Yasser Arafat

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Yasser Arafat
Q117225148 Fassara

16 Mayu 1996 - 9 ga Augusta, 1998
Q89826759 Fassara - Q25454025 Fassara
President of the Palestinian National Authority (en) Fassara

5 ga Yuli, 1994 - 11 Nuwamba, 2004 - Rawhi Fattouh (en) Fassara
1. president of the State of Palestine (en) Fassara

2 ga Afirilu, 1989 - 11 Nuwamba, 2004
← no value - Mahmoud Abbas
Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (en) Fassara

4 ga Faburairu, 1969 - 29 Oktoba 2004
Yahya Hammuda (en) Fassara - Mahmoud Abbas
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات
Haihuwa Kairo, 4 ga Augusta, 1929
ƙasa State of Palestine
Mazauni Mughrabi Quarter (en) Fassara
Ƙabila Larabawa
Harshen uwa Larabci
Mutuwa Clamart (en) Fassara, 11 Nuwamba, 2004
Makwanci Mukataa (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa  (cerebral hemorrhage (en) Fassara
autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (en) Fassara)
Ƴan uwa
Abokiyar zama Suha Arafat (en) Fassara  (17 ga Yuli, 1990 -  11 Nuwamba, 2004)
Ahali Khadija Arafat (en) Fassara da Fathi Arafat (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Cairo University (en) Fassara
(1944 - 1950) Digiri : civil engineering (en) Fassara
Harsuna Larabci
Turanci
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa da civil engineer (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Aikin soja
Digiri commander-in-chief (en) Fassara
Ya faɗaci Yaƙin Larabawa-Isra'ila 1948
Imani
Addini Mabiya Sunnah
Jam'iyar siyasa Fatah
IMDb nm0032715

Mohammed Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (4 Agusta 1929 - 11 Nuwamba 2004), wanda aka fi sani da Yasser Arafat / / ˈæ rə fæt / ARR ARR -fat, also US : / ˈɑːr ə f ɑː t / AR -ə- FAHT ; Larabci: محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني‎, romanized: Muḥammad Yāsir ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʻAbd al-Raʼūf ʿArafāt al-Qudwa al-Ḥusaynī </link> ‎ Larabci: ياسر عرفات‎, romanized: Yāsir ʿArafāt </link> ) ko ta kunyansa Abu Ammar ( Larabci: أبو عمار‎, romanized: ʾAbū ʿAmmār </link> ), ya kasance shugaban siyasar Falasdinu. Ya kasance shugaban kungiyar 'yantar da Falasdinu (PLO) daga 1969 zuwa 2004 kuma shugaban hukumar Palasdinawa ta kasa (PNA) daga 1994 zuwa 2004. A akidar Larabawa mai kishin kasa kuma mai ra'ayin gurguzu, ya kasance memba na kafa jam'iyyar siyasa ta Fatah, wanda ya jagoranci daga 1959 zuwa 2004[1]

An haifi Arafat ga iyayen Falasdinawa a birnin Alkahira na kasar Masar, inda ya shafe mafi yawan kuruciyarsa kuma ya yi karatu a jami'ar sarki Fu'ad na daya . Yayin da yake dalibi, ya rungumi ra'ayin kishin kasa na Larabawa da kyamar sahyoniya . Ya yi adawa da kafa kasar Isra'ila a shekarar 1948, ya yi yaki tare da 'yan uwa musulmi a lokacin yakin Larabawa da Isra'ila na 1948 . Bayan fatattakar sojojin Larabawa, Arafat ya koma birnin Alkahira ya kuma zama shugaban kungiyar daliban Falasdinu daga 1952 zuwa 1956.

A karshen shekarun 1950, Arafat ya kafa kungiyar Fatah, wata kungiya mai zaman kanta da ke neman a kawar da Isra'ila tare da maye gurbinta da kasar Falasdinu. Fatah dai na gudanar da ayyukanta ne a cikin kasashen larabawa da dama, inda daga nan ne ta kaddamar da hare-hare a kan yankunan Isra'ila. A karshen shekarun 1960 bayanan Arafat ya karu; a shekarar 1967 ya shiga kungiyar 'yantar da 'yancin Falasdinu (PLO) sannan a shekarar 1969 aka zabe shi a matsayin shugaban majalisar Palasdinawa ta PNC. Kasancewar Fatah a kasar Jordan ya haifar da fadan soji da gwamnatin Sarki Hussein na Jordan sannan a farkon shekarun 1970 ta koma Lebanon. A can, Fatah ta taimaka wa kungiyar gwagwarmaya ta Lebanon a lokacin yakin basasar Lebanon tare da ci gaba da kai hare-hare a kan Isra'ila, wanda ya haifar da kungiyar ta zama babbar manufar mamayewar Isra'ila a lokacin rikicin kudancin Lebanon na 1978 da yakin 1982

