Awka

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Globe icon.svgAwka
Awka city.jpg

Wuri
 6°12′N 7°04′E / 6.2°N 7.07°E / 6.2; 7.07
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaNajeriya
Jerin jihohi a NijeriyaAnambra
Babban birnin
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 301,657 (2006)
Labarin ƙasa
Sun raba iyaka da
Nibo (en) Fassara
Awka.

Awka (Harshen Igbo: Ọka)[1] birni ne, da ke a jihar Anambra, a ƙasar Nijeriya. Shi ne babban birnin jihar Anambra. Bisa ga ƙidayar jama'a a shekarar 2006, jimilar mutane 301,657 (dubu dari uku da ɗaya da dari shida da hamsin da bakwai). An ayyana yawan jama'a a 2018 akalla mutum miliyan 2.5. An gina birnin Awka a karni na 19. Birnin na da nisan kilomita 199.1 (123.7 mi) ta titi kai tsaye har zuwa arewacin Portharcourt.[2]


Babban titin West-East Federal highway ta hade Birnin Awka da garuruwa kamar Lagos, Benin City, Asaba da Enugu, sannan wasu kananan hanyoyi sun hada birnin da garuruwa da dama kamar Oko ,Ekwulobia, Agulu, Enugwu-Ukwu, Abagana da kuma Nnewi.

A tsarence, Awka na nan a tsakiyar muhimman garuruwan Inyamurai guda biya na arewacin kasar Igbo, watau Onitsha da Enugu, wanda suka taka muhimmin rawa a zabenta a matsayin cibiyar gudanarwa na lokacin turawan mulkin mallaka da kuma a yanzu a matsayin babban birnin jihar Anambara.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Awka tana daya daga cikin tsaffin garuruwan inyamurai, wacce aka samar zamanin ganiyar Nri, wacce ta zamo daya daga cikin yankunan farko na harkokin hake-haken tagulla a nahiyar Afurka, a tsakanin shekara ta 800AD., kuma tana daya daga cikin ginshikan garuruwan Inyamurai.

Asalin mutanen da suka fara zama a birnin Awka sune mutanen Ifiteana, sun kasance shahararrun manoma ne, mafarauta kuma makera wanda suke zaune a gabar rafin Ogwugwu, wanda aka fi sani da yankin Nkwelle a yau (wato Awka a rubuce).[3]

Abun bautar Ifiteana wanda aka fi sani da Ọkịka-na-ube ko kuma ubangiji mai kibiya, su kuma mutanen ana kiransu da Ụmụ-Ọkanube wato "mabiya Ọkanube,” wanda daga baya aka hade su Ụmụ-Ọka

A zamunan baya, Awka cike take da giwaye, wanda ake kiran yankin da Ama-enyi, sannan kuma akwai tafki "Iyi-Enyi" inda giwaye ke taruwa don shan ruwa. Ana farautar giwayen saboda kahunansu masu tsada wanda ake ajiyewa a gidaje a matsayin tambarin abun bauta Ọkanube a kowanne gida a Awka, ana ajiye magungunan farauta a cikin kahunan giwayen.

Garin tayi fice a fannin sarrafa karafuna kuma makeranta na samun yabo iri-iri a yankin ta fannin samar da kayan aikin noma, bindigun gargajiya da kuma sandunan Oji da Ngwuagilija (sandan mutanen Ozo).[4]

Kafin zuwan turawan mulkin mallaka, Ọka ta zamo wajen jin surkullen Agbala (oracle), wacce aka fi sani a matsayin ubangijiya diyar wurin bautar juju na Arochukwu (bokanyar da Chinua Achebe yayi amfani da ita a littafinsa na "Things Fall apart").[5] Ana tuntubar ta a duk lokacin da rikici ya faru har zuwa rusa ta a lokacin turawan mulkin mallaka.

Kafin mulkin turawa, masu mulkin Ọka sun kasance mutane da akafi sani da "Ozo" da "Ndichie" wanda mutane ne masu daraja a yankin. Suna riqe zama da ake kira Izu-Ọka, kodai a gidan wanda yafi kowa tsufa acikinsu (Otochal Ọka) ko kuma a wani waje da suka zaba tsakaninsu.

A yanzu, Awka ta fara shigar da tsarin mulkin republica a cikin harkokin siyasarta tare da Awka South a matsayin cibiyar gudanarwa. Duk da haka basu yada salonsu na gargajiya ba, da dattijan Ozo wanda ake tuntuba akan lamuran gari da sauran al'amurran yau da kullum.

