Turanci a Jamaica

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Turanci a Jamaica
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3
Glottolog da jama1259 jama1265 da jama1259[1]

 

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). da jama1259 "Turanci a Jamaica" Check |chapterurl= value (help). Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

 

turancin jamaica , gami da Jamaican Standard English, iri-iri ne na asalin Ingilishi a Jamaica kuma shine harshen hukuma na ƙasar. Akwai bambanci tsakanin Jamaican English Jamaican Patois (harshe na creole), kodayake ba gaba ɗaya bambanci ne mai zurfi ba kamar yadda yake ci gaba a hankali tsakanin matsananciyar abubuwa biyu. Turanci Jamaica yana bin tarurrukan rubutun Turanci na Burtaniya.

Ilimin zamantakewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jamaican Standard English nau'in Ingilishi ne na Ƙasashen Duniya ( Yaren Ingilishi a Ingila ). Akwai nau'ikan yare da yawa waɗanda suka yi tasiri sosai ga wannan yare na Ingilishi. An shigar da Ingilishi cikin Jamaica a cikin 1655, [1] saboda mulkin mallaka da Birtaniyya ta yi. An yada Turancin Ingilishi ta hanyar ilimin gaba da firamare, da kuma ta hanyar malaman Burtaniya da suka yi hijira zuwa Jamaica. [1] Daidaitaccen Turanci a Jamaica ya haɗu da ƙa'idodin Biritaniya. [2] Mutanen da ke magana da daidaitattun nau'ikan ana ɗaukar su a matsayin mafi girman ajin zamantakewa. [1] Hakanan, Ingilishi na Amurka ya ba da gudummawa ga yaren Ingilishi na Jamaica. Ana iya samun waɗannan tasirin zuwa haɓaka ƙaƙƙarfan alaƙar zamantakewa da tattalin arziƙi tare da Amurka, shaharar abubuwan ba da al'adun Amurka, gami da fina-finai, kiɗa, wasan kwaikwayo na talabijin da wasan ban dariya da yawon shakatawa. [3] Patois na Jamaica wani tushen tasiri ne akan Ingilishin Jamaica. [2] Yawancin gidajen karkara Patois ne na yare ɗaya.

Nahawu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duk da Haɗin Turancin Jamaican da aka haɗa tare da Yaren Ma'auni na Biritaniya, akwai manyan kamanceceniya tsakanin nahawu, ƙamus, da ƙamus. [2]

Fassarar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Siffofin lafazin daidaitattun lafazin Ingilishi na Jamaica, sun haɗa da sifa da sifar lafazin /aʊ/</link> diphthong a cikin kalmomi kamar , wanda galibi ya fi rufewa da zagaye [ɵʊ]</link> fiye da Karɓi Pronunciation ko Gabaɗaya Ba'amurke ; da lafazin da  wasali /ʌ/</link> ku [ɵ~o]</link> (sake, ƙarin rufewa da zagaye fiye da Lardi da aka karɓa na Biritaniya ko nau'ikan Amurkawa na gaba ɗaya ); da kuma yanayin da ba a saba da shi ba na " sauyi mai canzawa". [4]

Rashin furucin (lafazin "r" babu ko'ina sai kafin wasula) ya bambanta sosai a cikin Ingilishi na Jamaica kuma yana iya dogara da yanayin sauti da ma zamantakewa. [5] Lafazin Turanci na Jamaican sune: marasa rhotic dangane da kalmomin  saitin lexical (a ƙarshen kalmomin da ba a sanya su ba); rhotic (watau cikakken kiyaye sautin "r") dangane da kalmomin  da  ya kafa; high zuwa tsakiyar digiri na rhoticity game da  , , kuma  sets; da ƙananan game da rhoticity tare da yawancin sauran saitin kalmomi. [6] Lokacin da "r" ke biye da baƙar fata, rashin rhoticity yana yiwuwa fiye da lokacin da "r" ba a bi da baƙon ba. [7] Koyaya, gabaɗayan ƙarin rhoticity yana da alaƙa da alaƙa da manyan matakan ilimi. An dangana wannan ga tsarin ilimin Jamaican yana daidaitawa da haɓaka nau'ikan Turanci iri-iri. [8] Don haka, gabaɗayan digiri na rhoticity a cikin ƙwararrun Ingilishi na Jamaica ya ragu sosai, tare da rhoticity yana faruwa 21.7% na lokaci. [9]

