Al'ummar Wikipedia

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

 

Group half.svgWikipedia community
Wikimania 2012 Group Photograph-0001a.jpg
Bayanai
Iri Informal organization of individual contributors
Aiki
Bangare na Wikimedia community (en) Fassara
Subdivisions
Awards received
Erasmus Prize  (2015)


Al'ummar Wikipidiya, wacce aka fi sani a jimlace da Wikipedians, wata al'umma ce ta kaikaice wadanda suke bada gudummawa wajen ƙirƙira da kula da Wikipedia, wato encyclopedia ta yanar gizo. Tun daga watan Agustan 2012, kalmar "Wikipedian" ta shiga cikin ƙamus na Oxford.[1]

"Wikipedians" wani bangare ne na "Tafiyarda Wikimedia ", watau cibiyar sadarwa ta duniya na masu ba da gudummawar sa kai ga Wikipedia da sauran shafuka waɗanda Gidauniyar Wikimedia ke gudanar da su.

Alkaluma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin watan Afrilun 2008, marubuci kuma malami Clay Shirky da masanin kimiyyar kwamfuta Martin Wattenberg sun kiyasta jimillar lokacin da aka kashe wajen ƙirƙirar Wikipedia da kimanin sa'o'i miliyan 100.[2] A cikin Nuwamban 2011, akwai kusan asusun mutane miliyan 31.7 da shafin wadanda aka yiwa rajista a cikin harsuna daban daban a yayinda kimanin 270,000 ke "aiki" (suna ba da aƙalla gyara guda ɗaya a kowanne wata).[3]

Wikipedia editan alƙaluma (2008)

Wani bincike da aka wallafa a shekara ta 2010 ya gano cewa masu ba da gudummawa ga Wikipedia "na da mata kusan kashi 13% ne kacal; matsakaicin shekarun masu ba da gudummawa suna a tsakanin shekaru ashirin da rabi".[4] Wani bincike na 2011 da masu bincike daga Jami'ar Minnesota sun gano cewa mata sun ƙunshi kaso 16.1% na masu gyara 38,497 waɗanda suka fara gyara Wikipedia a shekarar 2009.[5] A cikin watan Janairu 2011 a cikin wani labarin New York Times, Noam Cohen ya lura cewa kashi 13% na masu ba da gudummawar Wikipedia mata ne bisa ga binciken gidauniyar Wikimedia na 2008.[6] Sue Gardner, tsohon babban darektan na Gidauniyar Wikimedia, ya yi fatan ganin gudunmawar mata ya karu zuwa 25% nan da 2015.[6] Linda Basch, shugabar Majalisar Bincike kan Mata ta Kasa, tayi la'akari da bambanci a tsakanin waɗannan ƙididdigar editocin Wikipedia dangane da adadin matan da ke kammala karatun digiri na farko, digiri na biyu da shirye-shiryen PhD a Amurka (duk a kaso 50% ko fiye da haka).[7]

Don mayar da martani akan hakan, jami'o'i daban-daban sun shirya gasa na edit-a-thon don janyo ra'ayin mata don shiga cikin al'ummar Wikipedia. A cikin shekara ta 2013, kwalejoji da jami'o'i 15 - ciki har da Yale, Brown, da Penn State - sun ba da lambar yabo ta kwaleji ga ɗalibai don aikin "write feminist thinking" game da fasaha a cikin Wikipedia.[8] Wani bincike da aka zaɓe na 2008 na bambance-bambancen masu ba da gudummawa ta mafi kololuwar digiri na ilimi ya nuna cewa kashi 62 cikin 100 na masu gyara Wikipedia sun halarci makarantun sakandare ko kuma sun kammala karatun digiri na farko.[9]

