Harshen Tuva

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Harshen Tuva
Тыва дыл — Tyva dyl
'Yan asalin magana
297,000 (2010)
Cyrillic script (en) Fassara, Baƙaƙen boko da Tuvan alphabet (en) Fassara
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-2 tyv
ISO 639-3 tyv
Glottolog tuvi1240[1]
A Tuvan speaker
Rubutu a cikin Kyzyl ta amfani da rubutun Turkic

Harshen Tuva (Tuvan: тыва дыл , tıwa dıl) harshe ne na Turkawa da ake magana da shi a Jamhuriyar Tuva da ke Kudu-Tsakiya Siberia a Rasha. Harshen ya aro lambobi da yawa daga yaren Mongoliya, Tibet da yaren Rasha. Akwai ƙananan ƙungiyoyin al'ummomin Tuvan da ke magana da yaruka daban -daban na Tuvan a Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin da Mongoliya.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duk da yake wannan tarihin yana mai da hankali kan galibin mutanen Tuva, masana ilimin harsuna da yawa suna jayayya cewa babu makawa harshe yana da alaƙa da yanayin zamantakewa da tarihin harshe da kansa. Rubutun farko na Tuvan shine daga farkon karni na 19 ta Wūlǐyǎsūtái zhìlüè ( Chinese ) Julius Klaproth 1823, Matthias Castrén 1857, Katanov da Vasily Radlov, da sauransu

Sunan Tuva ya koma tun farkon buga Asirin Tarihin Mongols. Tuva (kamar yadda suke nufin kansu) a tarihi ana kiran su Soyons, Soyots ko Uriankhais. Al'ummar Tuvan sun shafe shekaru dubbai suna mulkin China, Rasha da Mongoliya. Lokacin da suka sami 'yancin kai na kwanan nan shine daga cikin shekara ta1921 zuwa cikin shekara ta 1944, lokacin da aka dauke su Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Tuvan.  

Majiyoyi da yawa sun ce an sami matsanancin tashin hankali tsakanin gwamnatin Tarayyar Soviet/Tarayyar Rasha da shugabanni a cikin ƙasar Tuvan tun a acikin shekara ta 1944, lokacin da Tuva ta rasa 'yancin kanta ga Soviets. A acikin shekara ta 1990, rikici ya barke tsakanin 'yan Tuvans da gwamnatin Rasha. Dangane da binciken da masana kimiyyar zamantakewa Louk Hagendoorn, Edwin Poppe da Anca Minescu suka kammala acikin shekara ta 2008, mutanen Tuvan sun so su kasance masu cin gashin kansu daga Tarayyar Rasha bayan rushewar Tarayyar Soviet. [2] Musamman sun jaddada burinsu na samun 'yancin kai ta fuskar yarensu da al'adunsu. Bincike ya nuna cewa dalilin da ya sa wannan ya danganci son zuciya. Yawancin kabilu da ƙungiyoyin harsuna marasa rinjaye a Rasha suna gasa don albarkatun tattalin arziƙi kuma suna riƙe da matsayin mutum ɗaya, ta hanyar jaddada mahimmancin harshe da al'ada.

Tun cikin shekara ta 2000, Tarayyar Rasha ke ƙoƙarin rage ɗabi'ar rarrabuwar kawuna tsakanin ƙabilu marasa rinjaye a Rasha, amma halin ya ci gaba.

Rarraba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tuvan (wanda kuma aka rubuta Tyvan) an rarrabe shi da harshe a matsayin yaren Arewa maso Gabas ko Siberian Turkic, yana da alaƙa da wasu yarukan Turkic Siberian da suka haɗa da Khakas da Altai . Babban dan uwansa shine Tofa mai mutuwa.

Tuvan, kamar yadda ake magana a Tuva, ya kasu kashi huɗu; Yamma, Tsakiya, Arewa maso Gabas, Kudu maso Gabas.

