Hadisi

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Littattafan hadisi.

Hadisi ko Hadith (da Larabci حديث), a musulunci an nusfin dukkannin abubuwan da Annabi Muhammad (s.a.w) yayi ko yasa ayi ko akayi a gabansa baice komi ba kuma aka tattarashi a rubuce wannan shine Hadisi.

Ma'anar Hadisi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ma’anar Hadisi:Yana da ma’anoni guda biyu,ma’anarsa a luggace da kuma ma’anarsa a is]ilahance.To abinda ya shafemu anan shine ma’anarsa a is]ilahance,wato ma’anarsa a mahanga ta malaman Hadisi.A wajensu ma’anar Hadisi shine Hikaito Fa]ar Manzon Allah[S] Aikinsa da kuma Tabbatarwarsa.wato yaga abu ko yaji abu bai ce komai ba.Wannan a Ta’arifi na malaman hadisi na Ahlul Sunnah wato Sunni Islam. Amma a Ta’arifi na malaman hadisi na Shi'a,hadisi yana nufin Hikaito Fa]ar Ma’asum,Aikinsa da kuma tabbatarwarsa.Wato abinda aka hikaito daga Manzon Allah[S] da kuma Aimma na Ahlul bait[AS]Anan saboda Iiti}adin da mabiya Ahlul-bait suke dashi na cewa Aimma na Ahlul bait Ma’asumaine,saboda haka dukkan zantukansu da ayyukansu da kuma tabbatarwarsu sunna ne.Shi yasa a wannan darasi na Hadisi da za’a dunga gabatarwa lokaci bayan lokaci zamu ga Hadisai masu yawan gaske da aka ruwaito daga wajensu.To tambaya anan minene banbanci tsakanin sunna da hadisi? Sunna itace ainihin fadar Manzon Allah,aikinsa ko tabbatarwarsa,ko kuma na ]aya daga cikin Imaman Ahlul- bait.Shi ko hadisi shine hikaitowa ko ruwaito fadin ko aikin ko kuma tabbatarwar.

Tarihin Rubuta Hadisi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarihin rubuta Hadisi a mahangar shi’a da sunna.Tarihin rubuta hadisi wani abune da Malaman shi’a da sunna suka yi bayanai da kuma rubuce-rubuce akai,kuma ko wannensu da nashi mahangar.Domin a Ahlus-sunna an soma rubutawa da kuma tattara hadisai a lokacin khalifancin Umar dan Abdul-Aziz,yayi khalifanci hijira ta 99 zuwa 101.wannan kuma ya faru ne akan asasin umarninsa da yin hakan.Amma khalifofin da suka gabace shi sun hana,ba wai kawai sun hana rubutawa ba, a’a har hana ya]a hadisai aka yi.Ta yiyu wasu su sha mamaki akan haka,amsa anan shine su karanci Tarihi zasu ga haka dama fiye da haka.domin zasu ga wa]anda suka rubuta hadisai a lokacin Manzon Allah[S] da kuma bayansa aka sa su gogesu,wasu ma }onawa suka yi,kai ta kai ma akwai sahabban da aka tsare a madina,aka hana su fita madinar saboda gudun kada suje su yada hadisai.Su wa]anda suka ]auki wannan mataki hujjarsu itace wai kada mutane su shagaltu da wani abu in ba Alkur’ani ba.kuma shi wannan yun}uri na hana rubuta hadisai na Manzon Allah[S],tun Manzon Allah yana duniya aka fara shi,alal misali akwai wani sahabi mai suna Abdullahi ]an Amru da yake rubutawa amma wasu suka hana shi,har ya kai maganar ga Manzon Allah[S].Kuma idan mutum duk bai san ire-ire wa]annan ba,ai akwai abun da ya auku gab da rasuwar Manzon Allah[S] da ya bu}aci akawo masa takarda da tawada ya rubuta abinda in an bishi ba za’a ~ace ba a bayansa,sai wani daga cikin sahabban dake wajen yace kada a kawo littafin Allah ya ishemu,to mu duba fa Manzon Allah ne zai rubuta da kansa amma aka hana to ina ga wani.Saboda haka a zahirance ana nunawa cewa wai ka da mutane su shagaltu da wani in ba Al}ur’ani ba,Amma a ba]inance