ba. Bayan Muhammadu ya rasu, goyon bayan Musaylima ya karu a Yamama,[38] wanda kimar dabararsa ba wai kawai da yawan gonakin alkama da dabino ba, har ma da wurin da yake hade da Madina zuwa yankunan Bahray da Oman a gabashin Arabiya.[39] Abubakar ya aike Shurahbil bn Hasana da Ikrima dan Khalid dan uwan ​​Khalid da wata runduna don karfafawa gwamnan musulmi a Yamama, dan kabilar Musaylima Thumama ibn Uthal.[40] A cewar masanin tarihin zamani Meir Jacob Kister, mai yiyuwa ne barazanar da wannan runduna ta sanya Musaylima ya kulla kawance da Sajah.[41] Sojojin Musaylima sun fatattaki Ikrima sannan Abubakar ya umurce shi da ya murkushe tawaye a Oman da Mahra (a tsakiyar kudancin Larabawa) yayin da Shurahbil zai ci gaba da zama a Yamama yana jiran babbar rundunar Khalid.[42]

Bayan nasarar da ya samu a kan Badawiyyan Najd, Khalid ya nufi Yamama tare da gargadin bajintar da Hanifa ke da shi na soja da kuma umarnin Abubakar da ya yi mugun nufi ga kabilar idan ya yi nasara. Masanin tarihi na tsakiyar zamanin Ibn Hubaysh al-Asadi ya riki cewa sojojin Khalid da Musaylima sun kai 4,500 da 4,000, inda Kister ya yi watsi da alkaluman da suka fi girma da mafi yawan majiyoyin gargajiya suka ambata a matsayin wuce gona da iri.[43] Hare-hare uku na farko da Khalid ya yi wa Musaylima a Aqraba an buge su. Karfin mayaka Musaylima, da fifikon takubbansu, da kuma gazawar rundunonin Badawiyya a cikin sahun Khalid, duk dalilai ne da musulmi suka yi nuni da su kan gazawarsu na farko. Ansarite Thabit bn Qays ya ba da shawarar a ware Badawiyyawa daga yakin, Khalid ya tafi.[44] A farmaki na hudu akan Hanifa, Muhajirun karkashin Khalid da Ansar karkashin Thabit sun kashe wani Laftanar Musaylima, wanda daga baya ya gudu da wani bangare na sojojinsa. Musulman suka bi Hanifa zuwa wani katon lambu da Musaylima ya ke yi na gaba da musulmi. Musulman ne suka mamaye unguwar, aka kashe Musaylima, aka kashe ko aka raunata akasarin Hanifiwa.[44] Wurin ya zama sananne da 'gonar mutuwa' saboda yawan asarar da bangarorin biyu suka yi.

Tun farkon yakin Khalid ya sanya wani Banifiye da aka kama Mujja’a bn al-Murara, domin ya tantance irin karfi, da’a da kuma manufar Hanifa a cikin kagararsu Yamama bayan kashe Musaylima. Mujja’a ya sa mata da ‘ya’yan kabilar su suturta su kuma su fito a matsayin maza a budodin katangar a cikin wata dabara don kara musu karfin gwiwa tare da Khalid; Ya gaya ma Khalid cewa har yanzu Hanifa na kirga mayaka masu yawa da suka kuduri aniyar ci gaba da yakar musulmi. Wannan tantancewar tare da gajiyar da sojojinsa suka yi, ya tilasta wa Khalid amincewa da shawarar da Mujja’a ya bayar na tsagaita wuta da Hanifa, duk kuwa da umurnin da Abubakar ya bayar na ci gaba da ja da baya da kuma kashe fursunonin Hanafiwa. Sharuɗɗan Khalid da Hanifa sun haɗa da musuluntar ƙabilar da kuma miƙa makamansu da makamansu da tarin zinare da azurfa. Abu Bakr ya amince da yarjejeniyar, ko da yake ya kasance mai adawa da rangwamen Khalid kuma ya yi gargadin cewa Hanifa za ta kasance da aminci ga Musaylima. Yarjejeniyar ta kara tsarkakewa da auren Khalid da ‘yar Mujja’a. A cewar Lecker, dabarar Mujja’a ta yiwu al’adar Musulunci ce ta kirkiro “domin kare manufofin Khalid saboda yarjejeniyar da aka kulla... ta jawo wa musulmi babbar asara”. An bai wa Khalid gonakin noma da gonaki a kowane kauye da aka sanya a cikin yarjejeniyar da Hanifa, yayin da kauyukan da aka kebe daga yarjejeniyar suna fuskantar hukuncin ladabtarwa. Daga cikin wadannan kauyuka har da garin Musaylima al-Haddar da Mar'at, wadanda aka kori ko bautar da mazaunansu tare da 'yan kabilar Tamim.

