Gamayyar Sanarwa na Yancin Dan'adam

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Gamayyar Sanarwa na Yancin Dan'adam
Eleanor Roosevelt UDHR.jpg
legislative act, customary international law
bangare naInternational Bill of Human Rights Gyara
farawa10 Disamba 1948 Gyara
native labelUniversal Declaration of Human Rights Gyara
applies to jurisdictionmember states of the United Nations Gyara
titleUniversal Declaration of Human Rights, declaracion universal de los derechos humanos, Allmän förklaring om de mänskliga rättigheterna Gyara
collectionPalais de Chaillot Gyara
official websitehttp://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/ Gyara
legislated byUnited Nations General Assembly Gyara
full work available at URLhttp://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Documents/UDHR_Translations/eng.pdf, https://fn.se/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Allmanforklaringomdemanskligarattigheterna.pdf Gyara
facet ofHakkokin Yan-adam Gyara
mandatesHakkokin Yan-adam Gyara
caption=The human rights adopted by the United Nations General Assembly of its 183rd meeting, held in Paris on 10 December 1948

Sanarwar Kungiyar Kare Hakkokin Dan Adam ta Duniya ( UDHR ) wani kundi ne mai tarihi wanda Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da shi yayin zaman ta na uku a 10 ga watan Disamba 1948 a matsayin Resolution 217 a Palais de Chaillot a Paris, kasar Faransa . Daga cikin mambobi 58 na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, 48 ne suka kada kuri'ar amincewa, babu wanda ya tsaurara, takwas sun kaurace, biyu kuma ba su jefa kuri'ar ba.

Sanarwar ta ƙunshi batutuwa 30 waɗanda ke tabbatar da haƙƙin mutum wanda, duk da cewa ba bin doka da oda a cikin su, an ba da cikakken bayani a cikin yarjejeniyoyin ƙasa da ƙasa, canjin tattalin arziki, kayan aikin ɗan adam na yanki, tsarin mulki na ƙasa, da sauran dokoki. Sanarwar ita ce matakin farko na aiwatarwa da kirkiro da Dokar 'Yan Adam ta Duniya, wacce aka kammala a shekarar 1966, kuma ta fara aiki a shekarar 1976, bayan isassun kasashe da suka rattaba hannu akan su.

Wasu Malaman Shari'a sun sa'insa da kafa hujja da cewa saboda kasashe sun saba kiran na sama da shekaru 50, yanzu ya zama wani bangare na dokar kasa da kasa . [1] [2] Koyaya, a Amurka, Kotun Koli a Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain (2004), ta yanke hukuncin cewa "Sanarwar" ba ta da karfin kanta ba ta sanya wajibai a cikin dokokin kasa da kasa. " [3] Kotunan wasu ƙasashe sun kuma yanke hukuncin cewa Sanarwar ba ta cikin kuma kanta ɓangaren dokar cikin gida.

Tsari da abunda ke ciki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An gabatar da tsarin Bayanan na Sanarwar ta Duniya a cikin daftarin na biyu wanda René Cassin ya shirya . Cassin ya yi aiki daga daftarin farko, wanda John Peters Humphrey ya shirya . Tsarin Napoléon ya rinjayi tsarin, wanda ya hada da ƙa'idoji da gabatarwa na ka'idoji na gabatarwa. Cassin ya kwatanta Zancen da kamar ɗakin ginin haikalin Girka, tare da tushe, matakai, ginshiƙai huɗu, da farfajiya .

Sanarwar ta kunshi mahimmin bayanai na mukaloli talatin:

  • Wallafan ya gabatar da dalilai na tarihi da na zamantakewa waɗanda suka haifar da wajibcin yin Bayanin.
  • Mukala na 1-2 sun kafu ne akan asalin mutunci, 'yanci da daidaituwa.
  • Mukala na 3 da kafa 5 sun tsayar da wasu haƙƙoƙin mutum, kamar yancin rayuwa da haramcin bautar da azabtarwa.
  • Mukala na 6 zuwa 11 yana magana ne game da mahimmancin haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam tare da takamaiman maganganun da aka ambata don kare su idan aka keta doka.
  • Mukala ta 12 zuwa 17 sun tabbatar da haqin mutum a cikin alumma (gami da abubuwa irin su 'yancin motsi ).
  • Mukala na 18-21 ya sanya wa abin da ake kira "'yancin walwala na kundin tsarin mulki", kuma tare da' yancin ruhaniya, jama'a, da siyasa, kamar 'yancin tunani, ra'ayi, addini da lamiri, magana, da haɗin zaman lafiya na mutum.
  • Mukala na 22-27 ya rattaba hannu kan haƙƙoƙin mutum na tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu, gami da harkar kiwon lafiya . Mataki na 25 ya ce: "Kowane mutum na da hakkin ya sami matsayin zama daidai gwargwado ga lafiya da ci gaban kansa da na iyalinsa, waɗanda suka haɗa da abinci, sutura, gidaje da kula da lafiya da kuma hidimomin rayuwa na yau da kullun." Hakanan yana samar da ƙarin masauki don tsaro idan akwai batun lalacewa ta jiki ko tawaya, kuma ya ambaci kulawa ta musamman ga waɗanda ke cikin uwa ko ƙuruciya.
  • Magana ta 28-30 sun kafa hanyoyin gaba ɗaya na amfani da waɗannan haƙƙoƙin, yankunan da ba za a iya amfani da waɗannan haƙƙin haƙƙin mutum ba, kuma ba za a iya cin nasara da su ba.

Wadannan jawabai suna da alaqa da haqqin mutum ga alumma da haramcin yin amfani da doka dake da sabawa manufar Kungiyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ba.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mafarin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:Listen A lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na II, yan kawancen na Kungiyoyin sun amince da reeda'idoji huxu - 'yancin faɗin albarkacin baki, ' yancin addini, 'yanci daga tsoro, da ' yanci daga buƙata - kamar manufarsu ta yaƙi. [4] Yarjejeniya ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya "ta sake ba da gaskiya ga hakkoki na dan adam, da mutunci da kimar mutum", kuma ta himmatu ga dukkan kasashe mambobi don inganta “girmama duniya, da kiyaye haƙƙin ɗan adam da 'yancin yanci na kowa da kowa ba tare da nuna bambancin launin fata ba. jima'i, yare, ko addini ".

Lokacin da ayyukan zaluncin da Nazi ta yi a fili bayan yakin duniya na II, yarjejeniya tsakanin al'ummomin duniya ita ce Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya bata fayyace ainihin irin hakkin ta b, wacce ta ambata. [5] Sanarwa ta duniya wacce ta ayyana hakkokin mutane ya zama dole don aiwatar da tanadin Yarjejeniyar kan hakkin Dan-Adam.

Kirkira[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

da tsarawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A watan Yuni na shekarar 1946, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta kafa Kwamitin Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam, wanda ya kunshi membobi 18 daga kasashen da siyasosi daban daban. Kwamitin, cikakken mamba ne na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, an tsara shi don aiwatar da aikin shirya abin da aka fara aiwatarwa a matsayin Dokar Kare Hakkin Kasa da Kasa .

Hukumar ta kafa wata sanarwa ta musamman game da zartar da batun kare hakkin Dan-Adam, wanda Eleanor Roosevelt ke jagoranta, don rubuta labaran sanarwar. Kwamitin ya hadu a cikin zama biyun a tsawon shekaru biyu.

Canada John Peters Humphrey, D na Division of Human Rights cikin United Nations sakatariya, an kirãyi da United Nations Sakatare Janar zuwa aiki a kan aikin da ya zama jawabi ta babba drafter. A lokacin, an nada Humphrey a matsayin sabon Daraktan sashen 'yancin dan adam a cikin sakatariyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya .

Sauran sanannun mambobin kwamitin da aka tsara sun hada da René Cassin na Faransa, Charles Malik na Lebanon, da PC na Jamhuriyar China . [6] Humphrey ya samar da daftarin farko wanda ya zama aikin Hukumar.

Hansa Mehta daga Indiya ta ba da shawarar ƙara "dukkan 'yan adam an halicce daidai" maimakon "dukkan mutane an daidaita su" a cikin sanarwar.

A cewar Allan Carlson, Sanarwa ta danganta dangi sakamakon sakamakon gwagwarmayar mabiya addinin kirista ne kan Cassin da Malik.

Da zarar Kwamitin ya kammala aikinsa a watan Mayu 1948, Hukumar ta kara tattaunawa kan batun kare hakkin dan Adam, Kwamitin tattalin arziki da na zamantakewa, Kwamitin Uku na Babban Taro kafin a sanya shi a watan Disamba 1948. Yayin tattaunawar an tattauna abubuwa da yawa da bada shawarwari daga kasashe mambobin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya.