wa]anda suka ]auki wannan mataki na hana rubutawa ko ya]a Hadisai na Manzon Allah suna tsoron hadisai da suke bayanin khalifanci ko kuma fifikon Ahlul-bait,domin idan zata bayyana ma mutane ai ga wa]anda Manzon Allah[S] ya bayyana a matsayin khalifofi a bayansa a cikin hadisai to masu khalifanci a lokacin zai kasance ba hujja ga yin khalifcin su.Shi yasa alokacin Mu’awiya ya fito da abun ~aro-~aro yaba da umarnin cewa duk wani hadisi da aka samo daga Imam Ali ko yake bayani dangane da Ahlul bait ko falarsu kada a ya]a shi,kuma duk wanda aka samu ya sa~ama wannan umarni zai ]auki mataki akansa,mutum ya tambayi tarihi zai bashi amsar irin abubuwan da yayi.shi yasa a lokacin idan isnadin hadisi ya tu}e ga Imam Ali[AS] sai kaji ance,an wane,an wane……daga baban Zainab ko baban Hassan yaji daga Manzon Allah,wato ba a bayyana sunan Imam Ali,saboda gudun abunda zai biyo baya,kai wasu ma malaman hadisan ko baban Zainab ko Hasan basa fa]i,sai dai suce daga wani mutum yaji daga Manzon Allah,kuma wani abun mamaki har yanzu a littafan hadisai na Ahlus-sunna idan mutum na karantawa jefi-jefi zai ci karo da irin wa]annan hadisai wanda a }arshen isnadin kaga ance daga wani mutum ko baban Zainab yaji daga Manzon Allah.Kuma in mutum ya duba tarihi zai ga cewa lokacin da khalifan Abbasawa mai suna Mansur ya bu}aci Malik ]an Anas wato shugaban mazhabar malikiyya da ya rubuta littafi na hadisi,wanda da ya rubuta yasa masa suna muwa]]a,to daga cikin shara]in da ya gindaya masa shine kada ya kawo hadisai da aka samo daga Imam Ali,mutum na iya bincika muwa]]a yaga hadisai guda nawa ne aka samo daga Imam Ali.Saboda haka tattara hadisai da rubuta su a matsayin littafi bai auku ba a Ahlus-sunna sai a cikin }arni na biyu,kuma in mutum yayi bincike zai ga cewa mafi yawan malaman Ahlus-sunna sun bayyana cewa littafin Hadisi na farko da aka soma rubutawa shine Muwa]]a.To amma idan muka juya a ~angaren shi’a zamu ga akasin haka,in mutum yayi bincike zai ga yadda Aimma na Ahlul bait suka rubuta kuma suka karfafa mabiyansu ga rubuta hadisai na Manzon Allah[S].Farkon wanda ya soma rubuta hadisai na Manzon Allah[S] da kuma tattara su shine Sayyadina Aliyu AS. kuna yayi haka ne da umarnin Manzon Allah[S].Akwai ma manyan littafai na hadisai guda biyu da Aimma[AS] suka gada daga wajen Imam Ali[AS] mai son ganin sunayen littafan da kuma abubuwan da suka }umsa,ya duba littafi mai suna “Ma’alimul-madrasataini” juz’i na biyu.Bayan haka kuma akwai Mus’hafi Fatima wanda abin da ke cikinsa shine Hadisai da sayyida Fadima[AS] taji,musamman ma na abubuwan da zasu auku,amma abun mamaki daga wasu sashen Musulmi na rashin adalci da kuma jahiltar me ake nufi da mushafi Fatima,sai suna kazafin cewa WAI mus’hafi Fatima wani Al-kur’ani ne.Na farko duk wanda zai ce maka wasu na da wani Al-kur'ani,wannan ya nuna lalle bai fahimci ayar da take cewa, “Mune muka saukar da Ambato kuma lalle mune masu kare shi”Allah[T] ya kare Alkur’ani ta ko wace fuska,wato na ayi masa }ari ko ragi ballantana kuma wai a kir kire shi.mai wannan tunanin, haka ya nuna jahilcinsa da kuma wautarsa.Na biyu wasu kalmomi a larabci wani lokaci ana amfani da su a ma’anarsu ta lugga ko is]ilahi,saboda haka ya daganta,misali anan mus’hafi fa]ima,Mus’haf anan