Daga shekarar 1983 zuwa 1993 Arafat ya kafa kansa a kasar Tunisiya, inda ya fara canza salonsa daga fayyace bayyani da Isra'ilawa zuwa tattaunawa. A cikin 1988, ya amince da haƙƙin Isra'ila na wanzuwa kuma ya nemi hanyar warware rikicin Isra'ila da Falasdinu . A cikin 1994, ya koma Falasdinu, inda ya zauna a birnin Gaza tare da inganta mulkin kai ga yankunan Falasdinawa . Ya shiga tattaunawa da gwamnatin Isra'ila don kawo karshen rikicin da ke tsakaninta da PLO. Waɗannan sun haɗa da taron Madrid na 1991, Yarjejeniyar Oslo ta 1993 da taron 2000 Camp David . Nasarar tattaunawar da aka yi a Oslo ta kai ga baiwa Arafat lambar yabo ta zaman lafiya ta Nobel tare da firaministan Isra'ila Yitzhak Rabin da Shimon Peres a shekarar 1994. A lokacin, goyon bayan Fatah a tsakanin Falasdinawa ya ragu saboda karuwar Hamas da sauran masu adawa da ita. A karshen shekarar 2004, bayan da sojojin Isra'ila suka tsare shi sama da shekaru biyu a gidansa na Ramallah, Arafat ya fada cikin suma kuma ya mutu. Yayin da ake ci gaba da cece-ku-ce kan musabbabin mutuwar Arafat, binciken da kungiyoyin Rasha da na Faransa suka gudanar ya tabbatar da cewa babu wani mugun wasa da aka yi. [2]

Arafat ya ci gaba da zama mutum mai jayayya. Palasdinawa gaba daya suna kallonsa a matsayin shahidi da ke nuna muradin kasa na al'ummarsa. Isra'ilawa sun dauke shi a matsayin dan ta'adda. [3] [4] [5] [6] Abokan hamayyar Falasdinawa, ciki har da masu kishin Islama da wasu masu ra'ayin kishin PLO, akai-akai suna sukan shi a matsayin mai cin hanci da rashawa ko kuma mai biyayya a cikin rangwamensa ga gwamnatin Isra'ila.

Rayuwar farko, ilimi da rayuwar sirri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haihuwa da kuruciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Arafat a birnin Alkahira na kasar Masar. [7] Mahaifinsa, Abdel Raouf al-Qudwa al-Husseini, Bafalasdine ne daga birnin Gaza, mahaifiyarsa, kakar mahaifin Yasser, 'yar kasar Masar ce. Mahaifin Arafat ya yi yaƙi a kotunan Masar na tsawon shekaru 25 don neman ƙasar iyali a Masar a matsayin wani ɓangare na gadonsa amma bai yi nasara ba. Ya yi aiki a matsayin ɗan kasuwan masaku a gundumar Sakakini da ke hade da addini ta Alkahira. Arafat shine ƙarami na biyu a cikin yara bakwai kuma shine, tare da ƙanensa Fathi, zuriya ɗaya tilo da aka haifa a Alkahira. Urushalima ita ce gidan mahaifiyarsa, Zahwa Abul Saud, wadda ta mutu daga ciwon koda a 1933, lokacin Arafat yana da shekaru hudu. [8]