Haɗuwar diphthongs a cikin "daidai" da "tsoro" yana faruwa duka a cikin Jamaican Standard English da Jamaican Patois, wanda ya haifar da waɗannan kalmomi guda biyu (da wasu da yawa, kamar "bear" da "giya") sau da yawa suna zama homophones : sautin kasancewa [eːɹ]</link> , ko da yake sau da yawa [iɛɹ]</link> (wani abu kamar "ee-air"; don haka "bear / giya" a matsayin "kudan zuma-air").

Gajeren sautin "a" ( , mutum, hula, da sauransu) a buɗe take sosai [a]</link> , kama da nau'ikansa na Irish, yayin da  , , kuma  duka suna amfani da wannan sauti iri ɗaya kuma, amma tsayi, kuma watakila ɗan goyan baya; [10] wannan bambanci na iya kula da London-kamar&nbsp; . Duka  da  amfani da zagaye [ɔ]</link> , ko da yake haɗaɗɗen gadon gado an ƙaurace masa ta hanyar ƙara tsayin saitin kalmomi; [11] duk da haka, a zahiri, cikakkiyar haɗuwa (na  ) ana ba da rahoto yana ƙaruwa cikin yanayi na yau da kullun. [12] Ga masu magana da Patois na Jamaica, wasalin da aka haɗa ya yi ƙasa da ƙasa. AWAKI da  wasulan a cikin daidaitaccen yare na ilimi dogayen monophthongs ne: bi da bi [oː]</link> kuma [eː]</link> . [11] schwa phoneme mara damuwa (  ) ya bayyana ana samar da shi kullum a cikin yankin [a~ɐ]</link> . [13]

Kafin ƙaramin wasali na tsakiya [a]</link> , ma'aurata [k]</link> kuma [ɡ]</link> za a iya gane shi tare da palalisation, ta yadda cat za a iya furta [k h a ~ kjat] da kati kamar [k h a: d ~ kja: d]); yayin da [ɡ] da [ɡj] suka kasance tare, kamar yadda yake cikin rata [ɡap ~ ɡjap] ko gadi [ɡa: (ɹ) d ~ ɡja: (ɹ) d]. Waɗannan bambance-bambancen wayoyi ne daban-daban a cikin Patois na Jamaica kafin [a]: [ɡja:dn̩] lambu ne yayin da [ɡa:dn̩] Gordon ne; [kja:f] maraƙi ne yayin da [ka:f] yana tari . Ba nau'ikan wayoyi daban-daban bane a Jamaica Turanci saboda ana bambanta waɗannan kalmomin nau'ikan ta hanyar wasali ([a] vs [ɔ]) maimakon. Koyaya, wannan gaskiyar ba ta hana masu magana da ilimi haɗa [kj] a cikin Turancin su aƙalla kafin “a” ba. Koyaya, tsayin wasali na iya zama abin da ya dace, tunda yana yiwuwa a ji nau'i kamar [kjat]</link> don cat, [kjaɹɪ]</link> don ɗaukar kaya, [kjaɹaktʌ]</link> ga hali, da [kjaɹɪbiǝn]</link> na Caribbean, amma masu wadata ko masu son masu magana na aji suna son gujewa [kja:ɹ]</link> ga mota saboda tsayin wasali. [14] [15]

Presumably less-educated Jamaican Patois speakers may speak English with several other notable features, including a Samfuri:Sc2 merger (e.g. with rat and rot homophones) to [ɔ] and a <span data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:false}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;sc2&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./Template:Sc2&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;PRIZE&amp;ndash;CHOICE&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mw1Q" typeof="mw:Transclusion"> </span> merger (e.g. with line and loin homophones) to [ɔi]. Th-stopping is also common.