da nufin ma’anarsa ta lugga ba wai is]ilahi ba.Saboda haka idan mutum yaji ko ya karanta ire-ire wa]annan kalmomi sai ya bincika ana nufin ma’ana ta lugga ko is]ilahi.Ba gashi an yi bayanin ma’anar hadisi da sunna a is]ilahin malaman hadisi,amma in da za a duba ma’anarsu a luggace zamu ga ai ba haka bane,misali ma’anar sunna a luggace shine hanya,ma’anar kuma hadisi a luggace shine Labari.Na ukku idan zaka yi hukunci ga wasu mutane kan wani abu da aka jingina masu,to adalci da kuma ilimi shine ka bincika littafansu kaga haka ne?Shi yasa anan muna kira ga yan’uwanmu musulmi Ahlus sunna,na duk wani abu da suka ji ko suka karanta wa]anda aka jingina ma shi’a,da su bincika a littafan shi’a su ga haka ne ko ba haka ba.ko wannan mus’hafi Fa]ima ga mai bu}atar bayani akansa ya duba littafin ma’alim da aka ambata a sama.zai ga yadda malamin ya kawo wani hadisi daga Imam Sadi}[AS] dangane da mus’hafi Fatima,yake cewa, “Acikinsa babu wata aya ta Alkur’ani,ko hukunce-hukunce na halal da haram,abinda ke cikinsa ilimi ne na abubuwan da zasu kasance,har ya cika da cewa wallahi ba Alkur’ani bane.”Haka nan kuma Imam Ali[AS] shine farkon wanda ya tattara Alkur’ani a waje guda,in mutum ma ya bincika zai ga cewa abinda Imam Ali ya soma yi bayan wafatin Manzon Allah[S] shine tattara Alkur’ani,Amma mu duba yadda a ]aya ~angaren aka jirkita abun aka mai da shi lokacin Usman ]an Affan.Abubuwa da yawa makamantan haka sun faru,wasu aka jirkita su wasu kuma aka ~oye,wanda sai mutum ya bincika a ~angaren Ahlul bait zai ga ha}i}a.Akwai wani hadisi A cikin muwa]]a Malik mai ban tsoro kuma abin tsokaci ga masu tunani,Hadisin shine bayan ya}in Uhud sahabban da suka yi shahada bayan an kammala jana’izarsu sai Manzon Allah[S] yace ga su shuhada na uhud:Wa]annan zan yi masu shaida,sai Abubakar yace ya Manzon Allah mu ba yan’uwansu bane,mun musulunta kamar yadda suka musulunta,mun yi jihadi kamar yadda suka yi jihadi?sai Manzon Allah[S] yace haka ne,Sai dai ban san mi zaku yi a bayana ba,jin haka sai Abubakar ya face da kuka.cikon hadisin yake cewa zamu kasance a bayan ka ne.To idan mutum ya duba sharhin muwa]]a mai suna Tanwirul-Hawalik,wajen sharhin wa]annan zan yi masu shaida sai malamin yace: Ai zan yi masu shaida ga Imani sahihi da kuma rashin canzawa da kuma rashin gogoriyo ga neman duniya,da makamantansu.Idan mutum na son yaga wannan Hadisi cikin muwa]]a sai ya duba Kitabul-jihad fasalin dake Magana kan shuhada’u fi sabilillah.Wannan hadisi ya nuna abubuwa zasu faru bayan wafatin Manzon Allah[S],kuma lalle sun faru musammam ga Ahlu baitinsa da kuma mabiyansu,kai da ma Hadisan Manzon Allah[S].Da mutum zai yi bincike kan irin jarabawowin da wasu daga cikin masu ruwaito hadisai suka fuskanta a hannun masu tafi da iko a daular bani umayya da Abbasawa dama gabanin haka ta fuskoki dabam-dabam da ya sha mamaki. A ta}aice dai mabiya Ahlul bait sun riga mabiya Ahlus sunna wajen rubuta hadisai,Wato saboda hani da su Ahlus-sunna suka bi daga masu tafi da iko na hana rubuta hadisai da kuma ya]a su.wai saboda hujjar kada a ha]a wani abu da Al}ur’ani,alhali in mutum ya duba zai ga cewa ba yadda za’a yi ka fahimci Al}ur’an in ba tare da hadisi ba,domin hadisi shi yake fassara abubuwan da suke dunkule na Alkur'ani.