Amnesty International

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Group half.svgAmnesty International
Amnesty international Logo.svg
Val més encendre una espelma que maleir per sempre la foscor, Mieux vaut allumer une bougie que maudire les ténèbres., Better to light a candle than curse the darkness, Es ist besser, eine Kerze anzuzünden, als die Dunkelheit zu verfluchen da ان تشعل شمعة خير من ان تلعن الظلام
Bayanai
Suna a hukumance
Amnesty International
Iri non-governmental organization for development (en) Fassara da nonprofit organization (en) Fassara
Aiyuka
Mamba na Campaign to Stop Killer Robots (en) Fassara
Member count (en) Fassara 160 (2018)
Ƙaramar kamfani na
Mulki
General secretary (en) Fassara Agnès Callamard (en) Fassara
Hedkwata Landan
Amnesty International Sections 2012.svg
Financial data
Haraji 309,000,000 € (2018)
Tarihi
Ƙirƙira 28 Mayu 1961
Wanda ya samar
Founded in Birtaniya
Awards received

amnesty.org


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Amnesty International (ana kuma kiranta Amnesty ko AI ) ƙungiya ce mai zaman kanta ta duniya tare da helkwatarta a ƙasar Burtaniya ta mai da hankali kan 'yancin ɗan adam . Kungiyar ta ce tana da mambobi da magoya baya sama da miliyan bakwai a faɗin duniya.

Manufar kungiyar ita ce yakin neman zabe ga "duniyar da kowane mutum ke jin daɗin dukkan haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam da ke cikin Yarjejeniyar ofan Adam ta Duniya da sauran kayan haƙƙin ɗan adam na duniya ." human rights instruments]]."[1][2][3][4][5] and the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights in 1978.[6][7]

An kafa Amnesty International a Landan a cikin shekara ta 1961, biyo bayan buga labarin " fursunonin da aka manta da su " a cikin jaridar mai lura da kallo a ranar 28 ga Mayun shekara ta 1961, daga lauya Peter Benenson . Amnesty ta ja hankali kan take hakkin bil adama kuma tana fafutukar bin dokokin kasa da kasa. Yana aiki don tattara ra'ayoyin jama'a don haifar da matsin lamba ga gwamnatoci inda cin zarafi ke faruwa. Amnesty ta dauki hukuncin kisan kai a matsayin "karshe, na kin amincewa da hakkin dan adam." An ba wa kungiyar lambar yabo ta Nobel ta zaman lafiya ta shekara ta 1977 saboda "kare mutuncin dan adam daga azabtarwa ," da lambar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a fagen 'Yancin Dan Adam a shekara ta 1978.

A fagen kungiyoyin kare hakkin dan adam na duniya, Amnesty tana da tarihi mafi tsayi na uku, bayan Tarayyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'Yancin Dan-Adam da Kungiyar Kare Hakkin Bauta .

 

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shekarun 1960[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

File:Peter Benenson.jpg
Peter Benenson, wanda ya kafa kungiyar Amnesty International. Ya yi aiki da GC&CS na Biritaniya a Bletchley Park a lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na II.

Barrister Peter Benenson ɗan Ingila ne ya kafa kungiyar Amnesty International a Landan a watan Yulin shekara ta 1961. Benenson ya sami tasirin ne daga abokinsa Louis Blom-Cooper, wanda ya jagoranci kamfen ɗin fursunonin siyasa.

A cewar nasa asusun na Benenson, yana tafiya ne a jirgin karkashin kasa na London a ranar 19 ga Nuwamban shekara ta 1960 lokacin da ya karanta cewa an yanke wa ɗaliban Fotigal biyu daga Coimbra hukuncin ɗaurin shekaru bakwai a Fotigal saboda zargin "sun sha giya a cikin 'yanci". [lower-alpha 1] Masu bincike ba su taɓa gano labarin jaridar da ake zargi ba. [lower-alpha 1] A cikin shekara ta 1960, Estado Novo na gwamnatin António de Oliveira Salazar ke mulkin Portugal. Gwamnati ta kasance mai karfin iko a yanayi kuma tana tsananin adawa da kwaminisanci, tana danne makiyan jihar a matsayin mai adawa da Portugal. A cikin mahimmin labarinsa na gidan kaso "fursunonin da aka manta da su", daga baya Benenson ya bayyana abin da ya aikata kamar haka:

Buɗe jaridar ka kowane rana a mako kuma za ka sami labari daga wani wuri na ɗaure wani, azabtarwa ko kashe shi saboda ra'ayinsa ko addininsa ba zai karɓi gwamnatinsa ba. . . Mai karanta jarida yana jin rashin lafiyar rashin ƙarfi. Amma duk da haka idan waɗannan abubuwan ƙyamar zasu iya haɗuwa zuwa aiki ɗaya, za a iya yin wani abu mai tasiri.

