Ummu Salama

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Ummu Salama
تخطيط اسم أم سلمة.png
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Makkah, 596
ƙasa Khulafa'hur-Rashidun
Mutuwa Madinah, 683
Makwanci Al-Baqi'
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Abu Umayya ibn Al-Mughira
Yara
Sana'a
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Ummu Salama Hind bint Abu Umayya ibn Al-Mughira ta kasance tana ɗaya daga cikin matan Annabi Muhammad.

Kafin aure tare da Muhammad[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sunan haihuwar Umm Salama itace Hind. [1] [2] Mahaifinta shi ne Abu Umayya ibn Al-Mughira bn Abdullah bn Umar bn Makhzum bn Yaqazah wanda aka fi sani da Suhayl ko Zad ar-Rakib. Ya kasance sananne ga dan kabilarsa ta Quraysh, wanda aka san shi da karimci mai yawa, musamman ga matafiya. Mahaifiyarta '' Ātikah bint 'Āmir ibn Rabī'ah, na Firas ibn Ghanam bangaren Kinana .

Aure da Abu Salama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kafin auren ta da Muhammad, Umm Salama ta auri Abu Salama Abd Allah bn Abd al-Asad al-Makhzumi, wanda mahaifiyarsa Barrah bint Abdul Muttalib . Abu Salama daya ne daga cikin abokan Muhammad. Umm Salama ta haifa wa Abu Salama 'ya'ya hudu: Salama, Umar, Zainab da Ruqayyah. [3] [4]

Karbar Addinin Musulunci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Umm Salama da mijinta Abu Salama suna cikin farkon waɗanda suka musulunta . Ali ne kawai da wasu tsirarun musulmai a gabaninsu. Duk da tsananin fushi da tsanantawa daga Quraishawa masu karfin fada a ji game da musuluntar su zuwa ga addinin Islama, Umm Salama da Abu Salama sun ci gaba da ba da kai ga Musulunci .

Yayin da zalunci ya tsananta ainun, sabbin musulmai sun fara Neman fara rayuwa a wajen garin Makka . Muhammadu ya umurci sababbin mabiyansa, wadanda suka hada da Umm Salama da Abu Salama, da suyi ƙaura zuwa Abisiniya . Umm Salama ta watsar da rayuwa mai daraja a dangin ta a Makka don yin hijirar. Yayin da suke cikin Abisiniya, an gaya wa musulman nan cewa an sami raguwar zalunci gami da karuwar adadin Musulmai a Makka . Wannan bayanin ya sa Umm Salama, mijinta, da sauran musulmai wadanda suka yi hijira daga kasar suka yi tafiya zuwa Makka . Bayan dawowarsu Makka, Kuraishawa sun sake tsananta wa musulmai da karfi . A cikin amsar, Muhammadu ya ba mabiyansa umarnin yin ƙaura zuwa Madina, wanda kuma aka sani da hijra . Umm Salama, tare da mijinta da ɗanta sun shirya yin hijra tare, duk da haka an dakatar da wannan lokacin da dangin Umm Salama suka tilasta mata ta zama a Makka, yayin da dangin Abu Salama suka ɗauki yaron.

Umm Salama ta ba da wannan labarin:


Kafin mu fita daga garin Makkah, wasu mazaje daga dangin muvsun tsayar damu, sai suka ce wa mijina; Dukda kana da damar aiwatar da abunda kake so wa kanka, baka da iko akan matar ka, ita yar'mu ce, kana tunanin zamu barka ka tafi da ita daga gare mu? Sai suka kauda shi suka kwace ni a wurinsa. Sai dangin mijina, Banu Abd al-Asad, suka hango shi suna tafiya dani, sai suka fusata, A'a Wallahi, suka ce cikin ihu, 'Ba zamu bar danmu ba, sai suka kwace yaron a hannu na'

Abu Salama ya yi tafiya zuwa Madina shi kadai, ya bar matarsa da yaransa a Makka . Bayan wani lokaci, Kuraishawa su bar Makka, kuma aka ba da danta da baya da mijinta ta kabilar. Tare da ɗanta, ta kammala hijra kuma an sake saduwa da mijinta.