Wakilan Birtaniya sun ji takaici matuka cewa shirin yana da ɗabi'a amma ba doka ba ce. (Ya kasance har zuwa 1976 ne Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'Yancin Jama'a da Siyasa ya fara aiki, yana ba da matsayin doka ga yawancin Sanarwar. )

Dauka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban Majalisar Dinkin Duniya amince da a matsayin Resolution 217 a ranar 10   Disamba 1948 a Palais de Chaillot, Paris, kamar yadda aka yi taro na uku na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a can. Daga cikin wakilai 58 na lokacin na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, 48 suka kada kuri'ar amincewa, babu wanda ya hana, takwas sun kaurace kuma Honduras da Yemen sun kasa kada kuri'a ko kauracewa.

Rikodin taron ya ba da fahimtar abin da ya dace da mahawara. Ana iya ganin matsayin Afirka ta kudu a matsayin yunƙurin kare tsarin wariyar launin fata, wanda a fili ya keta abubuwa da yawa a cikin sanarwar. Haramcin wakilan na Saudi Arabiya ya haifar da abubuwa biyu daga cikin Maganar sanarwa: Fasali na 18, wanda ke nuna cewa kowa na da 'yancin canza addininsa ko akidarsa "; da Mataki na goma sha shida, akan madaidaicin hakkin aure. asashen shida masu ra'ayin gurguzu sun rataya a wuyansu cewa Bayyanar bai isa ya la'anci farkisanci da Naziyanci ba. Eleanor Roosevelt ya danganta haramcin kasashen kungiyar Soviet a cikin Mataki na goma sha uku, wanda ya bayar da hakkin 'yan kasa barin kasashensu .

Zaben jefa kuri'a a cikin zaman majalisarku:



</br> Kasashe masu kore: sun yi zabe cikin yarda;



</br> Kasashen Orange: sun kaurace;



</br> Kasashen bakaken fata: sun gaza kaurace musu ko jefa kuri'a;



</br> Kasashe masu launin toka: basa cikin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a lokacin jefa kuri'a

Kasashe 48 da suka kada kuri'ar amincewa da wannan sanarwar sune: Template:Columns-list

a. ^ Dukda babban mataki da John Peters Humphrey na Canada ya dauka, sai a fari Gwamnatin Canada ta kaurace daga zabe akan daftarin Declaration's din, amma daga baya ta maya baya a daftarin karshe a Babban taron Majalisar.[31]

Kasashe takwas sun kauracewa: Template:Columns-list Kasashe biyu ba su yi zaben ba:

Sauran ƙasashe sun sami ikon mallaka ne kawai kuma suka shiga Majalisar Dinkin Duniya daga baya, wanda ke bayani game da relativelyan kananan jihohin da suka cancanci kada kuri'un tarihi.

Ranar 'Yancin Dan Adam ta Duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sanarwar ranar kare hakkin Dan Adam ana tunawa da kowace shekara   10 ga Disamba, ranar tunawa da ranar Yarda da Jama'a, kuma ana kiranta Ranar 'Yancin Dan Adam ko Ranar' Yancin Dan Adam na Duniya. Ana yin wannan taron tunawa da mutane, al'umma da kuma kungiyoyin addinai, kungiyoyin kare hakkin dan adam, majalisun dokoki, gwamnatoci, da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. Taron tunawa da bikin Decadal yakan kasance tare da kamfen don inganta wayar da kan jama'a game da sanarwa da 'yancin ɗan adam. Shekarar 2008 ta cika shekaru 60 da sanarwar, kuma an samu rakiyar ayyukan shekara guda da taken "Mutunci da adalci ga dukkanmu".

Mahimmanci da tasirin dokar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Muhimmanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin karamin littafi

A shekara ta 1948, UN Resolution A / RES / 217 (III) [A] ya karɓi wannan sanarwa a kan takaddar yarukan magana da Ingilishi da Faransanci, da fassarar hukuma a cikin Sinanci, Rashanci da Spanish . A shekara ta 2009, Littafin Guinness Book of Records ya bayyana Sanarwa a matsayin “Mafi Canzantar daftarin Dokoki” a duniya (370 yare da yare daban daban). Kamfanin Unicode Consortium yana adana 431 [7] na 503 [8] fassarar hukuma a OHCHR ( As of 2017 ).

