Mandarin Chinese

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Mandarin Chinese
'Yan asalin magana
1,074,000,000
Chinese characters (en) Fassara
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 cmn
Glottolog mand1415[1]
Mandarin and Jin in China.png

Mandarin Sin ko kawai Mandarin ( /m æ n d ər ɪ n / ( </img> / ); shine yaren gwamnati da ilimi na babban yankin China da Taiwan, tare da sanannun banbance na Hong Kong da Macau inda ake yawan amfani da yaren Sinawa da ake kira Cantonese.

Mandarin yana ɗaya daga cikin manyan harsunan yanki biyar na kasar Sin. Yana yaduwa fiye da kowane nau'in yanki, daga duk yankin arewacin ƙasar Sin zuwa lardin Yunnan da ke kudu maso yammacin kasar Sin. A cikin wannan babban yanki akwai bambance -bambancen yanki da yawa a cikin ƙamus, don haka wani wanda ya tashi daga Beijing zuwa Yunnan bai iya fahimtar mutanen da ke magana da yarensu na Yunnanhua ba. Matsalar ta fi girma ga mutum a Burtaniya ko Amurka don zuwa Australia. Saboda haka, tun daga shekarun 1920, gwamnatin ƙasar Sin ta kafa harshe na ƙasa bisa tushen yaren Beijing da kuma a kan kalmomin da aka fi fahimta da karin magana.

Mandarin shine daidaitaccen yare . Ba yaren kowa bane, amma matsakaici mai kyau tsakanin nau'ikan harsuna daban -daban da yare ɗaya kowa zai iya fahimta da sadarwa da shi. Duk da cewa ya dogara ne da yaren Beijing, amma bai yi daidai da yaren Beijing ba.

Makarantu suna amfani da yare da ake kira tsayayyen Mandarin, Putonghua (普通话/普通話) ma'ana "na kowa (magana)" ko Hanyu (汉语/漢語) ma'ana "harshen Han ". A wurare kamar Malaysia, an san shi da Huayu (华语/華語). A Taiwan, an san shi da Guoyu (国语/國語) ma'ana "harshen ƙasa." Akwai ƙananan bambance -bambance a cikin waɗannan ƙa'idodin.

Sama da mutane miliyan 800 ke magana da yaren Mandarin a duk duniya, fiye da kowane yare. Yawancin mutanen da ke ƙaura daga yankin Greater China yanzu suna magana da Mandarin, yayin da a cikin ƙarni da suka gabata galibin yaren Cantonese ko Taishanese, wani yare na Sinawa na gida.

Standard Mandarin yana ɗaya daga cikin harsunan hukuma guda shida a Majalisar Dinkin Duniya . Sauran Ingilishi ne, Faransanci, Spanish, Rashanci da Larabci .

Rubutu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An rubuta Mandarin tare da haruffan Sinanci da ake kira Hànzì (漢字 ko 汉字) wanda a zahiri yana nufin "haruffan Han". Kowane Hànzì yana da lafazi da ma'anarsa. Ƙamus na talakawa zai ƙunshi haruffa kusan 10,000. Mandarin da ake Magana yana amfani da kalmomin hadewa da yawa, kalmomin da ke haɗa ma'anoni kamar yadda Ingilishi ke yi a cikin kalmomin kamar "gun bindiga," "motar kashe gobara," "filin wasa," da dai sauransu.

Hanzi sune tsarin akida: hali ɗaya yana nufin ra'ayi ɗaya. Dabbobi daban -daban an samo su ne daga masu akidar ta hanyar haɗa su. Hakanan ana iya rubuta Mandarin da sauti (wato: an rubuta kamar yadda ake magana) tare da haruffan Latin kamar yadda da gaske ba za ku iya ganin haruffan daga haruffan Hanzi ba. Wannan shi ake kira fassara. Mafi mashahuri tsarin fassarar harshe ana kiransa Pinyin .

Wasu haruffan Sinawa ainihin hotuna ne na ainihin abubuwan da suke wakilta. Yayin da lokaci ya ci gaba, mutane sun zaɓi rubuta juzu'i mafi sauƙi waɗanda suka fi sauƙi a rubuta amma ba su yi kama da ainihin abin ba, kamar yadda mutane a wasu lokuta sukan zana sandar maza maimakon zana mutane da jikinsu na zahiri, makamai, ƙafafu, da sauransu. Ga wasu misalai:

Yawancin haruffa, duk da haka, ana yin su ta hanyar haɗa hotuna, ta amfani da ɗaya don ba da ma'ana gaba ɗaya, ɗayan kuma don wakiltar sauti. Misali, "媽 mā" (inna) ana yin ta ta ƙara 女 (nǚ, mace mutum) zuwa 馬 (mǎ, doki). Ɓangaren "ma" yana nan don wakiltar sauti.