Ziyarar Arafat ta farko zuwa Kudus ta zo ne lokacin da mahaifinsa, bai iya renon yara bakwai shi kaɗai ba, ya aika Yasser da ɗan’uwansa Fathi zuwa ga dangin mahaifiyarsu a cikin Quarter Mughrabi na tsohon birni . A can suka zauna tare da kawun su Salim Abul Saudat tsawon shekaru hudu. A shekara ta 1937, mahaifinsu ya tuna da su don ’yar’uwarsu, Inam ta kula da su. Arafat ya samu tabarbarewar alaka da mahaifinsa; lokacin da ya rasu a shekara ta 1952, Arafat bai halarci jana'izar ba, kuma bai ziyarci kabarin mahaifinsa ba a lokacin da ya koma Gaza. 'Yar'uwar Arafat Inam ta bayyana a wata hira da ta yi da marubucin tarihin Arafat, masanin tarihin Birtaniya Alan Hart, cewa mahaifin Arafat ya sha da kyar a hannun mahaifinsa saboda ya je unguwar Yahudawa a birnin Alkahira da kuma halartar ayyukan addini. Da ta tambayi Arafat me ya sa ba zai daina tafiya ba, sai ya amsa da cewa yana son ya yi nazarin tunanin Yahudawa. [9]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 1944 Arafat ya shiga Jami'ar Sarki Fu'ad na daya kuma ya kammala a 1950.

A jami'a, ya shiga tattaunawa da yahudawa da karanta wallafe-wallafen Theodor Herzl da wasu fitattun sahyoniyawan sahyoniya. [10] A shekara ta 1946 ya kasance dan kishin kasa na Larabawa kuma ya fara siyan makaman da za a shigo da su cikin tsohon wajabcin Burtaniya na Falasdinu, don amfani da rashin bin ka'ida a cikin Babban Kwamitin Larabawa da Sojojin Yaki Mai Tsarki . [11]

Bayan ya koma jami'a, Arafat ya karanci injiniyan farar hula sannan ya zama shugaban kungiyar daliban Falasdinawa (GUPS) daga 1952 zuwa 1956. A shekararsa ta farko a matsayin shugaban kungiyar, jami'ar ta koma Jami'ar Alkahira bayan juyin mulkin da kungiyar 'yan ta'adda ta yi wa Sarki Farouk I. A lokacin, Arafat ya kammala karatun digiri na farko a fannin injiniyan jama'a, kuma an kira shi ya yi yaƙi da sojojin Masar a lokacin rikicin Suez ; duk da haka, a zahiri bai taɓa yin yaƙi ba. Daga baya waccan shekarar, a wani taro a Prague, ya ba da wani m farin keffiyeh - daban-daban daga fishnet-tsarin wanda ya dauko daga baya a Kuwait, wanda zai zama alamarsa. [12]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Helena Cobban (before Yasser Arafat's marriage): "Yasser Arafat is not married, but is called 'Abu 'Ammar' as an inversion of the name of the heroic early Muslim warrior 'Ammar bin ('son of) Yasser. The idea, presumably, that if Yasser Arafat had a son, he would or should be as heroic as the earlier Ammar [ibn Yasir]", The Palestinian Liberation Organisation: People, Power and Politics (Cambridge Middle East Library), p. 272, Retrieved 18 January 2021
  2. "Yasser Arafat: French rule out foul play in former Palestinian leader's death". The Guardian. 16 March 2015.
  3. "Yasser Arafat Mausoleum". Alluring World. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  4. As'ad Ghanem Palestinian Politics after Arafat: A Failed National Movement:Palestinian Politics after Arafat, Indiana University Press, 2010 p.259.
  5. Kershner, Isabel (4 July 2012). "Palestinians May Exhume Arafat After Report of Poisoning". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  6. Hockstader, Lee (11 November 2004). "A Dreamer Who Forced His Cause Onto World Stage". The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
  7. Not certain; Disputed; Most sources including Tony Walker, Andrew Gowers, Alan Hart and Said K. Aburish indicate Cairo as Arafat's place of birth, but others list his birthplace as Jerusalem as well as Gaza. See here and here for more information. Some believe also that the Jerusalem birthplace might have been a little known rumor created by the KGB .
  8. "France drops investigation into Arafat's death". The Jerusalem Post. 2 September 2015
  9. "France drops investigation into Arafat's death". The Jerusalem Post. 2 September 2015
  10. "Yasser Arafat: Homeland a dream for Palestinian Authority Chief". CNN News. Cable News Network. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  11. Creed, Richard D. Jr. (2014). Eighteen Years in Lebanon and Two Intifadas: The Israeli Defense Force and the U.S. Army Operational Environment. Pickle Partners Publishing. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-78289-593-0.
  12. As'ad Ghanem Palestinian Politics after Arafat: A Failed National Movement:Palestinian Politics after Arafat, Indiana University Press, 2010 p.259