A wajansa, gwamnatoci sun sadaukar da kansu da jama'arsu don matakan ci gaba waɗanda ke tabbatar da duniya da inganci daraja da kiyaye haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam da aka bayyana a cikin Sanarwa. Eleanor Roosevelt ya goyi bayan ɗaukar wannan sanarwar a matsayin sanarwa maimakon yarjejeniya saboda ta yi imanin cewa tana da tasiri iri ɗaya kan al'ummomin duniya kamar yadda sanarwar Statesancin Samun 'yanci na Amurka a cikin Amurka. Kodayake ba ta da hurumin bin doka, an gabatar da sanarwar ne ko ya rinjayi mafi yawan tsarin mulkin kasa tun 1948. Hakanan ya kasance tushen harsashi na haɓaka dokokin ƙasa, dokokin ƙasa, da yarjejeniyoyi, har ma da ci gaba na cibiyoyin yanki, yanki da na ƙasa waɗanda ke kiyayewa da inganta haƙƙin ɗan adam.

A karo na farko a cikin dokokin kasa da kasa, an yi amfani da kalmar "bin doka" a cikin shelar sanarwa. Sakin layi na uku na sanarwar ƙa'idar ya karanta kamar haka: "Ganin cewa yana da mahimmanci, idan ba a tilasta wa ɗan adam ya sake neman doka ba, a matsayin makoma ta ƙarshe, tawaye ga zalunci da zalunci, ya kamata a kiyaye haƙƙin ɗan adam ta dokar doka. "

Tasirin doka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duk da yake ba yarjejeniya ce da kanta ba, an zartar da sanarwar ta dalla-dalla don ma'anar ma'anar kalmomin " 'yanci na asali " da "haƙƙin ɗan adam" wanda ke fitowa a cikin Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, wadda ke ɗaure a kan dukkan ƙasashe membobinsu. A saboda wannan dalili, Sanarwar Kasashen Duniya na 'Yancin Dan Adam muhimmin aiki ne na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. Bugu da kari, da yawa daga cikin lauyoyin kasa da kasa yi imanin cewa Sanarwar ta zama wani bangare na dokokin kasa da kasa na al'ada kuma wani kayan aiki ne mai karfi wajen amfani da matsin lambar diflomasiya da halin kirki ga gwamnatocin da ke keta duk wani labarin nata. Taron na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na shekara ta 1968 game da hakkin Dan-Adam ya ba da shawarar cewa wannan sanarwar "ta wajaba ne ga mambobin kasashen duniya" ga dukkan mutane. Sanarwar ta yi aiki a matsayin kafuwar yarjejeniyoyi biyu na kare hakkin dan adam na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya: Alkawarin kasa da kasa kan 'yancin jama'a da siyasa da kuma yarjejeniya ta kasa da kasa kan tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu . An fayyace ka'idodin wannan sanarwar a cikin yarjejeniyoyin kasa da kasa kamar Yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa kan kawar da kowane nau'in nuna wariyar launin fata, Yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa kan kawar da wariyar launin fata a kan mata, Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan 'yancin Yara, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya Ganawa game da azabtarwa, da ƙari masu yawa. Sanarwar ta ci gaba da ambata ta hanyar gwamnatoci, malamai, masu bayar da shawarwari, da kotunan tsarin mulki, da kuma daidaikun mutane da ke kiran ka'idodinta don kare hakkinsu da suka dan adam.

Martai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yabo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

MBayanin Duniya ya samu yabo daga wasu sanannun mutane. Masanin Falsafa na Lebanon kuma jami'in diflomasiyya Charles Malik ya kira shi "takardun kasa da kasa na mahimmancin farko", yayin da Eleanor Roosevelt - shugabar shugabar hukumar ta 'yancin ɗan adam (CHR) wacce ta ƙaddamar da sanarwar - ta ce hakan "na iya kyau zama Magna Carta ta duniya na duka mutane a ko'ina. " A cikin jawabin da ya yi a ranar 5 ga Oktoba 1995, Fafaroma John Paul II ya kira da sanarwar "ɗayan manyan maganganu na lamirin mutum a zamaninmu" amma Vatican ba ta taɓa amincewa da wannan sanarwar ba. A cikin wata sanarwa a ranar 10 ga Disamba 2003 a madadin Kungiyar Tarayyar Turai, Marcello Spatafora ta ce wannan sanarwar "ta sanya 'yancin bil adama a tsakiyar tsarin ka'idodi da wajibai na daidaita dangantaka a tsakanin kasashen duniya."