A watan Agustan 2014, wanda ya kafa Wikipedia Jimmy Wales ya fada a wata hira da BBC cewa Gidauniyar Wikimedia tana "...da gaske tana ninka kokarinmu..." don kaiwa kashi 25% na editocin mata (wanda aka yi niyya tun shekarar 2015), tun da cewa Gidauniyar ta "gaza gaba daya" ya zuwa yanzu. Wales ya ce "abubuwa da sun kamata su faru ... kara wayar da kan jama'a, da yawan canjin software".[10] Andrew Lih, ya rubuta a cikin The New York Times, Bloomberg News sun hakaito a watan Disamba 2016 tare da goyon bayan tsokacin Wales game da gazawar wayar da kai akan Wikipedia ga mata editoci. Lih ya bayyana damuwarsa tare da tambayar da ke nuna cewa: "Ta yaya za ku iya sa mutane su shiga cikin yanayin [gyararraki] ga muhalli da ke da karancin tsaro, inda bayyana kanka a matsayin mace, a matsayin mai ra'ayin mata, zai iya janyo muku shiga mummunan hali, mai ban tsoro".[11]

Ƙarfin Gwiwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Video which articulates the enthusiasm of the Wikipedia community
Bayanai daga Binciken Edita na Afrilu 2011 yana nuna manyan dalilan da aka ruwaito na fara ba da gudummawa
Bayanai daga Binciken Edita na Afrilu 2011 yana nuna manyan dalilan da aka ruwaito na ci gaba da ba da gudummawa
Bayanai daga Binciken Edita na Afrilu 2011 yana nuna manyan dalilan da aka ruwaito na ƙin ba da gudummawa

A cikin binciken shekara ta 2003 na Wikipedia a matsayinta na kungiyar al'umma, ɗalibin tattalin arziki mai Ph.D. Andrea Ciffolilli ta yi gardamar cewa ƙarancin kuɗin mu'amala na shiga cikin software na wiki yana haifar da haɓakar haɗin gwiwa, kuma salon "ƙirƙira mai tasiri" yana ƙarfafa bada gudummawa.[12] Wata takarda da Andrea Forte da Amy Bruckman suka rubuta a cikin shekara ta 2005, mai suna "Me yasa Mutane suke Rubutu a Wikipedia? Ƙarfafawa don Ba da Gudunmawa ga Buɗaɗɗen Ilimi na kyauta", sun tattauna kan abubuwan da ke ba editoci karfin gwiwar ba da gudummawa ga Wikipedia. Sun yi amfani da salon Latour da Woolgar game da zagayowar lambar yabo ga masu ba da gudummawar Wikipedia, yana nuna cewa dalilin da yasa mutane ke rubutu a Wikipedia shine don samun karɓuwa a cikin al'ummar.[13]

Oded Nov, a cikin takardarsa ta 2007 "Abin da ke Ƙarawa editocin Wikipidiya karfin gwiwa", ya danganta yunƙurin masu sa kai gabaɗaya ga kara ƙwarin gwiwar mutanen da ke ba da gudummawa ga Wikipedia.[14] Nov ya gudanar da wani bincike ta amfani da dalilai shida na masu ba da gudummawa, wanda ya gano a wata takarda da ta gabata.[15] Dalilai guda shida da ya yi amfani da su sune:

  • Dabi'u - sun bayyana dabi'un da za a yi tare da kuma rashin son kai don taimakon wasu
  • Cudanya - hulɗa tare da abokai, shiga cikin ayyukan da wasu ke ganin su da kyau
  • Fahimtar juna - fadada ilimi ta hanyar ayyuka
  • Sana'a - samun ƙwarewar aiki da fasaha
  • Kariya - misali, rage laifi akan nuna son kai
  • Ingantawa- nuna ilimi ga wasu

A kan wadannan dalilai na karfin gwiwa guda shida ya kuma kara da cewa:

  • Akida – nuna goyon baya ga abin da ake gani cewa shi ne tushen akidar aiki (misali, imani da cewa ya kamata ilimi ya zamo kyauta )
  • Nishaɗi - jin daɗin aikin

Binciken ya gano cewa dalilan da aka fi nuna su su ne "fun", "akida", da "dabi'u", yayin da mafi ƙarancin abin da ake nunawa shine "aikin", "zamantawa", da "kariya". [16]

Gidauniyar Wikimedia Foundation ta kaddamar da wasu bincike akan akan masu ba da gudammawa da masu amfani da Wikipedia, tare da hadin gwiwar wata Kungiyar Kirkire-KirrKire na Hadin Gwiwa na UNU-Merit, sun kaddamar da bincike suma akan editoci da masu karanta Wikpidiya.[17] An wallafa sakamakon binciken shekaru biyu bayan kaddamar da ita a ranar 24 March 2010.[18] Gidauniyar Wikimedia ta gabatar da wani shiri a shekara ta 2011 akan kananan bincike na shekara -shekara don fahimtar bukatun editocin Wikipedia ta yadda zata fi biya masu bukatunsu.[19][20]

Midiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wikipedoa ta mamaye wasu shafukan labarai da da dama. An wallafa wani labari na yanar gizo na The Signpost, tun a ranar 10 ga watan Janairun 2005.[21] Ƙwararren mai zanen cartoon mai suna Greg Williams ya yayi wani zane na yanar gizo mai suna Wikiworld wacce ta mamaye The Signpost a tsakanin shekarun 2006 da 2008.[22]

Wani shiri na rediyon yanar gizo wato podcast mai suna Wikipedia Weekly ya yi fice a tsakanin shekarun 2006 zuwa 2009,[23][24] a sa'ilin da kira zuwa taro mai suna "Not the Wikipedia Weekly" yayi fice a tsakanin shekara ta 2008 zuwa 2009.[24]

Cuɗanya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai gangami da Gidauniyar Wikipidiya ke gudanarwa ko kuma Al'ummar Wikipidiya.

Wikimania[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wikimania wani gagarumin taro ne na duniya da akeyi a duk shekara ga masu amfani da shafukan Wikipedia wanda Gidauniyar Wikipedia ke gudanarwa (kamar Wikipedia da sauran shafukan ta). Darussan da ake tattaunawa akansu sun hada da ayyukan Gidauniyar Wikipedia, sauran wiki, ilimi kyauta, bayanai kyauta da sauran al'amurran zamantakewa da na fasaha da suka shafe su.

Wiknics[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gagarumin taron Amurka na Wiknics biki ne da ake gudanarwa a cikin biranen kasar Amurka a duk shekara a lokacin bazara, watakila a farko daga ranar 4 ga watan Juli. Kudirin Wiknics shine ba da dama ga masu bada gudummawa ga WIkipidiya don kawo abinci iri-iri da kuma cadanya a zahiri.[25]

Soke-soke[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An soki Wikipedia ta wasu fuskokin.[26][27] Misali, al'amarin da ya faru tsakanin Seigenthaler da Essjay ya janyo suka akan ingancin Wikipidiya da amfaninta a matsayin hujja.[28][29][30] Koke-koke da mutane ke yi sun hada da boye sirrin editoci, dabi'u dangane da sabbin zuwa, zarce iyaka ga masu kula da shafuka (admins), nuna bambamci a tsakanin mutane, musamman a tsakanin jinsi, da kuma karancin editoci mata,[31] da kuma matsayin da makirkirin shafin wato Jimmy Wales ke takawa.[32]

Wanda aka kirkiri shafin da shi wato Larry Sanger, wanda daga bisani ya kirkiri sabon shafin adawa mai suna Citizendium ya bayyana shafin Wikipidiya a shekara ta 2007 a matsayin mara tasiri kuma mai cin zarafi, inda ya bayyana cewa "Kungiyar ba ta gabatar da ayyukanta yadda suka dacewa kuma ba a yanayi na dorewa ba".

Karɓuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An gina wurin tarihi na Wikipidiya (Wikipedia Monument) a Słubice, Poland a shekara ta 2014 don girmama al'ummar Wikpidiya.[33]

An bayar da kyautar 2015 Erasmus Prize ga al'ummar Wikpidiya don yada ilimi kyauta ta hanyar kammalalle kuma amntaccen encyclopidiya.