Birnin Awka ba daya bace da Awka-Etiti, saboda akan samu mushkilan bambanta su.[6]

Mutane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Awka na dauke da kungiyoyin yaren Igbo guda bakwai wanda suka samo asali daga tsatso guda, wanda aka rarrabasu zuwa sassa biyu; sashin Ifite da kuma sashin manya. Sa'annan sun kasu kashi hudu: Ayom-na-Okpala, Nkwelle, Amachalla da kuma Ifite-Oka. Sashin Ezinator sun kasu kashi uku; wanda suka hada da Amikwo, Ezi-Oka da kuma Agulu. Kowanne daga cikin wadannan birane suna da kaso uku wanda suka hada adadin kauyuka 33 a Awka.

Sashin Ifite

Ayom-na-Okpala Nkwelle Amachalla Ifite-Oka
Umuayom, Umunnoke, Umuoramma, Umuokpu Achallaoji, Umunamoke, Agbana, Umudiaba Amachalla, Amudo, Umuzocha Enu-Ifite, Ezinato-Ifite, Agbana-Ifite

Sashin Ezinator

Amikwo Ezi-Oka Agulu
Umudiana, Okperi, Igweogige, Isiagu, Obunagu Omuko, Umueri, Umuogwali, Umuogbunu 1, Umuogbunu 2, Umudioka, Umukwa Umuogbu, Umubele, Umuanaga, Umuike, Umujagwo, Umuenechi, Umuoruka

A yau, za'a iya samun mutanen Awka a sassa daban-daban na duniya mafi akasarinsu suna ayyuka a matsayin kwararru a sassa daban-daban na duniya. Hakan ya sa, akwai kungiyoyin mutanen Awka da dama a kasashen Turai da kuma Amurka USA. Sun kafa kungiyoyin sadarwa na mutanen Awka a can kamar "Awka Union USA and Canada", "Awka Town Social Community UK" da kuma "Ireland and other community associations". An samar da wadannan kungiyoyi ne don tallafawa juna da kuma samun damar wanzar da al'adunsu na gargajiya.[7]

Acikin 'yan shekarun nan, Birnin Awka ta samu bakuncin mutane daga sassa daban daban na Najeriya wanda a yanzu sun zama asalin 'yan gari.

Labarin Kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Awka tana kan bisa na mita 300m daga saman teku akan yankin rafin "Mamu River". Awka na da kasa mai kyau na noma wanda daga bisani ta rasa dazukanta na "rainforest" a dalilin share wuraren noma.[8]

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Awka na daga cikin yankin "tropical rainforest" a Najeriya sannan tana da yanayi iri biyu southwestern monsoon winds daga "tekun Atlantika" da kuma northeastern winds daga sahara. Shi iskar monsoon shi yake samar da ruwan sama mai karfi na watannin shida, wanda ke faruwa a tsakanin watannin April da July, wanda ke biye da gajeren yanayin na karancin ruwan sama na sati biyu zuwa uku acikin watan Augusta sai ruwan sama ya dawo a watan Satumba da October. Sai kuma lokacin zafi wanda ke kwashe tsawon watanni biyar (November–March) tare da guguwar Harmattan mai zuwa a bushe da kura da ke iya rage gani da kuma hasken wanda ke shigowa Najeriya cikin watan December wanda ake kira Ugulu da inyamuranci. Wannan iska na jawo zafi a watanni dake gaba kamar Febreru da March.

Yanayin zafi/sanyi na Awka kan kai 27–30°C a tsakanin watannin June da December, sannan yakan karu zuwa 32–34 °C tsakanin watannin Juneru da Aprelu.

Climate data for Awka
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
Average high °C (°F) 33
(91)
34
(93)
33
(91)
33
(91)
32
(90)
30
(86)
29
(84)
28
(82)
29
(84)
30
(86)
31
(88)
32
(90)
31
(88)
Average low °C (°F) 24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
24
(75)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3
(0.1)
35
(1.4)
17
(0.7)
100
(3.9)
150
(5.9)
78
(3.1)
125
(4.9)
80
(3.1)
50
(2.0)
222
(8.7)
106
(4.2)
0
(0)
966
(38)
Average rainy days 2 2 4 5 5 5 10 7 5 12 6 0 63
Source: Sunmap.Eu[9]

Tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tattalin arzikin Awka ya ta'allaka ne mafi akasari kan ayyukan gwamnati tunda ma'aikatun gwamnatin jiha da na tarayya da dama na cikin birnin. Akwai gidan hutawan gwamnatin jiha a Awka, majalisar dokoki na jiha, ministiri na lafiya, hedikwatan shari'a na jiha, masana'antun ilimi, kasa da ruwa.