  • Tsakiya: ya zama tushen harshe na adabi kuma ya haɗa da ƙananan ayyukan Ovyur da Bii-Khem. Tsakiyar yanki na wannan yare yana nufin ya yi kama da yaren da yawancin mutanen Tuvans ke magana, ko dai daidai ne ko a'a.
  • Yammacin: ana iya samun magana kusa da babban titin Khemchik . Yaren Altai ya rinjayi shi.
  • Arewa maso gabas, wanda kuma aka sani da yaren Todzhi, ana magana da shi kusa da babban titin Babban Yenisey . Masu magana da wannan yare suna amfani da keɓancewa. Ya ƙunshi babban ƙamus da ke da alaƙa da farauta da kiwo da ba a samu a cikin wasu yarukan ba.
  • Kudu maso Gabas: yana nuna mafi tasiri daga yarukan Mongolic.

Sauran yarukan sun haɗa da waɗanda Dzungar, Tsengel da Dukha Tuvans ke magana, amma a halin yanzu ba a rubuta cikakkun yarukan da ba a saba gani ba. Akwai yaruka daban -daban na yaren a duk faɗin yankin da ake magana da Tuvan. K. David Harrison, wanda ya kammala digirinsa kan yaren Tuvan a cikin shekara ta 2001, ya bayar da hujjar cewa bambancin waɗannan yaruka yana da alaƙa da yanayin ƙauyen ƙasar Tuvan. Subsaya daga cikin ɓangarorin shine harshen Jungar Tuvan, wanda ya samo asali daga tsaunukan Altai da ke yankin Mongoliya ta yamma. Babu ingantaccen adadin masu magana da Jungar-Tuvan saboda yawancin a halin yanzu suna zaune a China, kuma Sinawa sun haɗa da masu magana da Tuvan a matsayin Mongoliya a cikin ƙidayar su.

Fasaha[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Baƙaƙe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tuvan yana da 19 da 'yan qasar baƙi phonemes :

Waƙoƙin baƙaƙe na Tuvan
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ŋ
Na kusa lenis [lower-alpha 1] p t ɡ
fortis [lower-alpha 1] k
Tashin hankali t͡s [lower-alpha 2] t͡ʃ
Mai rikice -rikice m f [lower-alpha 2] s ʃ x
murya z ʒ
Kusan ʋ l j
Kada ɾ

 

Wasulla[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai wasula a Tuvan a cikin iri uku: gajere, doguwa da gajarta tare da ƙaramin farar ƙasa. Dogon wasali na Tuvan yana da tsawon lokacin da aƙalla (kuma galibi ya fi) sau biyu na tsawon gajerun wasali. Bambancin sautin banbanci na iya faruwa akan gajerun wasali, kuma idan hakan ta faru, yana sa su ƙara tsawon lokaci aƙalla rabi. Lokacin amfani da ƙaramin farar ƙasa, masu magana da Tuvan suna amfani da farar da take a ƙarshen ƙaramin sautin muryoyin su. Ga wasu masu magana, yana da ƙanƙanta da amfani da abin da aka fi sani da sautin murya Lokacin da wasali a cikin kalmar monosyllabic yana da karancin sauti, masu magana suna amfani da ƙaramin farar kawai zuwa rabin farkon wannan wasalin (misali [àt] 'doki') Wannan yana biye da alamar farar sauti, yayin da mai magana ke komawa zuwa yanayin salo a rabi na biyu na wasalin.

