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Yurok language

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Yurok
Pueleekla’
Instructor teaching Yurok with the Yurok Language Program
Asali a United States
Yanki Northwestern California
Ƙabila Yurok
26 March 2013, with the death of Archie Thompson[1]
Revival language revival in progress; 350 with some knowledge, 35 fluent L2 speakers[1] as of 2020[Ana bukatan hujja]
Algic
  • Yurok
Latin
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 yur
Glottolog yuro1248[2]
Alamar maraba tare da gaisuwar Yurok, "Aiy-yu-kwee'"

Yurok (kuma Chillula, Mita, Pekwan, Rikwa, Sugon, Weitspekan, Weitspakan) yare ne na Algic . [3] Harshen gargajiya ne na mutanen Yurok na Del Norte County da Humboldt County a arewacin California, mafi yawansu yanzu suna magana da Turanci. Mai magana asalin ƙasar na ƙarshe ya mutu a shekara ta 2013. [4] zuwa shekara ta 2012, ana koyar da darussan yaren Yurok ga ɗaliban makarantar sakandare, kuma ana sa ran wasu ƙoƙarin sake farfadowa don ƙara yawan masu magana.

Matsakaicin bayani game da yaren Yurok shine na R. H. Robins (1958). [5]

Sunan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Game da asalin Yurok (a.k.a. Weitspekan), wannan da ke ƙasa daga Campbell (1997) ne:

Yurok is from Karuk yúruk meaning literally 'downriver'. The Yurok traditional name for themselves is Puliklah (Hinton 1994:157), from pulik 'downstream' + -la 'people of', thus equivalent in meaning to the Karuk name by which they came to be known in English (Victor Golla, personal communication).(Campbell 1997:401, notes #131 & 132)

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Raguwar harshe ya fara ne a lokacin California Gold Rush, saboda kwararar sabbin mazauna da cututtukan da suka kawo tare da su. Makarantun kwana na 'yan asalin Amurka da gwamnatin Amurka ta fara tare da niyyar shigar da' yan asalin Amurka cikin al'ummar Amurka ta yau da kullun sun kara yawan raguwar harshe.

Matsayi na yanzu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shirin don farfado da Yurok an yaba da shi a matsayin shirin farfadowa na harshe mafi nasara a California. [6] Ya zuwa shekara ta 2014, akwai makarantu shida a Arewacin California da ke koyar da Yurok - makarantun sakandare hudu da makarantun firamare biyu. Jordan, shugaban makarantar sakandare ta Eureka, daya daga cikin makarantun da ke da Shirin Harshe na Yurok, ya yi tsokaci game da tasirin da makarantu zasu iya samu akan rayuwar harshe, "Shekaru ɗari da suka gabata, ƙungiyoyinmu ne ke doke harshe daga mutane, kuma yanzu muna ƙoƙarin sake shigar da shi - ɗan wani abu da ya fi mu girma".

Dan asalin Yurok na karshe da aka sani, mai magana da yawun Yurok, Archie Thompson, ya mutu a ranar 26 ga Maris, 2013. "Ya kuma kasance na karshe daga cikin dattawa 20 da suka taimaka wajen farfado da yaren a cikin 'yan shekarun da suka gabata, bayan masana kimiyya a cikin shekarun 1990 sun yi hasashen cewa zai ƙare a shekara ta 2010. Ya yi rikodin yaren da masana harsuna na UC Berkeley da kabilar suka adana, ya yi sa'o'i yana taimakawa wajen koyar da Yurok a cikin al'umma da ɗakunan makaranta, kuma ya yi maraba da masu magana da koyon don bincika iliminsa. "

Masana ilimin harsuna a UC Berkeley sun fara aikin Yurok a shekara ta 2001. Farfesa Andrew Garrett [6] Dokta Juliette Blevins sun hada kai da dattawan kabilanci a kan ƙamus na Yurok wanda aka yaba da shi a matsayin abin koyi na ƙasa. Shirin Yurok Language ya tafi zurfi fiye da kawai ƙamus da aka buga, duk da haka. Ana samun ƙamus a kan layi kuma ana iya bincika shi sosai. Hakanan yana yiwuwa a bincika ƙamus na sauti - ajiyar shirye-shiryen bidiyo na kalmomi da gajerun kalmomi. ƙarin zurfin binciken, akwai bayanan bayanan da aka tattara inda za'a iya kallon kalmomi da jimloli a matsayin wani ɓangare na babban mahallin.

[6] zuwa watan Fabrairun 2013, akwai masu magana da Yurok sama da 300 na asali, 60 tare da ƙwarewar matsakaici, 37 waɗanda suka ci gaba, da 17 waɗanda ake la'akari da su da magana sosai. Ya zuwa shekara ta 2014, mutane tara sun sami takardar shaidar koyar da Yurok a makarantu. Tun Yurok, kamar sauran harsunan 'yan asalin Amurka, yana amfani da tsarin koyarwa don horar da masu magana a cikin yaren, samun malamai tara da aka tabbatar ba zai yiwu ba tare da wani doka da aka zartar a 2009 a jihar California wanda ke ba da damar kabilun' yan asalin su ikon nada malamai na yarensu ba.

  1. 1.0 1.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named romney
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yurok". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. Campbell (1997:152)
  4. Atherton (2010)
  5. Robins, Robert H. 1958. The Yurok Language: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon. University of California Publications in Linguistics 15.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Romney, Lee. (2013, February 6). Revival of nearly extinct Yurok language is a success story. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 7, 2013