Mutuwar Abu Salama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yayin aurenta da Abu Salama, Umm Salama (a cikin wani labarin da aka ruwaito daga Ziyad bn Abi Maryam) ta ce mijinta ya nemi yarjejeniya cewa idan dayansu ya mutu, dayan ba zai sake yin wani. Ko ta yaya, a cikin wannan hadisin, Abu Salama ya ba da amsa ta umarci Umm Salama da ta sake yin aure bayan rasuwarsa. Sannan ya yi addu'a, "Ya Allah! Ka azurta Ummul Salama a wurina da mutumin da ya fi ni wanda ba zai ba ta baƙin ciki ko cutar da ita ba!"

A yaƙin Uhud (Maris 625), Abu Salama ya ji rauni sosai. Yayin da Abu Salama ke mutuwa saboda wadannan raunuka, sai ya tuno da wani labari ga Ummu Salama wacce ta shafi wani sako da ya ji daga wurin Muhammad: "Na ji Manzon Allah yana cewa, 'Duk lokacin da wata masifa ta same kowa sai ya ce," Lallai daga Allah muke Kuma zuwa gare Shi makõma take. Kuma ya yi addu'a, 'Ya Ubangiji! Ka mayar mini da abin da yake mafi kyau daga gare shi, Kai kaɗai, Mabuwayi, Mai ikon bayarwa' ". An fassara wannan labarin na al'ada tare da bambance-bambance iri daban-daban, amma mahimman ka'idodin hadisi suna cikin kwanciyar hankali.

Daga baya maigidanta ya mutu sakamakon raunin da ya samu a yaqin Uhud . [1] [2] Umm Salama ta tuna da hadisin da mijinta ya tuno kafin rasuwarsa, kuma ta fara karanta addu'ar da aka bayar.

Bayan rasuwar Abdullah bin Abdulasad a yakin Uhud [1] [2] sai aka sanya mata suna Ayyin al-Arab - “wacce ta rasa mijinta”. Ba ta da iyali a Madina, sai yara ƙanana, amma Muhajirun da Ansar sun ba ta tallafi. Bayan ta gama iddah na wata hudu da kwana goma, isasshen lokacin da mace zata jira bayan mutuwar mijinta kafin ta sake yin aure, Ummu Salama ta samu abubuwan aure. Abubakar sannan Umar ya nemi ya aure ta, amma ta ki. Daga nan sai Muhammad da kansa ya ba da shawarar ga Umm Salama. Ta fara yin nadama a karbarta, tana mai cewa, "Ya Manzon Allah, Ina da halaye uku. Ni mace ce mai tsananin kishi kuma ina tsoron kar ki ga a cikina wani abin da zai fusata ki kuma zai sa Allah Ya hore ni. Ni mace ce da ta tsufa kuma ni mace ce da ke da dangi. "

Ko ta yaya, Muhammadu ya nuna rashin damuwa game da damuwar ta, “Dangane da kishin da ka ambata, ina rokon Allah Madaukakin Sarki da ya bar shi ya bar ka. Dangane da tambayar shekaruna da kuka ambata, Ina fuskantar matsala ɗaya kamar ku. Dangane da dangi mai dogaro da kuka ambata, Iyalinku dangina ne. ”

Zamanin Muhammadu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Umm Salama ta auri Muhammad yana da shekara 32. Sai matansa na shida da na bakwai (Umm Salamah)   da Zainab, a hankali) 'yan'uwan mahaifiyarsa kai tsaye waɗanda ya san su tun suna yara. Umm Salamah bazawara ce da yara 3 da na huxu suka haihuwar kusan aurensu nan da nan. [5]