Suka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasashen musulmai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Turkiyya, kasa ce mai zaman kanta wacce take da yawan musulmai, ta rattaba hannu cikin wannan sanarwa a shekarar 1948. Ko ta yaya, a wannan shekarar, Saudi Arabiya ta kauracewa jefa kuri’ar amincewa da wannan sanarwar, tana mai cewa hakan ya saba wa ka’idar Sharia . Pakistan - wacce ta rattaba hannu kan sanarwar - ta musanta da kuma yin Allah wadai da matsayin Saudiyya. Ministan Pakistan Muhammad Zafarullah Khan ya yi jayayya mai yawa game da yarda da haɗe da 'yancin addini. [9] A shekarar 1982, da kasar Iran wakilin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, Said Rajaie-Khorassani, ya ce cewa jawabi ya "a wadanda mutane fahimtar da Judeo-Kirista hadisin", wanda ba za a iya aiwatar da Musulmi ba tare da rikici da Sharia. A ranar 30 ga Yuni 2000, mambobin kungiyar Taron Addinin Musulunci (yanzu Kungiyar Hadin gwiwar Musulunci ) suka yanke hukunci a hukumance don nuna goyon baya ga Bayyanar Alkahira game da Hakkokin bil'adama a cikin Musulunci, wani takaddar takaddar da ta ce mutane suna da 'yanci da hakkinsu na rayuwa mai daraja daidai da shari'ar musulinci ", ba tare da wani banbanci ba akan dalilan" launin, launi, yare, jinsi, akida, addini, dangantakar siyasa, matsayin zamantakewa ko wasu sharudda ".

Wasu jami'an diflomasiyya na musulmai za su ci gaba daga baya don taimakawa wajen tsara wasu yarjejeniyoyin kare hakkin dan Adam na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. Misali, diflomasiyyar Iraki Bedia Afnan ta dage kan maganarta cewa an sami daidaito tsakanin jinsi ya haifar da Mataki na 3 a cikin ICCPR da ICESCR . Jami’ar diflomasiyar kasar Pakistan Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah ita ma ta yi magana don nuna godiya ga hakkokin mata. [9]

Yawancin malamai a fannoni daban-daban sun bayyana damuwarsu game da Sanarwar da ake zargin kasashen yamma da aikatawa. Wadannan sun hada da Irene Oh, Abdulaziz Sachedina, Riffat Hassan, da Faisal Kutty . Hassan ya kafa hujja da cewa:

Abin da ake buƙatar nunawa ga waɗanda ke riƙe da sanarwa ta 'Yancin dan Adam ta zama mafi girma, ko tafin kafaɗa, na tsarin ba da daidaituwa da' yanci ga dukkan bil'adama, shi ne wanda aka ba Asalin ƙasashen yamma da manufar wannan Sanarwa, "ilimin halittu" na zato wanda ake dogaro da a ƙallatsala da batun tambaya. Kari akan haka, zargin rashin daidaituwa tsakanin manufar 'yancin ɗan adam da kuma addinin gabaɗaya, ko kuma takamaiman addinai irin su Islama, ana buƙatar bincika ta hanyar da ba ta dace ba.

Irene Oh ta bayar da hujjar cewa mafita guda ita ce kusanci da batun daga hangen nasihu (kwatancen) kyawawan dabi'u .

Kutty ya rubuta cewa: "Hujja mai karfi za a iya cewa tsarin samar da 'yancin dan Adam na duniya ya zama tsarin al'adu wanda al'ummar yammacin duniya ke samun saukin kai a gida. . . Yana da muhimmanci a amince da sanin cewa sauran al'ummomin na iya samun damar musayar ra'ayi daban-daban na hakkin Dan-Adam. "

"Hakkin kin Kisa"[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kungiyoyi kamar su Amnesty International [10] da War Resisters International [11] sun ba da sanarwar “'Yancin Kiyaki Kisa” da za a sanya su cikin Sanarwar Kasashen Duniya. War Resisters International ya bayyana cewa 'yancin yin kiyayya ga aikin soja ya samo asali ne daga farko - amma ba a fayyace ba a-Mataki na 18 na UDHR:' yancin walwala da tunani da lamiri da addini.