A yawancin yarukan Sinawa na dā, haruffa ɗaya gaba ɗaya sun isa kalma ɗaya, amma Mandarin da ake magana da shi na zamani yana amfani da yawancin mahadi kamar "媽媽 māma," wanda shine kawai "mama,"

Wasu misalai suna nuna hanyoyi daban -daban na haɗa abubuwan haɗin gwiwa:

  • 火車 huǒ chē (lit. motar wuta) locomotive, jirgin ƙasa
  • 大人 dà rén (lit. babban mutum) babba
  • 打開 dǎ kāi (lit. yajin aiki a buɗe) buɗe (ƙofa, taga, ambulaf, da sauransu. )

Kamar dai yadda Ingilishi da ake amfani da shi a Burtaniya yana son "man fetur" amma Ingilishi da ake amfani da shi a Amurka kusan koyaushe yana amfani da "mai," harsunan yanki daban -daban a China na iya amfani da kalmomin haɗewa daban -daban don kiran abu ɗaya.

A cikin Mandarin da ake Magana, yawancin kalmomi mahadi ne na hali saboda tsawon lokaci Mandarin ya ɓace sautuka da yawa waɗanda suka wanzu a farkon nau'ikan Sinanci. Saboda asarar sauti, kalmomin Sinanci da yawa sun ƙare sun zama masu yin homophones, don haka an ƙara ƙarin haruffa zuwa kalmomi don rarrabe su. Misali, taken Sinanci na waƙar zaki mai cin zaki a cikin Den Den施 氏 食 狮 史 ana kiransa " Shī Shì Shí Shī Shǐ ", kuma kowane hali a cikin waƙar ana furtawa da harafi iri ɗaya, amma tare da sautuka daban-daban. A cikin tsoffin nau'ikan Sinawa, da ana iya rarrabe haruffa daban -daban waɗanda ke yin taken, saboda suna iya yin sauti daban da juna.

Don haka, kalmomin haruffa ɗaya a cikin Sinanci na gargajiya kamar

hali ma'ana pinyin
Ƙari zaki shī
Ƙari chopstick (s) kyau
Ƙari zinariya/karfe/kuɗi jn

ya zama kalmomin haɗin Mandarin

hali ma'ana pinyin
Ƙari zaki shīzi
Ƙari chopstick (s) kuizi
Ƙari kudi jīnqián

don rarrabe irin waɗannan kalmomin daga homophones ɗin su, in ba haka ba za a iya kuskure haruffan da aka ambata don irin haruffa masu sauti kamar

hali ma'ana pinyin
Ƙari malami/malami/maigida shī
Ƙari sauri/sauri kyau
Ƙari yanzu/yanzu jn

don haka ya sa harshen magana yake da wahalar fahimta ba tare da kalmomin haɗe -haɗe ba.

Bambanci tsakanin Mandarin (Lafazin Beijing) da Yaren Beijing[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An bayyana Mandarin kuma an tsara shi bisa lafazin Beijing. A ƙasar Sin, akwai yaruka sama da 600,000 da karin lafazi duk da cewa dukkansu suna amfani da yaren Sinanci da haruffa, amma yadda suke furtawa da wasu maganganu sun bambanta. Dole ne kasar Sin ta sami daidaitaccen lafazi don ba wa dukkan mutane damar fahimtar juna da sadarwa. Beijing ta kasance babban birnin China sama da shekaru 1,000, don haka China ta ayyana Beijing Accent a matsayin daidaitaccen Mandarin.

Har ila yau, Beijing tana da wasu yarukan gida waɗanda Mandarin ko daidaitaccen yaren Sinanci bai haɗa da su ba tukuna. Amma kasancewar Beijing ita ce babban birni har ma da cibiyar siyasa, tattalin arziki, al'adu da ilimi na China, ana samun ƙarin sabbin yarukan Beijing ko za a karɓa a matsayin Mandarin ko daidaitaccen yaren Sinanci. Sauran yarukan, kamar su Shangajin, Cantonese, Hakka da sauransu, suna da ƙarancin damar da za a haɗa su cikin Mandarin ko daidaitaccen yaren Sinanci ko kuma duk China ta yarda da su.

Samfuran masu zuwa wasu yarukan Beijing ne waɗanda har yanzu ba a karɓe su a matsayin daidaitaccen Mandarin ba.倍儿: bèi'ér na nufin 'sosai';拌 蒜: bànsuàn na nufin 'tawaya';不吝: bùlìn yana nufin 'kada ku damu'; Ò: cuò na nufin 'ci';出溜: chūliū na nufin 'zamewa';大老 爷儿们 儿: dàlǎoyérmenr na nufin 'maza, maza';

Samfuran masu zuwa wasu yarukan Beijing ne waɗanda tuni an karɓi su a matsayin Mandarin a cikin 'yan shekarun nan.二把刀: èrbǎdāo yana nufin 'ba ƙwararre ba'; Ē 儿: gēmenr na nufin 'kyawawan abokai maza';抠门儿: kōuménr na nufin 'parsimony';小儿 小儿: dǎxiǎo'ér na nufin 'tun ƙuruciya'

Misalai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Nayi farin ciki
  • ? Ǐ nǐ ba ma? Ya kake?
  • 我 wǒ - ni, ni
  • Ba ku
  • 您 nín -you (Ana amfani dashi kawai lokacin girmamawa)

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sauran gidajen yanar gizo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mandarin Chinese". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.