Lokacin da Fatimah bint Asad (mahaifiyar Halifa Ali ta 4) ta mutu, an ce Muhammad ya zabi Umm Salama a matsayin mai kula da Al Sayeda Fatimah Al Zahra . [2] Koyaya, ana zaton Fatimah al-Zahra ta auri Ali a cikin 1AH ko 2AH, Fatimah bint Asad ta mutu a shekara ta 4AH, kuma Umm Salama ta auri Annabi a shekara ta 5, don haka dole ne duk wani mai kula da shi ya kasance zalla ne kawai.   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (August 2017)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ] An saukar da aya ta tsarkake (33:33) a cikin Kur'ani ga Muhammadu a gidanta. [2] [6] [7]

Umm Salama da matan Muhammadu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekara ta huxu bayan hijira zuwa Madina (4 AH), Umm Salama ta karɓi shawarar aure daga wurin Muhammad. Bayan ta raba abubuwa guda uku game da auren, da jin amsar daga Muhammad, Ummu Salama ta yi matukar farin ciki da ta yarda da shawarar. Umm Salama ta kasance farkon duk matan Muhammadu. Ta zama matar mai daraja ta Muhammad, kawai a bayan Khadija . Matsatacciyar matsayinta a tsakanin sauran matan ya kasance sakamakon kasancewar ta cikin yaƙe-yaƙe da yawa da kariyar gidan gidan Muhammadu. Halayen da suka bambanta Umm Salama da sauran matan Muhammadu sun hada da masu zuwa: Matsayinta a cikin mahaifiyar Fatima al-Zahra (mafi shaharar 'yar Muhammad, wacce Umm Salama ta yi shelar nuna ilimi fiye da kanta a cikin dukkan al'amuran), gwagwarmayar siyasarta., labarinta game da ruwayoyin Muhammadu (hadisai 378 na Hadisi), da kuma kare mutuncin Imam Ali da mutuncinsa bayan mutuwar Muhammad.

Mafi girman sifofin matan Muhammadu an nuna shi da suna "Uwar muminai". An kuma haramtawa su auri wani mutum kuma. (33:53) Kur'ani ya nuna cewa matan Muhammadu su kasance abin koyi a cikin jama'a (33: 30-32). Duk sauran matan Muhammadu sun kasance masu lura da ita saboda hikimarta da ilimin siyasa. Umm Salama da kanta ta ruwaito Hadisi na 378, daga cikinsu akwai wasu daga cikin mafiya mahimmanci. Ita ce ta ƙarshe daga matan Muhammadu da suka shuɗe.

Tasiri kan Muhammadu da al'umma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Saboda kyawunta, ilimi, da hikimarta, Ummu Salama ta kasance tana da babban matsayi a gidan Muhammadu da al'umma. Ta kasance mace ta musamman ta Muhammadu a cikin imaninta da ɗabi'unta. A matsayinta na mace, ta kan aiwatar da dukkan ayyukanta na addini. Yayin aurenta da Muhammad, ta yi iya kokarin ta don ganin ta faranta masa rai. Ta kasance mai matukar girmama shi. An san ta a cikin jama'a don hankali, savanin siyasa, da kuma aiki don yaƙi da haƙƙin mata. Umm Salama mace ce da aka fi baiwa baiwa hukunci. Ta kasance mai himma a cikin qungiyoyin neman yancin mata a farkon al'umman musulmai ma. Ta taɓa tambayar Muhammadu wata tambaya ta siyasa, "Me yasa aka ambaci maza a cikin Kur'ani kuma me yasa ba mu ba?" A cikin mayar da martani daga sama zuwa ga Muhammadu, Allah ya ce dukkan jinsi biyu sunada daidaito a matsayinsu na membobin gari da muminai. Babu damuwa jima'i, muddin mutumin ya kasance mai aminci kuma yana da sha'awar yi wa Allah biyayya, to za su sami alherinsa. Wannan aiki da Umm Salama ta kafa, ya kafa hujja kuma ya nuna cewa mata za su iya zuwa wurin Muhammad kai tsaye yayin da ba su gamsu da aikin jinsi da ke hulɗa da su ba a cikin jama'a. Wannan matakin da Umm Salama ta yi ya wakilci wani yunkuri na nuna rashin amincewa da mata. Umm Salama ta sami kyakkyawar fahimta, saurin ikon tunani, da kuma ikon da ba ta dace ba wajen kirkirar ra'ayoyi daidai.

