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Zheng Yi Sao

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Zheng Yi Sao
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Guangdong (en) Fassara, 1775
ƙasa Qing dynasty (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Portuguese Macau (en) Fassara, 1844
Ƴan uwa
Abokiyar zama Zheng Yi (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a pirate (en) Fassara
IMDb nm5080543

Zheng Yi Sao (1775-1844; an haife ta Shi Yang, a.k.a Shi Xianggu), wanda aka fi sani da Ching Shih, ita ce shugabar 'yan fashin teku ta kasar Sin da ke aiki a tekun kudancin kasar Sin daga 1801[1] zuwa shekarar 1810.[2]

An haife ta a matsayin Shi Yang a shekara ta 1775 don tawali'u, ta auri wani ɗan fashi mai suna Zheng Yi yana da shekaru 26 a 1801. Mutanen Guangdong sun sanya mata suna Zheng Yi Sao ("matar Zheng Yi").[3][4] Bayan mutuwar mijinta a shekara ta 1807, ta karbi ragamar ragamar ƙungiyar 'yan fashin teku tare da goyon bayan dansa mai reno Zhang Bao, wanda ta kulla dangantaka da shi, sannan ta yi aure. A matsayinsa na kwamandan kungiyar 'yan fashin teku ta Guangdong,[5] rundunarta ta kunshi barace-barace 400 da 'yan fashi tsakanin 40,000 zuwa 60,000 a shekarar 1805.[6] Jiragen ruwanta sun shiga rikici da manyan kasashe da dama, kamar Kamfanin Gabashin Indiya, Daular Fotigal, da Qing China.[7]

A shekara ta 1810, Zheng Yi Sao ta yi shawarwari kan mika wuya ga hukumomin Qing wanda ya ba ta da Zhang Bao damar rike wani jirgin ruwa mai yawa da kuma guje wa tuhuma. A lokacin da ta mika wuya, ita da kanta ta umurci jiragen ruwa 24 da 'yan fashi sama da 1,400. Ta rasu a shekara ta 1844 tana da kimanin shekaru 68, bayan da ta yi rayuwa mai cike da lumana da wadata tun bayan kammala aikinta na fashin teku. An bayyana Zheng Yi Sao a matsayin 'yar fashin teku mata mafi nasara a tarihi, kuma daya daga cikin 'yan fashin teku mafi nasara a tarihi.[8][9]

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Zheng Yi Sao a shekara ta 1775 a kewayen Xinhui na Guangdong.[10] Ta yiwu Tanka ce, wacce ta yi aiki a matsayin karuwa ko mai siya a gidan karuwai na Tanka (花船) a Guangdong

Aure da Zheng Yi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 1801, Shi Yang ya auri Zheng Yi, sanannen ɗan fashin teku.[6]

Zheng Yi ɗan fashin teku ne wanda ya yi yaƙi a matsayin mai zaman kansa ga daular Tây Sơn ta Vietnam a yakin Tây Sơn da Qing China daga baya Nguyễn Ánh.[11] Karkashin kulawar Tây Sơn, ya yi yaƙi a cikin rundunar ɗan uwansa Zheng Qi.[11] Zheng Yi ya fito ne daga dangin fitattun 'yan fashin teku wadanda tushensu ya samo asali tun daga daular Ming.[12] Yana da dansa mai suna Zhang Bao, wanda Zheng Yi ya yi garkuwa da shi a shekarar 1798 yana dan shekara 15, kuma daga baya ya shiga cikin fashin teku.[5]

Wani takarce na kasar Sin da aka nuna a cikin Tafiye-tafiye a kasar Sin: mai dauke da kwatanci, dubawa, da kwatance, da aka yi da tattarawa a cikin gajeren zama a fadar daular Yuen-Min-Yuen, da kuma kan tafiya ta kasar daga Pekin zuwa Canton, aka buga a 1804

Shekara guda bayan aurensu a watan Fabrairun 1802, sojojin Nguyễn sun kama dan uwan ​​Zheng Yi Zheng Qi tare da kashe shi a garin Jiangping (江平) da ke kan iyakar Vietnam da China, kusa da yankin Dongxing (东兴) a yanzu. A ranar 20 ga Yuli, 1802, Nguyễn Ánh ya shiga birnin Thăng Long, ya kawo ƙarshen daular Tây Sơn.[13] Bayan mutuwarsa, Zheng Yi ya karbe jirgin ruwan Zheng Qi, kuma ya koma bakin tekun kasar Sin tare da sauran 'yan fashin teku na kasar Sin wadanda a da ke karkashin ikon Tây Sơn.[14] Wani lokaci da ake gwabzawa tsakanin 'yan fashi a kusa da gabar tekun Guangdong ya biyo baya; amma tare da taimakon Zheng Yi Sao, wanda ya kasance mai iya ƙarfafawa da tsarawa,[15] Zheng Yi ya sami damar hada 'yan fashin teku zuwa gamayyar kasa ta hanyar rattaba hannu kan wata yarjejeniya a watan Yulin shekara ta 1805 inda kowane shugaban 'yan fashin teku ya amince ya sadaukar da wasu 'yancin cin gashin kansa don samun ci gaba.[16] Ƙungiyar ta ƙunshi jiragen ruwa guda shida waɗanda aka sani da launin tutocinsu - ja, baƙar fata, shuɗi, fari, rawaya, da shunayya. Zheng Yi ya ba da umarni ga manyan jiragen ruwa a cikin ƙungiyar, Jirgin Ruwa na Red Flag.[17]