Benenson yayi aiki tare da abokin sa Eric Baker . Baker ya kasance memba ne na kungiyar Addinai ta Abokai wanda ya kasance yana bayar da gudummawa wajen yakin Kamfen din Burtaniya don kwance damarar nukiliya tare da zama shugaban Quaker Peace da Shaidar Jama'a, kuma a cikin bayanan nasa, Benenson ya bayyana shi a matsayin "abokin tarayya a wajen kaddamar da aikin ". [8] A cikin shawarwari tare da sauran marubuta, malamai da lauyoyi kuma, musamman, Alec Digges, sun rubuta ta hanyar Louis Blom-Cooper ga David Astor, editan jaridar The Observer, wanda, a ranar 28 ga Watan Mayun shekara ta 1961, ya buga labarin Benenson "fursunonin da aka manta". Labarin ya jawo hankalin mai karatu ga wadanda "aka daure su, aka azabtar da su ko kuma aka kashe su saboda ra'ayinsa ko addininsa abin karba ne ga gwamnatinsa" ko kuma, a wata hanyar, ga take hakki, da gwamnatoci, na shafuffuka na 18 da 19 na sanarwar duniya ta 'Yancin Dan Adam (UDHR). Labarin ya bayyana wadannan take hakkokin da ke faruwa, a duniya baki daya, a mahallin takaita 'yanci na' yan jarida, da masu adawa da siyasa, da gabatar da shari'ar jama'a a kan lokaci a gaban kotunan da ba na son kai, da kuma neman mafaka. Hakan ya nuna ƙaddamar da "Rokon neman afuwa ga Amnesty, 1961", wanda manufar sa shi ne tattara ra'ayoyin jama'a, cikin hanzari da yaduwa, don kare waɗannan mutane, waɗanda Benenson ya ba wa suna "Fursunonin Lamiri". Da yawa daga cikin jaridun duniya sun sake buga "Rokon neman afuwa". A cikin wannan shekarar, Benenson yana da wani littafi da aka buga, Tsanantawa 1961, wanda ya ba da cikakken bayani game da shari'ar fursunoni tara na lamiri da Benenson da Baker suka bincika kuma suka tattara (Maurice Audin, Ashton Jones, Agostinho Neto, Patrick Duncan, Olga Ivinskaya, Luis Taruc, Constantin Noica, Antonio Amat da Hu Feng ). A watan Yulin Shekara ta 1961, shugabannin sun yanke shawarar cewa roƙon zai zama tushen tushen dindindin kungiya, Amnesty, tare da taron farko da za a yi a London. Benenson ya tabbatar da cewa dukkan manyan jam'iyyun siyasa uku sun samu wakilci, inda ya nemi mambobin majalisar daga Labour Party, Conservative Party, da Liberal Party . A ranar 30 ga Satumba 1962, a hukumance aka sanya mata suna "Amnesty International". Tsakanin "Rokon neman Afuwa, A shekara ta 1961" da watan Satumban shekara ta 1962 an san kungiyar kawai da "Amnesty".

  • A na Auschwitz ne
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  • Lu'u-lu'u na jini
  • Bordertown
  • Kama Wuta
  • A Kurkuku Duk Rayuwata
  • Invictus
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  • Mai Adalcin Kullum
  • Tibet: Fiye da Tsoro
  • Matsalar Ruwa
  • Shekaru 12 Bawa
  • Django Ba a Koyar da shi ba
  • Taimako

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Kyautar Jakadan lamiri
  • Gangamin Kwana 100
  • Amnesty International UK Media Awards
  • Jerin sunayen wadanda suka ci lambar yabo ta kafofin yada labarai na Amnesty International UK
  • Jerin masu gwagwarmayar zaman lafiya
  • Hadin kan Duniya da Hukumcin Mutuwa
  • Masana cikin Hadari

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Amnesty International's Statute". www.amnesty.org.
  2. Benenson, Peter (28 May 1961). "The Forgotten Prisoners". The Observer. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  3. "About Amnesty International". Amnesty International. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
  4. "Death Penalty". Amnesty International. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named AINobelLec
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named AIUNAward
  7. Ronand, James; Ramos, Howard; Rodgers, Kathleen (2005). "Transnational Information Politics: NGO Human Rights Reporting, 1986–2000" (PDF). International Studies Quarterly. pp. 557–587. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2009.
  8. Benenson, P. (1983). Memoir

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]