An dauki matakai a cikin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya don tabbatar da wannan hakkin a bayyane, amma As of 2017 an takaita wadancan matakan ne zuwa karan tsaye na takardun Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. Sean MacBride - Babban Sakatare Janar na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da lambar yabo ta zaman lafiya ta Nobel - ya ce: "Ga hakkokin da ke kunshe a cikin Sanarwar Kasashen Duniya game da Hakkokin bil'adama nan gaba, za a iya kara. Yana da '' yancin Karyata Kashe Shi ''. [12]

Kungiyar Anthropological American[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Antungiyar Anthropological American ta soki UDHR yayin da take cikin shirinta na tsarawa. AAA ta yi gargadin cewa kundin zai kasance yana bayyana hakkokin duniya daga yanayin kasashen yamma wanda ba zai dace da kasashen da ke wannan batun ba. Sun kara da cewa tarihin kasashen yamma na mulkin mallaka da wa'azin bishara yasa suka zama wakilin matsala na sauran al'ummomin duniya. Sun gabatar da bayanin kula guda uku don tattaunawa tare da mahimman bayanai game da alaƙar al'adu : "1. Kowane mutum ya san dabi'unsa ta hanyar al'adarsa, saboda haka mutunta bambance-bambancen mutum ya zama girmamawa ga bambance-bambancen al'adu "," 2. Mutunta bambance-bambance tsakanin al'adu an inganta shi ta hanyar ilimin kimiyya cewa babu wata dabara ta gwajin ingancin al'adu da aka gano ", da" 3. Matsayi da martabobi suna da alaƙa da al'adun da suka samo asali ta yadda duk wani yunƙurin kirkirar wasu abubuwa waɗanda suka girma daga imani ko ɗabi'un kyawawan al'adu guda ɗaya to lallai hakan ya nesanta daga dacewa da duk wani sanarwa game da haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam ga ɗan adam gabaɗaya. . "

Bayanin Bangkok[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A lokacin kaiwa ga taron Duniya kan 'Yancin Dan Adam da aka gudanar a shekarar 1993, ministocin daga kasashen Asiya sun amince da wannan sanarwar Bangkok, tare da jaddada kudirin gwamnatocinsu ga ka’idodin Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da Yarda da Duniya game da Hakkokin Yan Adam. Sun bayyana ra'ayinsu game da daidaituwa da rarrabewar haƙƙin ɗan adam da kuma jaddada bukatar samaniya, aiki, da zaɓin haƙƙin ɗan adam. Koyaya, a lokaci guda, sun jaddada ka'idodin ikon mallakar kai tsaye da rashin tsangwama, suna kiran babbar girmamawa ga tattalin arziki, zamantakewa, da al'adun - musamman, 'yancin haɓakar tattalin arziƙi akan haƙƙin jama'a da siyasa. A Bangkok jawabi da aka dauke su a landmark magana na Asian dabi'u hangen zaman gaba, wanda yayi wani Extended sharhi na kare hakkin dan adam universalism .

Hukuncin kisa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sanarwar ba ta dauki tsinkayen ra'ayi kan hukuncin kisa ba . Mataki na biyar ya ce: "Ba wanda za a azabtar da shi ko a zaluntar shi, a cikin mutane ko a wulakantar da su, ko azaba."

Kungiyoyi masu neman cigaban UDHR[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarayyar Duniya don 'yancin ɗan adam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Federationungiyar 'Yancin Dan Adam ta Duniya (FIDH) ba ta da wariya, ba ta ƙabilarci ba ce, ba ta da' yanci da kowace hukuma, kuma babban aikinta shi ne haɓaka girmamawa ga dukkan haƙƙoƙin da aka bayyana a cikin Sanarwar Kasashen Duniya na Rightsancin Bil Adama, Yarjejeniyar Kasa da onasa kan Civilungiyoyin Yan Adam da Siyasa., da kuma Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan Hakkokin tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da Al'adu . [13]

Amnesty International[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1988, darekta Stephen R. Johnson da masu ba da labari na duniya 41, mawaƙa, da masu samarwa sun kirkiro bidiyon na minti 20 don Amnesty International don murnar cikar shekaru 40 na sanarwar Duniya. Batun bidiyon shi ne Magana game da sanarwa 30.

Kungiyar kare hakkin bil adama ta Amnesty International ta yi bikin Ranar ‘Yancin Dan Adam da kuma Shekaru 60 na sanarwar Kasa da Kasa a duk fadin duniya ta hanyar shirya" Gobarar wuta! " aukuwa.