Majiyoyin al'ada sun sanya ƙarshen murkushe ƙabilun Larabawa na yaƙe-yaƙe na Ridda kafin Maris 633, kodayake masanin tarihin Yamma Leone Caetani ya dage cewa yaƙin ya ci gaba har zuwa 634. Ƙoƙarin yakin musulmi, wanda Khalid ya taka muhimmiyar rawa, ya tabbatar da ikon Madina. a kan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙabilun Larabawa, waɗanda suka nemi tauye ikon Musulunci a yankin, da maido da martabar daular musulmi. A cewar Lecker, Khalid da sauran janar-janar Kuraishawa “sun sami gogewa mai tamani [a lokacin yaƙe-yaƙe na Ridda] wajen tara runduna masu yawa na kabilanci a nesa mai nisa” kuma “sun amfana daga makusantan Kuraishawa [sic] da siyasar ƙabilanci a duk ƙasar Larabawa.[7]

Kamfe a Iraki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taswirar da ke ba da cikakken bayani game da yakin Khalid a Iraki (ƙananan Mesopotamiya), bisa ga jigon al'adar Musulunci.

Tare da Yamama sulhu, Khalid ya yi tafiya zuwa arewa zuwa yankin Sasaniya a Iraki (ƙananan Mesopotamiya). Watakila mafi yawan Muhajirun sun janye zuwa Madina kafin Khalid ya fara yakin neman zabensa, don haka ya sake tsara rundunarsa. A cewar masanin tarihi Khalil Athamina, ragowar sojojinsa sun kunshi Larabawa makiyaya daga kewayen Madina wadanda aka nada shugabanninsu domin maye gurbin mukaman kwamandan da sahabbai (sahabban Muhammad) suka bari. Masanin tarihi Fred Donner yana ganin cewa har yanzu Muhajirun da Ansar sun kasance jigon rundunarsa, tare da ɗimbin kaso na Larabawa makiyaya mai yiwuwa daga kabilun Muzayna, Tayy, Tamim, Asad da Ghatafan. Kwamandojin rundunonin da Khalid ya nada su ne Adi ibn Hatim na Tayyi da Asim bn Amr na Tamim. Ya isa yankin kudancin Iraqi tare da mayaka kimanin 1,000 a karshen bazara ko farkon lokacin rani na 633.

Tafiya zuwa Siriya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Geographical Map detailing the route of Khalid ibn al-Walid's invasion of Syria
Taswirar da ke nuna ɗaya daga cikin jerin shirye-shiryen tafiyar da Khalid ya yi zuwa Siriya daga Iraki

Siege na Damascus[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Muslim and Byzantine troop movements before the battle of Yarmouk
Ƙungiyoyin musulmi da na Rumawa a Siriya kafin yakin Yarmouk a shekara ta 636.

Yaƙin Yarmuk[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kwaruruka na Kogin Yarmouk, a kusa da yakin Yarmouk
Misalin Yaƙin Yarmouk na wani mai zanen Catalan wanda ba a san shi ba (c. 1310–1325).

Legacy[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana daukar Khalid "daya daga cikin hazaka na farkon Musulunci" na Donner.[45] A cikin kima na Kennedy, Khalid ya kasance "hazikin kwamandan soja maras tausayi, amma wanda musulmin kirki ba zai taba jin dadi da shi ba".[46] Ya lura cewa zamanin da “Hadisin Larabci suna ba wa Khalid girman kai a matsayin kwamandan da ya ba da jagoranci mafi inganci, ko da bayan Umar ya kore shi daga babban kwamandan mulki” kuma “sunansa na babban Janar ya dade tun daga tsararraki da tituna. sunansa a duk fadin kasashen Larabawa”.[47] A yayin da ake fahimtar nasarorin da ya samu a soja, majiyoyin gargajiya sun gabatar da kima iri-iri na Khalid saboda tunkarar sa da Muhammadu a Uhud, da sunan da ya yi na zalunci ko rashin daidaito a kan kabilun Larabawa a lokacin yakin Ridda da kuma shaharar da ya yi na soja wanda ya dagula masu addini na farko zuwa ga addinin Musulunci. Musulunci. A cewar masanin tarihi Richard Blackburn, duk da kokarin da majiyoyin gargajiya na Musulunci suka yi na bata sunan Khalid, sunansa ya bunkasa a matsayin "babban jarumin Musulunci" a zamanin Muhammad da Abubakar da kuma yakin Sham. Masanin tarihin nan Carole Hillenbrand ya kira Khalid "wanda ya fi kowa shahara a cikin dukkanin janar-janar musulmin larabawa",[48] Humphreys ya siffanta shi da "watakila shi ne fitaccen janar na larabawa mai hazaka a yakin Riddah [sic] da yakin farko na [Musulmi].[49] Musulmi ‘yan Sunna suna kallon Khalid a matsayin gwarzon yaki a wajen musulmi ‘yan Sunna, yayin da da yawa daga cikin musulmi ‘yan Shi’a ke kallonsa a matsayin mai laifin yaki saboda kisan da ya yi wa Malik bn Nuwayra da kuma auren matar da ya mutu ba tare da bata lokaci ba, wanda ya saba wa zamanin da musulunci ya saba yi.[50]