Tasirin sautin yana kama da na sautin da ke tashi kamar ƙarar farar sautin muryar Mandarin ta biyu, amma farar Tuvan ta fara ƙasa sosai. Koyaya, ana ɗaukar Tuvan harshe mai lafazi mai ƙarfi tare da ƙaramin sautin banbanci maimakon yaren tonal. Lokacin da ƙaramin harafin farar ya auku a cikin kalmar multisyllabic, babu tashin kwane -kwane ko tasirin tsayi: [àdɯ] 'dokinsa/dokinsa'. Irin wannan low farar vowels aka a baya ake magana a kai a cikin adabi kamar yadda ko dai kargyraa ko pharyngealized vowels. Karatun sautin ya nuna cewa ma’anar sifar irin waɗannan wasalin ita ce ƙaramar murya. Dubi Harrison acikin shekara ta 2001 don nazarin sautin sautin sauti da ƙaramar wasali na Tuvan.

A cikin rubutunta na PhD, "Dogon wasali a cikin kalmomin Mongolic a Tuvan", Baiarma Khabtagaeva ta bayyana cewa tarihin dogon wasulla yana da shubuha. Duk da cewa doguwar wasalin na iya samo asali daga yarukan Mongolic, su ma na iya zama asalin Tuvan. A mafi yawan harsunan Mongolic, ingancin dogon wasalin yana canzawa dangane da ingancin wasali na biyu a haɗe. Iyakar abin da aka keɓe ga wannan ƙa'idar ita ce idan haɗin haɗin ya zama labial. Tsoffin harsunan Tuvan, sabanin haka, sun dogara da wasalin farko maimakon na biyu don tantance dogayen wasali.

Khabtagaeva ya raba canjin waɗannan kalmomin bashi zuwa lokaci biyu: farkon farkon da ƙarshen ƙarshen. Kalmomin da ke cikin farkon layin kalmomi ne waɗanda Mongolic suka adana haɗin haɗin, an kiyaye haɗin VCV amma har yanzu an ci gaba da ƙaramin wasalin lokacin da ya shiga yaren Tuvan, ko damuwar tana kan harafin ƙarshe da dogon wasali a cikin kalmar aro gajeriyar wasali a cikin kalmar asali. Late Layer ya haɗa da kalmomin aro wanda dogon wasali baya canzawa lokacin da kalmar ta shiga Tuvan.

Sautin wasalin Tuvan
Gajarta Doguwa Ƙarar ƙasa
Babba Ƙasa Babba Ƙasa Babba Ƙasa
Gaba Ba a kewaye ba i e ì è
Zagaye y ø øː ø̀
Komawa Ba a kewaye ba ɯ a ɯː ɯ̀ à
Zagaye u o ù ò

Hakanan ana iya samun wasulla a cikin muhallin baƙaƙe na hanci, amma nasalization ba bambanci bane. Yawancin wasali na Tuvan a cikin haruffan farko-farko suna da ƙaramin yanayi kuma ba sa bambanta sosai tare da gajeru da dogayen wasali.

Haɗin wasali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tuvan yana da tsarin jituwa na wasali guda biyu waɗanda ke sarrafa rarrabuwa na wasula a cikin kalmomi da kari. Jituwa ta baya, ko abin da ake kira 'palatal' wani lokaci, yana buƙatar duk wasulan da ke cikin kalma su kasance ko baya ko gaba. Haɗin kai, ko abin da ake kira 'labial' jituwa a wasu lokuta, yana buƙatar a zagaye wasalin idan babban wasali ne kuma ya bayyana a cikin harafi nan da nan bayan wasalin mai zagaye. Ƙuntataccen wasali [ø] [o] an taƙaita shi zuwa farkon harafin kalma, kuma za a iya ƙulla wasalin a cikin harafin da ba na farko ba kawai idan ya cika sharuɗɗan daidaitawa (dole ne duka su kasance babban wasali [y] [u] da wasali mai zagaye gaba da shi). Dubi Harrison acikin shekara ta 2001 don cikakken bayanin tsarin jituwa na wasali na Tuvan.

Nahawu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tuvan yana gina kalmomi masu rikitarwa ta hanyar ƙamus. Alal misali, теве shine 'raƙumi', тевелер shine 'raƙuma', тевелерим shine 'raƙuma na', тевелеримден shine 'daga rakuma na'.

Sunaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tuvan yana alamta sunaye tare da kararraki guda shida: na asali, mai zargi, ɗan asalin ƙasa, ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfar magana Ƙarin bayanan da ke ƙasa suna gaban wasula, duk da haka, sai dai -Je kari ya bi ƙa'idodin jituwa na wasali. Kowace ƙaramar harafi tana da fa'ida iri -iri da ma'anoni iri -iri, kawai mafi mahimmancin amfani da ma'anoni ana nuna su anan.

Allomorphs
Bayan baƙaƙe marasa murya Bayan nasal Bayan wasali da sautin baƙaƙe Bayan
Wanda aka zaɓa -∅
Gaskiya ( -NIŋ ) -тиң -ниң -диң
Mai zargi ( -NI ) -ти -ни -ди
Dative ( -KA ) -ке -ге
Yanki ( -DA ) -де -те
Ablative ( -DAn ) -ден -тен
Allative I ( -Je ) -же -че
Allative II ( -DIvA ) [3] -тиве -диве
Jam'i
Nominative ( -LAr ) -тер -нер -лер -дер
-лерниң : ta hanyar ƙara bambancin murya a cikin kariyar jam’i (-лер ниң , -лерге ,. . . )
Misali na raguwa
Harka Fom Ma'ana
Wanda aka zaɓa теве "rakumi"
Na asali тевениң "na rakumi"
Mai zargi тевени "raƙumi" (takamaiman abu na fi'ili)
Dative тевеге "ga raƙumi" ko "a kan raƙumi" (a cikin lokacin da ya gabata)
Yanki теведе "a raƙumi" ko "a cikin raƙumi"
Dangi теведен "daga raƙumi" ko "fiye da/raƙumi"
Alkali I тевеже "zuwa (wards) raƙumi"
Alkali II теведиве

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fi'ilai a Tuvan dauki wani yawan endings to alama siga, yanayi, da kuma al'amari. Karin fi'ilai ma amfani da gyara da fi'ili. Don cikakken nazarin masaniyar fi’ili masu taimako a cikin Tuvan da harsunan da ke da alaƙa, duba Anderson acikin shekara ta 2004.

Syntax[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tuvan yana amfani da odar kalma ta SOV. Alal misali, теве сиген чипкен (raƙumi raƙumi ci-BAYA) "Raƙumi ya ci ciyawa."

Ƙamus[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sunan yan uwa a Tuvan.

Kalmomin Tuvan galibi Turkic ne a asali amma alama ce ta yawan kalmomin aro na Mongoliya. Harshen ya kuma aro wasu kari na Mongoliya. Bugu da kari, akwai Ketic da Samoyedic substrata. Cibiyar Rayayyun Harsunan Rayuwa ce ta samar da ƙamus na magana na Tuvan. [4]

Tsarin rubutu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Haruffa na Tuvan na yanzu juzu'in haruffan Rasha ne, tare da ƙarin haruffa uku: ң (Latin "ng" ko Alphabet International Phonetic [ŋ] ), Өө (Latin "ö", [ø] ), Үү (Latin "ü ", IPA [y] ). Jerin haruffa yana bin Rashanci daidai, tare da ң wanda ke bayan Rasha Н, Ө bayan О, da Ү bayan У.

А a Б В Г Д Е da Iya Ж
З И и da Й К Л М Н ina Ң
О ku Ө П Р С с Da У Ү
Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ Ыyi
Ь Эa Ю Я

Ana amfani da haruffan Е da in ta hanya ta musamman. Ana amfani da Э don gajeren /e/ sauti a farkon kalmomi yayin da ake amfani da for don sauti iri ɗaya a tsakiya da ƙarshen kalmomi. Ana amfani da Е a farkon kalmomi, galibi asalin asalin Rasha, don yin daidai da daidaitaccen lafazin Rashan na wannan harafin, /je/. Bugu da ƙari, ana amfani da ЭЭ a tsakiya da ƙarshen kalmomi don dogon /e/ sauti.