Yarjejeniyar Hudaybiyya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Umm Salama ta zama mai ba da shawara ta Muhammad yayin tattaunawar game da Yarjejeniyar Hudaybiyyah tare da Meccan a shekara ta 628 AD (6 AH ) Daya daga cikin manyan abubuwan wannan yarjejeniya shi ne tantance alakar Muhammad da musulmin Madina da Quraishawa a Makka. Yarjejeniyar an yi niyya ne don samar da zaman lafiya tsakanin bangarorin biyu tare da baiwa musulmai damar kammala aikin hajjinsu na shekara zuwa Kaaba, wanda aka fi sani da aikin hajji, wanda suka yi a shekara mai zuwa a shekarar 629 (7 AH). Wannan yarjejeniya ta kasance mai mahimmanci tun lokacin da ta kafa yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya ta shekaru 10 tsakanin ƙungiyoyin biyu. Yarjejeniyar ta karye daga baya a cikin 629 (8 AH) wanda ya kai ga mamaye Makka .

Bayan Muhammad[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan mutuwar Muhammad, Umm Salama ta ci gaba da yin tasiri a addinin Musulunci . Ta m Hadith watsa sun yi zaunanniya tasiri a kan gaba daga cikin addini. Umm Salama, tare da daya daga sauran matan Muhammadu, Aisha, suma sun dauki matsayin a matsayin limamai, suna jagoranci sauran mata cikin bautar.

Ita ma Umm Salama ta dauki babban matsayi a Yaƙin Camel, inda ƙungiyoyin A'isha da Ali suke adawa kai tsaye. Ita kuwa Ummu Salama ta fito fili ta nuna rashin yarda da shigar Aisha cikin yaƙin. Ta ba da goyon baya ga bangaren Ali, kuma an ce ta tuno da labarun da Muhammadu ya fi son Ali da Fatimah don goyan bayan ra'ayinta kan yaƙin.

Ita ma Umm Salama har ma ta aiko da danta Umar don yaqin nasarar Ali

Umm Salama ta mutu kimanin shekara ta 64 A. Kodayake ana musanta ranar da za ta mutu, amma danta ya ce Umm Salama ta mutu tana da shekara 84. An binne ta a hurumin Baqi . Ita ce ta ƙarshe da ta tsira daga matan Muhammadu. [2]

Hadisi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Umm Salama da Aisha sun samar da wasu Hadisai fiye da kowacce na sauran matan Muhammadu . Don Lady Umm Salama, ruwayoyi 378 ne aka ruwaito ta hanyar darikar Sunni. Daga cikin Hadisin da ta ruwaito akwai:

Ayar tsarkakewa 33:33[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kuma ku tabbata a cikin gidãjenku, kuma kada ku yi fitar gãye-gãye irin fitar gãye-gãye ta jãhiliyyar farko. Kuma ku tsayar da salla, kuma ku bãyar da zakka. Kuma ku yi ɗã'a ga Allah da ManzonSa. Allah na nufin Ya tafiyar da ƙazamta kawai daga gare ku, ya mutãnen Babban Gida, kuma Ya sanya muku tsarkakakku.