Mausoleum a cikin Homs[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun daga lokacin Ayyubid a Siriya (1182-1260), Homs ya sami suna a matsayin gidan da ake zaton kabari da masallacin Khalid.[51] Balarabe matafiyi na karni na 12 Ibn Jubayr (wanda ya rasu a shekara ta 1217) ya lura cewa kabarin yana dauke da kaburburan Khalid da dansa Abd al-Rahman.[52] Al’adar Musulmi tun daga lokacin ta sanya kabarin Khalid a cikin garin.[52] Sarkin Ayyubid na farko Saladin (r. 1171–1193) ya canza ginin kuma a cikin karni na 13.[51] Sarkin Mamluk sultan Baybars (r. 1260–1277) ya yi ƙoƙarin danganta nasarorin da ya samu na soja da na Khalid ta hanyar sanya wani rubutu da aka sassaƙa a makabartar Khalid da ke Homs a shekara ta 1266.[48] A ziyararsa ta ƙarni na 17 a makabartar, malamin musulmi. Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi ya yarda cewa an binne Khalid a can amma kuma ya lura da wata al'adar Musulunci ta dabam cewa kabarin na jikan Mu'awiya Khalid bn Yazid ne (d. 704). Masallacin na yanzu ya kasance a 1908 lokacin da hukumomin Ottoman suka sake gina ginin.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Hinds 1991, p. 138.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Hinds 1991, pp. 137–138.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Lammens 1993, p. 171.
  4. Hinds 1991, p. 137.
  5. Shaban 1971, pp. 23–24.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Landau-Tasseron 1998, pp. 202–203.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Lecker 2004, p. 694.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Robinson 2000, p. 782.
  9. Umari 1991, pp. 53–54.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Hill 1975, p. 37.
  11. Hill 1975, p. 39.
  12. Shaban 1971, p. 23.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Watt 1971, p. 539.
  14. Umari 1991, pp. 109–110.
  15. Umari 1991, p. 110.
  16. Lecker 1989, p. 27.
  17. Lecker 1989, p. 27, note 25.
  18. Umari 1991, p. 121.
  19. Kennedy 2007, p. 76.
  20. Crone 1978, p. 928.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Kaegi 1992, p. 72.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Kennedy 2007, p. 71.
  23. Kaegi 1992, pp. 71–72.
  24. Umari 1991, p. 144.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Zetterstéen 1965, p. 235.
  26. Umari 1991, p. 158.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Umari 1991, pp. 172–173.
  28. Umari 1991, p. 172.
  29. Watt 1956, p. 70.
  30. Vaglieri 1965, p. 625.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Schleifer 1971, p. 223.
  32. Kister 2002, p. 44.
  33. Shaban 1971, p. 24.
  34. Watt 1960, p. 110.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 Bosworth 1960, p. 1358.
  36. Landau-Tasseron 1991, p. 267.
  37. Kister 2002, p. 45.
  38. Kister 2002, pp. 22–23.
  39. Kister 2002, pp. 7–9, 28–29.
  40. Kister 2002, p. 23.
  41. Kister 2002, pp. 23–25.
  42. Kister 2002, p. 29.
  43. Kister 2002, pp. 46–47.
  44. 44.0 44.1 Kister 2002, p. 47.
  45. Donner 1981, p. 111.
  46. Kennedy 2007, p. 81.
  47. Kennedy 2007, pp. 75–76.
  48. 48.0 48.1 Hillenbrand 1999, p. 230.
  49. Humphreys 1990, p. 72, note 124.
  50. Mulder 2014, pp. 92–93.
  51. 51.0 51.1 Sirriya 1979, p. 116.
  52. 52.0 52.1 Blackburn 2005, p. 75, note 195.