Harafin ъ ake amfani da su nuna farar lafazi, kamar yadda a эът et 'nama'.

Rubutun tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rubutun Mongol[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A da, mutanen Tuvans suna amfani da Mongoliya a matsayin harshensu na rubutu.

Daga baya Nikolaus Poppe ya haɓaka rubutun Mongoliya don dacewa da yaren Tuvan. Wannan shine sananne rubutaccen tsari na yaren Tuvan.

Yaren Latin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Misalin haruffan tushen Latin akan murfin makamai na Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Tuvan. Yana cewa "PYGY TELEGEJNIꞐ PROLETARLARЬ POLGAŞ TARLATKAN ARATTARЬ KATTЬƵЬꞐAR".

The Latin-tushen haruffa for Tuvan aka ambace su acikin shekara ta 1930 da wani Tuvan Buddhist m, Mongush Lopsang-Chinmit (aka Lubsan Zhigmed).Booksan littattafai da jaridu, gami da firamari waɗanda aka yi niyyar koya wa manya yin karatu, an buga su ta amfani da wannan tsarin rubutu. Daga baya aka kashe Lopsang-Chinmit a cikin tsaftar Stalin a ranar 31 ga Disamba 1941.

A ba B ʙ C c D d E e F f G g Ƣ
H da h Ina i J j Ɉ Ku k L l M m N n
O Ө P p R r S s Ş T t
U ku V v X x ku Y yi Z z Ƶ Ь

An cire harafin ɉ from daga haruffa a cikin 1931.

Pirgi yana da ƙima PYGY TELEGEJNIꞐ PROLETARLARЬ POLGAŞ TARLATKAN ARATTARЬ KATTЬƵЬꞐAR!
Ирги тыва дылдың үжүктери Телегейниң пролетарлары болгаш дарлаткан араттары каттыжыңар!
Harafin harshen Tuvan na farko Duk ma’aikatan duniya da mutanen da ake zalunta, ku hada kai!

A watan Satumbar a cikin shekara ta 1943, an maye gurbin wannan haruffan na Latin da Cyrillic, wanda har yanzu ana amfani da shi. A zamanin bayan Soviet, Tuvan da sauran masana sun ɗauki sabon sha'awar tarihin haruffan Tuvan.

Harshe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babu wani ma'aunin fassarar hukuma don canza haruffan Tuvan na Cyrillic zuwa Latin.[ana buƙatar hujja] Shirye-shiryen gama gari da ake amfani da su ta hanyoyin kafofin watsa labarai daban-daban suna dogaro da ƙa'idodin ƙasashen duniya don fassara wasu yarukan Cyrillic kamar Rashanci yayin da ɗaliban Turkology gabaɗaya suka dogara da haruffan Turkic na yau da kullun.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Matsayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tuvans a China, waɗanda ke zaune galibi a yankin Xinjiang mai cin gashin kansu, an haɗa su ƙarƙashin ƙabilar Mongol . An ba da rahoton cewa wasu 'yan Tuvans suna zaune a Tafkin Kanas da ke arewa maso yammacin jihar Xinjiang, inda ba a san su a hukumance ba, kuma ana kidaya su a matsayin wani yanki na Oirat Mongol na gida wanda aka ƙidaya a ƙarƙashin babban jigon PRC na kabilar "Mongol" Yaran Oirat da Tuvan suna halartar makarantun da suke amfani da Chakhar Mongolian [5] da Standard Chinese, yaren da babu ƙungiya.