Ayar tsarkakewa (Ayat al-Tathir) an ba ta suna ne saboda ambaton tsarkaka a layin karshe. A cewar Umm Salama, ayar tsarkakewa an saukar da ita a gidanta lokacin da Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, da Husayn kaɗai ke nan. Masana kamar Tarbasi da Tha'labi sun ba da labari ga Umm Salama: "Wata rana Uwargida Fatima da ta dafa abinci ta kawo wa gidana ga Annabi. Annabi ya ce, 'Ya hasken idanuna, kira Ali da' ya'yanku don mu ci abincin tare. '" Lokacin da dukansu suka taru sannan suka ci daga wannan abincin, sai Mala'ika Jibrael ya sauko ya saukar da aya mai zuwa: Lallai Allah Yana nufin Ya kankare muku duk wani kazamta daga gare ku, ya ku Iyalan Gida, kuma ya tsarkake ku tsarkakakku.

Da jin ayar, Annabi ya shimfiɗa mayafi a kansu ya ce: “Ya Allah, waɗannan su ne mutanen gidana. Su amintattu ne da kuma mataimakina. Ya Allah, ka kawar da kazanta daga gare su ka kiyaye su tsarkaka. " Umm Salama ta ba da labari, "Kamar yadda na ji wannan addu'ar daga wurin Annabi, na ce: 'Ya Manzon Allah! Ni ma tare da ku? ' Ga wanda ya amsa ya ce: 'Ba ku da matakin Ahlul-Baiti, amma ku' yantattun kyawawan halaye ne. '

Ayoyin ayoyi sun samo asali ne daga amfanin Muhammadu na kalmar "Ahl al-Bayt" ma'ana "mutanen gida" a sashi na biyu na ayar. Fassarar "Ahl al-Bayt" ta tabbatar da bambanci mai mahimmanci tsakanin Sunnis da Shi'a. 'Yan Shi'a sun yi imani da cewa kalmar na magana ne a kan Muhammad, Fatima, Ali, Hasan da Husayn wanda ke nuna cewa su' yan Ahlul-Baiti ne. A karkashin wannan akida, layin Muhammad kai tsaye ne kawai ke da jagoranci na ruhaniya da jagoranci akan al'ummar musulmai. Ya bambanta, Sunnis sun yi imani Muhammad ba yana nufin mutane biyar da ke cikin ɗakin ba ne. Madadin haka, Sunnis suna da kowane kyakkyawan imani na iya samun jagoranci na ruhaniya da mulki. Bambanci tsakanin fassarar guda biyu ya samo asali daga hadisin Umm Salama na ayar tsarkakewa da Hadisin Cloak.

Wasu bayanan da aka fassara, ciki har da Amina Wadud sun fassara layin farko, "kuyi shuru a cikin gidajenku, kuma kada kuyi wani sabon abu mai ban sha'awa, irin na Tsohon Jahilci" don nuna cewa bai kamata a kyale mata su fita kwata-kwata ba, maimakon damuwa. iyakance fitowar fita domin manufar nuna rashin sani.

33:35[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ga musulmai maza da mata, ga muminai maza da mata, ga maza da mata masu ibada, na kwarai maza da mata, ga maza da mata masu haquri da daurewa, ga maza da mata masu kaskantar da kai, ga maza da mata wadanda ke bayar da sadaka, ga maza da mata masu azumi (kuma suna musun kansu), ga maza da mata masu tsare farjinsu, da na maza da mata masu yawan shiga ambaton Allah, to, Allah ya yi musu gafara da sakamako mai girma.

Umm Salama ta nemi daidaito da 'yancin cin gashin kai ga matan musulmai kuma ba ta yi kasa a guiwa ba da tambayoyi ga siyasa ga annabin. Wannan ayar ta fara ne yayin da Umm Salama ta tambayi Muhammad, "me yasa aka ambaci maza a cikin Kur'ani kuma me yasa ba mu ba?" An nakalto yana ba da labari, "Na tambayi Annabi me yasa Kur'ani bai yi magana akan mu kamar yadda ya faru da maza ba. Kuma menene abin mamakin ni da rana ɗaya, lokacin da nake hada gashi, in ji muryarsa daga minbar. Da sauri na tsinke kaina da gudu zuwa ɗaya daga cikin gidajen da zan iya jin magana mai kyau " A nan ne Ummu Salama ta ji ayar.

