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Artillery

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Sojoji na Royal Artillery suna harbin 105mm light howitzers yayin wani atisaye (2013)

 

Artillery
weapon functional class (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na projectile weapon (en) Fassara
Amfani wajen artillery (en) Fassara

Artillery wani nau'in manyan makamai ne na soji wanda ke harba alburusai da ya wuce iyaka da karfin bindigog. Haɓaka manyan bindigogi na farko sun mayar da hankali kan ikon keta katangar tsaro da kagara yayin kewaye, kuma ya haifar da injunan kewaye masu nauyi, marasa motsi. Yayin da fasaha ta inganta, sauƙi, ƙarin bindigogin bindigogi na filin hannu sun haɓaka don amfani da filin daga. Wannan ci gaban yana ci gaba a yau; Motoci masu sarrafa kansu na zamani makamai ne na tafi da gidanka masu girman gaske gabaɗaya suna ba da kaso mafi girma na ƙarfin wuta na sojoji.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Asali, kalmar “artillery” tana nufin kowane rukuni na sojoji da farko dauke da wani nau’i na kera makami ko sulke. Tun lokacin da aka gabatar da gunpowder da igwa, "harbin bindigogi" sun fi mayar da ma'anar igwa, kuma a cikin amfani da zamani, yawanci yana nufin harsashi- harbe-harben bindigogi, howitzers, da kuma turmi (wanda ake kira ganga artillery, igwa bindigogi, bindigogi bindigogi, ko - a layman kalmar. - manyan bindigogi ), da makaman roka. A cikin jawabai na yau da kullun, ana amfani da kalmar "harba bindigogi" don yin nuni ga na'urori guda ɗaya, tare da na'urorin haɗi da kayan aikin su, kodayake waɗannan taro an fi kiran su da "kayan aiki". Duk da haka, babu wani kalma da aka sani gabaɗaya ga bindiga, bindigu, turmi, da sauransu: Amurka tana amfani da “bindigu”, amma yawancin sojojin Ingilishi suna amfani da “bindigo” da “turmi”. The projectiles harba yawanci ko dai " harbi " (idan m) ko "harsashi" (idan ba m). A tarihance, an yi amfani da bambance-bambancen harba mai ƙarfi da suka haɗa da gwangwani, harbin sarkar da innabi. "Shell" kalma ce da aka yi amfani da ita sosai don ma'auni, wanda wani bangare ne na bindigogi.

Ta hanyar haɗin gwiwa, manyan bindigogi kuma na iya komawa ga hannun sabis wanda ya saba sarrafa irin waɗannan injuna. A wasu runduna, makaman bindigu sun yi amfani da filin, bakin teku, da jiragen yaki, da na tankokin yaki; A wasu kuma waɗannan makamai ne daban-daban, kuma tare da wasu ƙasashe na bakin teku sun kasance alhakin ruwa ko na ruwa.

A cikin karni na 20, na'urorin sayan manufa na tushen fasaha (kamar radar) da tsarin (kamar sautin sauti da tabo ) sun fito don samun hari, musamman na bindigogi. Ana sarrafa waɗannan yawanci ta ɗaya ko fiye na makaman bindigu. Yaduwar gobara ta kaikaice a farkon karni na 20 ya gabatar da bukatar samar da bayanan kwararru na manyan bindigogi, musamman bincike da yanayi, kuma a wasu rundunonin, samar da wadannan alhakin ne na hannun manyan bindigogi.

An yi amfani da bindigogi tun aƙalla farkon juyin juya halin masana'antu. Yawancin mutuwar yaƙi a cikin Yaƙin Napoleon, Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya, da Yaƙin Duniya na Biyu an yi su ne ta hanyar manyan bindigogi. A cikin 1944, Joseph Stalin ya ce a cikin jawabinsa cewa bindigogi "allahn yaki ne".[1]

Gungun bindigogi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sojojin Faransa a cikin Yaƙin Franco-Prussian 1870-71
Bindigar 64 Pounder Rifled Muzzle-Loaded (RML) Bindigo a kan wani dutsen Moncrieff da ya bace, a Scaur Hill Fort, Bermuda. Wannan wani yanki ne na ƙayyadaddun baturi, wanda ake nufi don kariya daga kai hari kan ƙasa da kuma aiki azaman manyan bindigogi na bakin teku.

Ko da yake ba a kira haka ba, injinan kewayen da ke yin aikin da aka sani a matsayin manyan bindigogi ana amfani da su a cikin yaƙi tun zamanin da. An kirkiro katafat na farko da aka sani a Syracuse a cikin 399 BC. Har zuwa shigar da foda a cikin yakin yammacin duniya, bindigogi sun dogara ne akan makamashin injina wanda ba wai kawai ya iyakance ƙarfin motsi na injin ba, yana buƙatar gina manyan injuna don adana isassun makamashi. Ƙarni na 1 BC Roman catapult yana ƙaddamar da 6.55 kg (14.4 lb) duwatsu sun sami makamashin motsi na 16,000 joules, idan aka kwatanta da tsakiyar karni na 19 na 12-pounder, wanda ya harba 4.1 kg (9.0 lb) zagaye, tare da kuzarin motsa jiki na joules 240,000, ko wani jirgin ruwan Amurka na ƙarni na 20 wanda ya harba 1,225 kg (2,701 lb) hasashe daga babban baturin sa tare da matakin makamashi wanda ya zarce joules 350,000,000.

Tun daga tsakiyar zamanai zuwa mafi yawan zamani na zamani, manyan bindigogin dawakai ke motsawa a cikin ƙasa . A zamanin da, bindigogin bindigu da ma'aikatansu sun dogara da abin hawa ko masu tafiya a matsayin abin hawa. Wadannan nau'o'in bindigogi na kasa an yi su ne da bindigogin jirgin kasa ; mafi girma daga cikin waɗannan manyan bindigogin da aka taɓa ɗauka - Project Babylon of the Supergun al'amarin - ya kasance yana iya saka tauraron dan adam a cikin kewayawa . Har ila yau makaman roka da sojojin ruwa ke amfani da su sun canza sosai, tare da makamai masu linzami gaba daya maye gurbin bindigogi a yakin saman .

Artillery

A tsawon tarihin soja, an kera injina daga abubuwa iri-iri, zuwa sifofi iri-iri, ta hanyar amfani da hanyoyi daban-daban da za a kai hari ga ayyukan tsare-tsare/kare da kuma yi wa abokan gaba rauni . Aikace-aikacen injiniya don isar da kayan aiki suma sun canza sosai akan lokaci, wanda ya ƙunshi wasu rikitattun fasahohin zamani da ake amfani da su a yau.

A wasu runduna, makamin da ake amfani da su wajen harba makamai ne, ba na’urorin da ke harba shi ba. Hanyar isar da wuta a kan wanda aka hari ana kiransa bindiga. Ayyukan da ke tattare da yin aikin bindigu ana kiransu gaba ɗaya "bautar da bindiga" ta hanyar "wasanni" ko ma'aikatan bindiga, wanda ya zama ko dai kai tsaye ko kuma kai tsaye. Yadda ake amfani da ma'aikatan bindiga (ko gyare-gyare) ana kiransu tallafin manyan bindigogi. A lokuta daban-daban a tarihi, wannan na iya nufin makaman da aka ƙera don harba su daga ƙasa, teku, har ma da dandamalin makaman da suka dogara da shi.  

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Weapons

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