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Yaren Tofa

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Tofa
Toъfa Dыл
Yadda ake furta shi [ d̪ɯl̪]
'Yan asalin ƙasar  Rasha
Yankin Yankin Irkutsk
Ƙabilar Ba za a iya amfani da shi ba
Masu magana da asali
93 (ƙidayar jama'a ta 2010) [1] 
Turkiyya
Lambobin harshe
ISO 639-3 kim
Glottolog kara1462
tofa1248
ELP Tofa
  Tuha[3]
Wannan labarin ya ƙunshi alamomin sauti na IPA. Ba tare da goyon baya fassarar da ta dace ba, zaku iya ganin Unicode_block)#Replacement_character" rel="mw:WikiLink" title="Specials (Unicode block)">Alamun tambaya, akwatuna, ko wasu alamomi maimakon haruffa na Unicode. Don jagorar gabatarwa akan alamomin IPA, duba Taimako: IPA .

Tofa, wanda aka fi sani da Tofalar ko Karagas, yare ne na Turkic wanda ke mutuwa wanda Tofalars ke magana a Yankin Irkutsk na Rasha. Kimanin kwanan nan ga masu magana ya gudana daga mutane 93 zuwa kasa da 40.

Rarraba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tofa yana da alaƙa da Harshen Tuvan [4] [daidaitaccen tabbatarwa] kuma yana samar da ci gaba da yaren tare da shi. Tuha da Tsengel Tuvan na iya zama yarukan ko dai Tuvan ko Tofa. Tofa tana da siffofi da yawa tare da waɗannan harsuna, gami da adana *d a matsayin /d/ (kamar yadda a cikin Hodan "hare" - kwatanta Uzbek quyon) da ci gaban sautuna masu ƙasƙanci a kan gajerun wasula na tarihi (kamar a cikin *et > èt "nama, nama").

[5]Alexander Vovin (2017) ya lura cewa Tofa da sauran yarukan Turkic na Siberiya, musamman Sayan Turkic, suna da kalmomin aro na Yeniseian.

Yankin ƙasa da rarraba yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tarihin Tarihi na Tofalaria

Tofa, waɗanda aka fi sani da Tofalar ko Karagas, 'Yan asalin ƙasar ne da ke zaune a kudu maso yammacin Irkutsk Oblast, a Rasha. Yankin da suke zaune an san shi da Tofalariya. A al'adance su ne makiyaya masu kiwon reindeer, suna zaune a kan ko kusa da tsaunukan Sayan na Gabas. Koyaya, kiwon reindeer ya ragu sosai tun daga karni na 20, tare da dangin Tofa guda ɗaya kawai suna ci gaba da aikin As of 2004. [6] Tsohon USSR ta amince da shi a 1926 a matsayin daya daga cikin "Ƙananan Ƙananan Ƙasa na Arewa, " (Russian: ƙarancin ƙwayoyin Arewa, Siberia da Gabas ta Tsakiya) Tofa suna da matsayi na musamman na doka kuma suna karɓar tallafin tattalin arziki daga Rasha. Yawan muta[7] Tofa kusan mutane 750 ne; kusan 5% na yawan jama'a suna magana da Tofa a matsayin yare na farko a shekara ta 2002, (ko da yake wannan adadin ya yiwu ya ragu tun daga lokacin, saboda shekarun masu magana). [6] Kodayake yawan mutanen Tofalaria yana ƙaruwa, yawan kabilun Tofalar yana raguwa.

Tasirin hulɗar harshe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sadarwar harshe - galibi tare da masu magana da Rasha - ya kasance mai yawa tun 1926, lokacin da Tofa ta sami matsayin "Ƙananan Ƙananan Ƙananan Arewa" daga USSR (Russian: ƙarancin ƙwayoyin Arewa, Siberia da Gabas ta Tsakiya) kuma sun sami canje-canje masu mahimmanci na al'adu, zamantakewa, da tattalin arziki. [8] mahimmanci, wannan al'ada mai nomadic, masu kiwon reindeer tun daga lokacin sun zama masu zaman kansu kuma kiwon reineer ya ɓace tsakanin Tofa. Baya ga ziyartar masu karɓar haraji da masu yawon bude ido, wasu 'yan Rasha da yawa sun zo tsaunukan Sayan don rayuwa. [7] ila yau, ƙaura da aure na Rasha sun yi tasiri, bisa ga ambaton Donahoe: "A cikin 1931, daga cikin yawan jama'a a Tofalaria na 551, kusan 420 (76%) Tofa ne, kuma sauran 131 (24%) ba Tofa ba ne, galibi Rasha (Mel'nikova 1994:36 da 231). A shekara ta 1970, yawan mutanen Tofalaria ya karu zuwa 1368, wanda 498 (36%) sun kasance Tofa, kuma 809 (59%) sun ci gaba da Rasha (Sherkhunaev 1975): [6] A cikin waɗannan matakan suna iya zuwa kusan 40). 

Fasahar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sautin sautin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tebur mai zuwa ya lissafa wasula na Tofa. An dauki bayanan ne daga Ilgın da Rassadin . [9]

A gaba Komawa
Takaitaccen Tsawon Lokaci Takaitaccen Tsawon Lokaci
Kusa i, yda kuma iː, yː u="#mwt67" class="IPA" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"IPA link","href":"./Template:IPA_link"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"ɯ"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwbA" lang="und-fonipa" typeof="mw:Transclusion">ɯ, u ɯː, uː
Bude-tsakiya ɛ, ya Eːɛː, œː Owu ɔː
Bude æ ne æː Ƙarshen An samo asali ne daga wannan

Rassadin [9] kuma nuna cewa Tofa yana da ɗan gajeren [ĭ]. Duk sautunan sai dai [æ] za a iya yin amfani da su. A cewar Rassadin [9] ana gane pharyngealization a matsayin murya mai ƙarfi; Harrison da Anderson suna wakiltar wannan fasalin a matsayin sautin ƙasa.

Sautin da aka yi amfani da shi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tebur mai zuwa ya lissafa consonants na Tofa. An dauki bayanan ne daga Ilgın da Rassadin . [9]

  1. Row 223 in Приложение 6: Население Российской Федерации по владению языками [Appendix 6: Population of the Russian Federation by languages used] (XLS) (in Rashanci). Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service).
  2. Elisabetta Ragagnin (2011), Dukhan, a Turkic Variety of Northern Mongolia, Description and Analysis, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden
  3. Endangered Languages Project data for Tuha.
  4. Lars Johanson (1998) "The History of Turkic". In Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (eds) The Turkic Languages. London, New York: Routledge, 81-125. Classification of Turkic languages at Turkiclanguages.com Archived 2011-04-08 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Vovin, Alexander. 2017. "Some Tofalar Etymologies." In Essays in the history of languages and linguistics: dedicated to Marek Stachowski on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Krakow: Księgarnia Akademicka.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Donahoe, Brian Robert (2004) A line in the Sayans: History and divergent perceptions of property among the Tozhu and Tofa of South Siberia. Doctoral Thesis. Indiana University.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Empty citation (help)
  8. Empty citation (help)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Empty citation (help)