Ofishin Quaker na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da Kwamitin Ayyukan Abokai na Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ofishin Quaker na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da Kwamitin Bauta na Amurka suna aiki kan batutuwan take hakkokin bil'adama, da suka hada da inganta ilimi kan Sanarwar Kasashen Duniya na Yan-Adam. Sun kirkiro wani tsari don taimakawa gabatar da ɗalibai na makarantar sakandare zuwa sanarwar ofan Adam ta Duniya.

Kungiyar Library ta Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A 1997, majalisar Libraryungiyar Libraryungiyar Makarantar Amurka (ALA) ta amince da Mataki na 19 daga Sanarwar 'Yancin Bil Adama na Duniya. Hakanan hade da Mataki na 19, Mataki na 18 da na 20 kuma suna da alaƙa da hakkokin AlA akan haƙƙin toan Adam da Dokar Libraryancin Makaranta . Takunkumi, mamayar sirrin jama'a, da kuma kutsawa cikin ra'ayoyi sune take hakkin Dan-Adam a cewar ALA.

Game da take hakkin Dan-Adam, ALA tana ba da ka'idoji kamar haka: Template:Quote

Matasa masu Kare Hakkin Dan Adam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Matasa don 'Yancin Dan Adam na Duniya (YHRI) wata kungiya ce mai zaman kanta wacce aka kafa a 2001 ta Mary Shuttleworth, malama ce wacce aka Haifa kuma ta girma a Afirka Ta Kudu, inda ta ba da labari ta hanyar illar wariyar launin fata da kuma rashin' yancin ɗan adam. Manufar YYRIRI ita ce koya wa matasa game da haƙƙin ɗan Adam, musamman Sanarwar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta ofancin Humanancin Bil Adama, da kuma zuga su su zama masu ba da shawara ga haƙuri da zaman lafiya. YHRI yanzu ya zama babban motsi na duniya, wanda ya hada da daruruwan ƙungiyoyi, kulake da babi a duk faɗin duniya.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:Portal

Dokar 'yancin ɗan adam ta ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Tarihin 'yancin ɗan adam
  • Manufofin Yogyakarta

Yarjejeniyar da bata da alaƙa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Bayanin Alkahira game da Hakkin Dan Adam a Musulunci (1990)
  • Bayanin Vienna da Tsarin aiki (1993)
  • Sanarwar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya Millennium (2000)

'Yan Tunanku suna tasiri cikin sanarwar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jacques Maritain
  • Tommy Douglas
  • John Sankey, 1st Viscount Sankey

W[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Henry J Steiner and Philip Alston, International Human Rights in Context: Law, Politics, Morals, (2nd ed), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000.
  2. Hurst Hannum, The universal declaration of human rights in National and International Law, p.145
  3. Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, 542 U.S. 692, 734 (2004).
  4. Bodnar, John, The "Good War" in American Memory. (Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010) 11
  5. Cataclysm and World Response in Drafting and Adoption : The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, udhr.org.
  6. The Declaration was drafted during the Chinese Civil War. P.C. Chang was appointed as a representative by the Republic of China, then the recognised government of China, but which was driven from mainland China and now administers only Taiwan and nearby islands (history.com).
  7. "UDHR in Unicode – Translations", Unicode, retrieved 8-6-2017
  8. "Search by Translation", UDHR Translation Project, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, retrieved 13-8-2017.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Hashemi, Nader and Emran Qureshi. "Human Rights." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online.
  10. Out of the margins: the right to conscientious objection to military service in Europe: An announcement of Amnesty International's forthcoming campaign and briefing for the UN Commission on Human Rights, 31 March 1997. Amnesty International.
  11. A Conscientious Objector's Guide to the UN Human Rights System, Parts 1, 2 & 3, Background Information on International Law for COs, Standards which recognise the right to conscientious objection, War Resisters' International.
  12. Sean MacBride, The Imperatives of Survival, Nobel Lecture, 12 December 1974, The Nobel Foundation – Official website of the Nobel Foundation. (English index page; hyperlink to Swedish site.) From Nobel Lectures in Peace 1971–1980.
  13. Information Partners, web site of the UNHCR, last updated 25 February 2010, 16:08 GMT (web retrieval 25 February 2010, 18:11 GMT)

Ruwayoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Karin karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abubuwa na sauti da kallon[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]