Akwai gidajen telabijin da rediyo a birnin kamar Anambra Broadcasting Service (ABS), da babban banki Najeriya "Central Bank of Nigeria" da rassan Federal Inland Revenue Service da Federal Road Safety Commission, Nigerian Immigration Service, da kuma Corporate Affairs Commission duk suna nan acikin birnin.

An samu sabbin gine-gine na wuraren kasuwanci sun samu bunkasa kuma sun canza sifar fuskar birni.

Manya-manyan bankunan Najeriya wanda suka hada da Access Bank, Bank PHB, Diamond Bank, Ecobank, FCMB, Fidelity Bank, First Bank, GTB, Intercontinental, Oceanic Bank, UBA, Union Bank da kuma Zenith Bank duk suna nan a cikin birnin.

Tsarin Birane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kafin yakin basasan Najeriya, mutanen Awka ke kula da tsaftar garin. 'Yan kasuwa ke share harabar shagunansu da sauransu. Mutanen gari ke kula da kwatocin garin.

Gwamnatin Peter Obi ta fara yunkurin kula da harkokin tsaftar birnin wanda ya rattaba yarjejeniyar kulawa da garin da kungiyar UN-HABITAT a shekara ta 2007. Tsarin Awka Capital Territory (2009–2028) an kaddamar dashi da kula da yankunan Awka, Amawbia and Umuokpu a matsayin yankuna masu bukatar muhimmin kula da kuma yankunan Adazi-Nnukwu, Agulu, ABBA, Abagana, Agukwu-Nri, Amansea, Enugwu-Ukwu, Enugwu-Agidi, Isiagu, Isu-Aniocha, Mgbakwu, Nawfia, Nawgu, Nibo, Nimo, Nise, Okpuno da kuma Umuawulu.

Midiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai kungiyoyin yada labarai da dama wanda suka hada da gidajen jaridu biyu masu zaman kansu na duk rana, akwai gidan rediyon gwamnatin tarayya wato "Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria" na ofisoshin watsa labarai na jihar Anambara, gidan telebijin na Najeriya wato (NTA).

Gidajen Jaridu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gidajen Rediyon FM[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • 88.5 ABS(Anambra Broadcasting Service)
  • 94.1 UNIZIK FM (Nnamdi Azikiwe University)
  • 95.7 Rhythm FM (Silverbird)
  • 102.5 Purity FM (Radio Nigeria)

Gidajen Telebijin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Channel 5 NTA Awka
  • Channel 27 ABS (Anambra Broadcasting Service)
  • Channel 39 Silverbird TV Awka

Cinikayya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasuwannin Gargajiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Awka kamar kowacce gari tana da kasuwanninta na gargajiya inda ake samun kusan komai kaman kayan abinci, kayan sakawa, kayan kwalliya da makamantan su.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Egbokhare, Francis O.; Oyetade, S. Oluwole (2002). Harmonization and standardization of Nigerian languages. CASAS. p. 106. ISBN 1-919799-70-2.
  2. "Map Showing Port Harcourt And Awka with Distance Indicator". Globalfeed.com. Retrieved 2016-12-05.
  3. "Anambra State". Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission (in Turanci). 2019-01-07. Retrieved 2021-03-06.
  4. "Awka | History & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  5. Achebe, Chinua. "Full Glossary for Things Fall Apart". Cliffsnotes.com. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
  6. "Britannica Concise Encyclopedia". Geoanalyzer.britannica.com. Archived from the original on 2016-01-12. Retrieved 2007-02-20.
  7. "Agony of Awka master blacksmiths". Latest Nigeria News, Nigerian Newspapers, Politics (in Turanci). 2015-04-23. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  8. Chukwuogo Diaries
  9. "Weather in Africa, Nigeria, Anambra State, Awka Weather and Climate". Sunmap.eu. Archived from the original on 2014-03-01. Retrieved 2014-02-25.