Ɗaya daga cikin fitattun sautunan Ingilishi na Caribbean ga masu magana da yarukan Ingilishi na waje shine keɓancewar sa da sautin sauti. Masana ilimin harshe suna muhawara ko wannan tsarin ya ta'allaka ne akan damuwa, sauti, ko cakuduwar da su biyun suke mu'amala. Wani lokaci, Turancin Jamaican ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin kiyaye ƙarancin bambanci tsakanin maɗaukakiyar maɗaukaki da rashin ƙarfi, ma'ana, yin duk ma'anar sauti daidai-daidai: don haka dafa abinci ba /ˈkɪtʃɪn/</link> yadda /kɪtʃɪn/</link> (wataƙila ma wanda ba ɗan Caribbean ya gane shi yana da damuwa mai magana ta biyu: /kɪˈtʃɪn/</link> ). A cikin Ingilishi na Jamaica, yawanci ba a rage yawan wasulan turanci a wasu lokuta, wasu lokutan kuma ana rage su sosai, don haka ba a rage yawan wasulan ba *[ˈtuokn̩]</link> amma [ˈtuoken]</link> , duk da haka siminti za a iya rage kamar yadda [sment]</link> ; Hakanan ana ta muhawara sosai game da ainihin ƙa'idodin ƙa'idodin da ke wasa a nan.

Amfani da Harshe: Jamaican Standard Turanci da Patois[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jamaican Standard English da Jamaican Patois sun kasance tare a ci gaba da jawabin bayan-creaole . Jamaika (Creole/Patois) yawancin mutane suna amfani da shi don yau da kullun, yanayi na yau da kullun - shi ne yaren da yawancin jama'ar Jamaica ke amfani da shi a gida kuma sun fi sani da shi, da kuma yaren mafi yawan mashahuran kiɗan gida. An fara amfani da Patois dan Jamaica a rediyo da labarai. [16] Standard English, a daya bangaren, shi ne harshen ilimi, high al'adu, gwamnati, kafofin watsa labarai da hukuma / na yau da kullum sadarwa. Har ila yau, yaren asali ne na ƴan tsirarun ƴan Jamaica (yawanci babba da babba/tsakiyar gargajiya). Yawancin masu magana da Creole suna da kyakkyawan umarni na Ingilishi da Ingilishi daidai, ta hanyar makaranta da fallasa al'adun hukuma da kafofin watsa labarai; Ƙwarewar karɓar su (fahimtar Standard English) yawanci sun fi ƙwarewar haɓakarsu (maganganun Turanci daidai da nasu na yau da kullun suna nuna alamun tasirin Jamaican Creole).

Yawancin rubuce-rubuce a Jamaica ana yin su da Ingilishi (ciki har da bayanan sirri da wasiku). Patois na Jamaican yana da daidaitattun rubutun kalmomi kuma, [17] amma kwanan nan an koyar da shi a wasu makarantu, don haka yawancin jama'ar Jamaica za su iya karantawa da rubuta Harshen Turanci kawai, kuma suna da matsala wajen tantance rubutaccen Patois (wanda marubucin ya yi ƙoƙari ya nuna hali. sifofi da lafuzza zuwa digiri daban-daban, ba tare da ɓata karatu ba). Rubuce-rubucen Patois ya bayyana galibi a cikin adabi, musamman a cikin “waqoqin yare” na al’ada; a cikin ginshiƙan jaridu masu ban dariya; kuma a kwanan baya, akan shafukan taɗi na intanit waɗanda ƙanana ƴan Jamaica ke yawan zuwa, waɗanda da alama suna da ɗabi'a mai kyau game da amfani da harshensu fiye da iyayensu. [18]