Zheng Yi Sao yana da 'ya'ya biyu tare da Zheng Yi: Zheng Yingshi (鄭英石), wanda aka haifa a 1803, da Zheng Xiongshi (鄭雄石), wanda aka haifa a 1807.[18]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Borges, Jorge L. (1985). A Universal History of Infamy. Translated by di Giovanni, Norman T. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780140085396.
  • Buttinger, Joseph (1970). Smaller Dragon: A Political History of Vietnam. New York: Praeger. ISBN 9780813371047.
  • Monteiro, Saturnino (2013). Portuguese Sea Battles Volume VIII: Downfall of the Empire 1808-1975. Translated by Mesquita, Carlos W. Lisbon: Saturnino Monteiro. ISBN 9789899683679.
  • Murray, Dian H. (1981). "One Woman's Rise to Power: Cheng I's Wife and the Pirates". Historical Reflections / Réflexions Historiques. 8 (3): 147–161. JSTOR 41298765 – via JSTOR.
  • Murray, Dian H. (1987). Pirates of the South China Coast, 1790-1810. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804713764.
  • Murray, Dian H. (2001). "Cheng I Sao in Fact and Fiction". In Pennell, C. R. (ed.). Bandits at Sea: A Pirates Reader. New York: New York University Press. pp. 253–282. ISBN 9780814766781.
  • Glasspoole, Richard (1812). "To the President of the English Company's Factory, Canton". Further Statement of the Ladrones on the Coast of China: Intended as a Continuation of the Accounts Published by Mr. Dalrymple. London: Lane, Darling, and Co. pp. 33–39.
  • Gosse, Philip (2007). The History of Piracy. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 9780486461830.
  • Siu, Kwok-kin; Puk, Wing-kun (January 2007). "《靖海氛記》原文標點及箋註" [An Annotation on Yuan Yonglun's Jing Hai Fen Ji] (PDF). Fieldwork and Documents: South China Research Resource Station Newsletter (in Harshen Sinanci). 46: 6–29.
  • Wang, Ke (June 2019). "事实与虚构中的郑一嫂:一个女海盗形象在中西语境中的流变" [Zheng Yi Sao in Fact and Fiction: The Transformation of a Female Pirate in Chinese and Western Context]. Comparative Literature and Transcultural Studies. 3 (1): 82–129 – via CNKI.
  • Wen, Chengzhi (1850). "平海記略" [An Account on the Pacification of the Sea]. 昭代叢書 [Zhao Dai Cong Shu] (PDF). 世楷堂. 19卷.
  • Ye, Lingfeng (2012). 张保仔的传说和真相 [The Myths and Truths of Zhang Bao the Kid]. Nanchang, Jiangxi: 江西教育出版社. ISBN 9787539264929.
  • Zheng, Guangnan (1998). 中国海盗史 [History of Chinese Pirates]. Shanghai: 华东理工大学出版社. ISBN 9787562809029.
  1. Murray 1987, p. 71.
  2. Murray 1987, p. 143.
  3. Wang 2019, p. 85.
  4. Siu & Puk 2007, p. 10, U5b.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Siu & Puk 2007, p. 10, U5a.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Murray 2001, p. 258.
  7. Zheng 1998, p. 309.
  8. Banerji, Urvija (2016-04-06). "The Chinese Female Pirate Who Commanded 80,000 Outlaws". Atlas Obscura (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-05-18.
  9. "History's greatest woman pirate becomes a Hong Kong children's story". South China Morning Post (in Turanci). 2018-02-28. Retrieved 2021-05-18.
  10. Ye 2012, p. 74.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Murray 1987, p. 65.
  12. Murray 1987, p. 63-65.
  13. Buttinger 1970, p. 241.
  14. Siu & Puk 2007, p. 9, U2b.
  15. Murray 1981, p. 149.
  16. Murray 1987, p. 57-59.
  17. Siu & Puk 2007, p. 9-10, U3a-U3b.
  18. Murray 1987, p. 64.