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  •  3-447-04636-8
  •  978-3-89586-529-9
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  •  
  •  978-0-87750-214-2
  •  978-1-878986-04-7
  • Mawkanuli, Talant. 1999. "Fasaha da ilimin halittar Jungar Tuva," karatun PhD na Jami'ar Indiana.
  •  
  • Nakashima, Yoshiteru (中 嶋 善 輝Nakashima Yoshiteru ) 2008 "Tyva Yapon Biche Slovar ', ト ゥ ヴ ァ 語 ・ 日本語 小 辞典" Jami'ar Nazarin Ƙasashen waje ta Tokyo, http://www.aa.tufs.ac.jp/project/gengokensyu/08tuvan6.pdf ( Rumbun )
  • Melmez, Mehmet; Tuwinischer Wortschatz mit alttürkischen da mongolischen Parallelen, Wiesbaden 2007, 
  • Rind-Pawloski, Monika. 2014. Nau'in rubutu da tabbaci a cikin Dzungar Tuvan. Harsunan Turkic 18.1: 159-188.
  • (in Mongolian) Sečenbaγatur, Qasgerel, Tuyaγ-a [Туяa], Bu. Jirannige, Wu Yingzhe, Činggeltei. 2005. Mongγul kelen-ü nutuγ-un ayalγun-u sinǰilel-udn uduridqal [Jagora ga yarukan yankin Mongoliya]. Bayani: ÖMAKQ.  .
  • Takashima, Naoki (高 島 尚 生Takashima Naoki ). 2008 "Kiso Tuba-go bunpō 基礎 ト ゥ ヴ ァ 語文 語文 法," Jami'ar Nazarin Ƙasashen waje ta Tokyo, http://www.aa.tufs.ac.jp/project/gengokensyu/08tuvan1.pdf ( Rumbun )
  • Takashima, Naoki. 2008 "Tuba-go kawai-shū ト ゥ ヴ ァ 語 会話 集 集," Jami'ar Nazarin Ƙasashen waje ta Tokyo, http://www.aa.tufs.ac.jp/project/gengokensyu/08tuvan3.pdf ( Rumbun )
  • Taube, Erika. (1978). Tuwinische Volksmärchen . Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. LCCN: 83-853915
  • Taube, Erika. (1994). Skazki da predaniia altaiskikh tuvintsev . Moskva : Vostochnaia litattafai. ISBN 5-02-017236-7
  • Todoriki, Masahiko (等 々 力 政 彦Todoriki Masahiko ). 2011 "Wataƙila tsoffin ƙamus ɗin Tuvan da aka haɗa a cikin Wu-li-ya-su-tai-zhi lue, Kwafin Abun Cike na Tarihin Uliastai, 烏里蘇 台 志 略 に み え る , 最 古 の 可能性 の あ る る ト ゥ バ バ 語 語彙 語彙つ つ て ". Tōyōbunka-Kenkyūjo Kiyō東洋 文化 研究所 紀要159 238-220. ISSN 0563-8089 Jami'ar Tokyo, http://repository.dl.itc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2261/43632/1/ioc159007.pdf ( Rumbun )
  • Oelschlägel, Anett C. (2013). Der Taigageist. Berichte und Geschichten von Menschen und Geistern aus Tuwa. Zeitgenössische Sagen und Andere Folkloretexte / Дух-хозяин тайги -Современные предания и другие фольклорные материалы из Тувы / Тайга ээзи - Болган таварылгалар болгаш Тывадан чыгдынган аас чогаалының өске-даа материалдары. [Ruhun Taiga. Rahotanni da Labarai game da Mutane da Ruhohi daga Tuva. Legends na Zamani da sauran Tatsuniya. ] Marburg: tectum-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8288-3134-6

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Tuva". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :1
  3. Obsolete or dialectal version of current allative I
  4. see Tuvan Talking Dictionary
  5. "Öbür mongγul ayalγu bol dumdadu ulus-un mongγul kelen-ü saγuri ayalγu bolqu büged dumdadu ulus-un mongγul kelen-ü barimǰiy-a abiy-a ni čaqar aman ayalγun-du saγurilaγsan bayidaγ." (Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 85).


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