Sake dubawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Hella ridic new words to make you lolz: ODO August 2012 update". OxfordWords blog. Oxford University Press. 23 August 2012. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012. Retrieved 27 September2012.
  2. Shirky, Clay (7 May 2008). "Gin, Television, and Social Surplus". World Changing. Archived from the original on 29 December 2015. Retrieved 8 June2014.
  3. "List of Wikipedias Archived 4 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Wikimedia Meta-Wiki. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  4. "Where Are the Women in Wikipedia? – Room for Debate". The New York Times. 2 February 2011. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014
  5. Lam, Shyong; Anuradha Uduwage; Zhenhua Dong; Shilad Sen; David R. Musicant; Loren Terveen; John Riedl (3–5 October 2011). "WP:Clubhouse? An Exploration of Wikipedia's Gender Imbalance" (PDF). WikiSym 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Chom, Noam (30 January 2011). "Define Gender Gap? Look Up Wikipedia's Contributor List". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012. A version of this article appeared in print on January 31, 2011, on page A1 of the New York edition.
  7. Basch, Linda (6 February 2011). "Male-Dominated Web Site Seeking Female Experts" (Letters to the Editor). The New York Times. p. WK–7. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 9 May2012.
  8. "OCAD to 'Storm Wikipedia' this fall". CBC News. 27 August 2013. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
  9. Wikimedia Foundation (April 2009). "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  10. "Wikipedia 'completely failed' to fix gender imbalance". BBC News. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 9 September2014.
  11. Kessenides, Dimitra; Chafkin, Max (22 December 2016). "Is Wikipedia Woke?". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  12. Ciffolilli, Andrea. "Phantom authority, self-selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia Archived 8 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine", First Monday December 2003.
  13. Forte, Amy; Bruckman, Andrea (2005). "Why Do People Write for Wikipedia? Incentives to Contribute to Open-Content Publishing". SIGGROUP 2005 Workshop: Sustaining Community: 6–9. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.120.7906.
  14. Nov, Oded (2007). "What Motivates Wikipedians?". Communications of the ACM. 50 (11): 60–64. doi:10.1145/1297797.1297798. S2CID 16517355.
  15. Clary, E.; Snyder, M.; Ridge, R.; Copeland, J.; Stukas, A.; Haugen, J. & Miene, P. (1998). "Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers: A functional approach". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 74 (6): 1516–1530. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1516. PMID 9654757.
  16. Empty citation (help)
  17. Möller, Erik (3 April 2010). "New Reports from November 2008 Survey Released". Wikimedia Foundation Blog. Wikimedia Foundation. Archivedfrom the original on 17 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  18. Glott, Ruediger; Schmidt, Phillipp; Ghosh, Rishab. "Wikipedia Survey – Overview of Results" (PDF). Wikipedia Study. UNU-MERIT. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  19. Wikimedia Foundation (10 June 2011). "Wikipedia editors do it for fun: First results of our 2011 editor survey". Wikimedia Foundation Blog. Wikimedia Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  20. Wikimedia Foundation (19 April 2011). "Launching our semi-annual Wikipedia editors survey". Wikimedia Foundation Blog. Wikimedia Foundation. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  21. Phoebe Ayers; Charles Matthews; Ben Yates (2008). How Wikipedia Works: And how You Can be a Part of it. No Starch Press. p. 345. ISBN 978-1-59327-176-3. Archived from the original on 10 October 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  22. "WIKIWORLD COMICS by Greg Williams". WIKIWORLD COMICS by Greg Williams. Archived from the original on 13 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  23. "Wikipedia Weekly". Wikipedia Weekly. Archived from the original on 11 May 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Lih, Andrew (17 March 2009). "Adminship". The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia. Hachette Books. ISBN 9781401395858. Archived from the original on 18 May 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  25. Hesse, Monica (25 June 2011). "Wikipedia editors log off long enough to mingle". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  26. Wikipedia isn't about human potential, whatever Wales says Archived 27 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian. Published 25 September 2008.
  27. Why you should care that Jimmy Wales ignores reality Archived 10 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The Register. Published 6 March 2008.
  28. John Seigenthaler (29 November 2005). "A false Wikipedia "biography"". USA Today. Archivedfrom the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  29. Katharine Q. Seelye (3 December 2005) "Snared in the Web of a Wikipedia Liar" Archived 7 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times Archived 21 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  30. Cohen, Noam (5 March 2007). "A Contributor to Wikipedia Has His Fictional Side". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  31. Cohen, Noam (30 January 2011). "Define Gender Gap? Look Up Wikipedia's Contributor List". New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  32. Cohen, Noam (17 March 2008). "Open-Source Troubles in Wiki World". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  33. "Poland to Honor Wikipedia With Monument". ABC News. 9 October 2014. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2017.