Duk da yake, saboda sauƙi, al'ada ce  don bayyana jawabin Jamaica a cikin ma'auni na Turanci daidai da Jamaican Creole, ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun bayanai ba ya bayyana ainihin amfani da harshe na yawancin Jamaicans.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2011)">matsananci</span> ] "fadi Patois" a ƙarshen bakan, da "cikakke" Standard English akan ɗayan-akwai iri-iri a tsakanin iri-iri. Wannan yanayin yana haifar da yawanci lokacin da yaren Creole ke cikin hulɗa akai-akai tare da Ingancin Ingilishi (harshen maɗaukaki ko lexifier) kuma ana kiran shi ci gaba da magana ta creole . Mafi ƙarancin daraja (mafi yawan Creole) iri-iri ana kiransa basilect ; Standard English (ko babban daraja) iri-iri, da acrolect ; kuma a tsakanin sigogin ana kiransu mesolects .

Yi la'akari, alal misali, waɗannan siffofin:

  • "im/(h)ihn de/da/a wok úoba désò" (basilect)
  • "I workin ova deso" (low mesolect)
  • "(H) e (h) yana aiki a kan dere" (high mesolect)
  • "Yana aiki a can." (acrolect)

(Kamar yadda aka ambata a sama, "r" a cikin "over" ba a furta shi a kowace iri-iri, amma wanda yake cikin "dere" ko "akwai" akwai.)

Jama'ar kasar suna zabar irin nau'in da ake da su bisa ga halin da ake ciki. Mai magana mai rinjaye na Creole zai zaɓi mafi girma iri-iri don lokatai na yau da kullun kamar kasuwanci na hukuma ko jawabin bikin aure, da ƙarami don alaƙa da abokai; Madaidaicin mai magana da Ingilishi-mafi rinjaye yana yiwuwa ya yi amfani da ƙananan iri-iri lokacin sayayya a kasuwa fiye da wurin aikinsu. Canza lamba kuma na iya zama metacommunicative (kamar lokacin da madaidaicin mai magana ya canza zuwa nau'in da ya fi tasiri mai ƙarfi a cikin ƙoƙari na ban dariya ko don bayyana haɗin kai).

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Lafazin yanki na masu magana da Ingilishi
  • Harshen ƙasa

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Kate Invalid |url-status=Kortmann (help); Check date values in: |access-date= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Empty citation (help)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Empty citation (help)
  3. Rosenfelder, Ingrid (2009). "Sociophonetic variation in educated Jamaican English: An analysis of the spoken component of ICE-Jamaica" (PDF). PhD dissertation, University of Freiburg.
  4. Rosenfelder, 2009, p. 81.
  5. Rosenfelder, 2009, p. 95.
  6. Rosenfelder, 2009, p. 89.
  7. Rosenfelder, 2009, pp. 93, 176.
  8. Irvine-Sobers, G. Alison (2018). "The acrolect in Jamaica: The architecture of phonological variation" (Studies in Caribbean Languages 1). Berlin: Language Science Press. p. 53
  9. Rosenfelder, Ingrid (2009). "Rhoticity in Educated Jamaican English: An analysis of the spoken component of ICE-Jamaica." p. 68.
  10. Rosenfelder, 2009, p. 146.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Devonish 2004 460
  12. Rosenfelder, 2009, pp. 145, 147.
  13. Rosenfelder, 2009, pp. 139-140.
  14. Irving-Sobers, G. Alison, 2018, pp. 45-46.
  15. Irving-Sober, G. Alison (1994). "Dialect Variation in Jamaican English: A Study of the Phonology of Social Group Marking". English World-Wide, Volume 15(1). p. 69.
  16. Empty citation (help)
  17. Dynamics of orthographic standardisation in Jamaican Creole and Nigerian Pidgin, Dagmar Deuber and Lars Hinrichs, World Englishes 26, No. 1 (February 2007), pp. 22–47, doi:10.1111/j.1467-971X.2007.00486.x.
  18. Lars Hinrichs (2006), Codeswitching on the Web: English and Jamaican Patois in E-Mail Communication. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.