Wasu fassarar bayanai sun fassara wannan aya don nuna daidaito tsakanin mata da maza. Amina Wadud ta fadi ra'ayinta cewa ayar tana sanya mata a kan mace ta gaskiya dangane da damar ruhi da ikon samun aljanna.

Gudummawar Umm Salami ga Sunan Ibn Majah[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abū ʻAbdillāh Muḥammad ibn Yazīd Ibn Mājah al-Rabʻī al-Qazwīnī, wanda aka fi sani da Ibn Majah, babban malamin karnin 9th ne. Ya shahara sosai wurin tattara hadisi na shida na Sunni Islam, Sunan Ibn Majah . Sunayen Hadisai a kasa sune Hadisan da Umm Salamah ta ruwaito daga Sunan Ibn Majah:

Hadisi 603 : “Na ce, ya Manzon Allah! Ni mace ce mai ɗaure kai. Shin ya kamata in kwance su idan na yi wanka in tsarkake kaina daga halin lalata? " Ya ce: "it'a, kun ishe ku isasshen ruwa uku a kansu, sannan ku zuba ruwa a kanku, kuma kun kasance tsarkaku."

Hadisi na 623 : “Wata mata ta tambayi Annabi (saw): 'Ina zubar da jini kullum kuma baya da tsafta. Shin bari na tashi ne? ' Ya ce: 'A'a, sai dai ku bar yin addu'a domin adadin ranaku da dare wanda kuka kasance kuna haila.' " (Daya daga cikin masu ruwaya) Abu Bakr (Ibn Abu Shaibah) ya fada a cikin Hadisin sa: "Ku kirga yawan ranakun cikin watan, sannan kuyi wanka ku rufe suttukanku da mayafi kuma ku yi sallah."

Hadisi na 637 : "Na kasance tare da Manzon Allah (saw) a karkashin bargo, sannan na ji cewa ina yin haila kamar yadda mata suke yi, don haka sai na tsallake daga karkashin murfin. Manzon Allah (saw) yace: "Shin kuna haila?" Na ce: 'Ina jin cewa ni mai haila ce kamar yadda mata suke yi.' Ya ce: "Abin da Allah Ya rub hasta wa ofya theyan .damu." Don haka na tsallake waje na rarrabe kaina, sannan na dawo, sai Manzon Allah (saw) ya ce mini: 'Ka zo karkashin murfin tare da ni,' don haka sai na shiga tare da shi. '"

Hadisi 648 : "A lokacin manzon Allah (s.a.w), mata masu zubar da jini bayan haihuwa (bayan haihuwar) sun kasance suna jira na kwanaki arba'in, kuma mun kasance muna sanya Wars a fuskokinmu saboda tarko."

Hadisi na 491 : "An kawo wani naman daga kafada na tunkiya ga manzon Allah (s.a.w) sai ya ci abinci daga ciki, sannan ya yi salla ba tare da an shafa ruwa ba (don alwala)."

Wadanda suka hada da Hadisai 499, 531, 925, 932.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Hazrath Umme Salma Umme Salma went through trials and tribulations following her conversion to Islam
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Umm Salamah, Umme Salama, Umme Salma, Mother of the Believers, Mother of the Faithfuls
  3. Ibn Hisham note 918. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, p. 793. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. Tabari, Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. (1998). Vol. 39, Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors, p. 175. New York: SUNY Press.
  5. Marriage to a 'past': Parents should not reject a proposal without a good reasons - and being a revert with a past is not an acceptable one
  6. The Verse of Purification in Sunni Sources
  7. The Verse of Purification in Shia Sources