Bokar Biro

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Bokar Biro
Rayuwa
Haihuwa 19 century
Mutuwa Porédaka (en) Fassara, 13 Nuwamba, 1896
Yanayin mutuwa death in battle (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a soja

Bokar Biro Barry (ko Boubacar Biro ) (ya mutu a ranar 13 ga watan Nuwamba 1896)ya kuma kasan ce shi ne sarki na ƙarshe mai zaman kansa na Imamancin Futa Jallon a cikin ƙasar Guinea ta yanzu. Ya mutu a yakin Porédaka, lokacin da manyan bindigogin Faransa suka lalata sojojinsa.

Bayan Fage[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Imamancin Futa Jallon ya kasance ɗayan jihohi na ƙarshe masu zaman kansu a Senegambiya, a cikin tsaunuka inda kogin Gambiya da Kogin Senegal duk suka hau. [1] An kuma kafa ta a matsayin tsarin mulkin mallaka a cikin jihadi wanda Karamokho Alfa ya kuma ƙaddamar a 1725, kuma magajinsa Ibrahim Sori ya ƙarfafa shi. [2] [3] Yankin ya kasance tarayyar larduna tara, kowannensu shugaba ke shugabanta. [4] Bangarorin siyasa biyu sun fito, Alfaya da Soriya, masu goyon bayan zuriyar shugabannin biyu na farko. Tsarin raba iko ya samo asali wanda a karkashinsa wani dan takarar Alfaya ko Soriya suka cike matsayin almami, shugaban kasa. [5]

A ƙarshen karni na sha tara, Faransawa sun kuma kasan ce masu ikon mallaka a yankin, kuma suna da haƙuri da ƙiyayya ta Futa Jallon. Sun fusata da goyon bayan da Futa Jallon ke baiwa Samori Ture na Masarautar Wassoulou, wanda kuma yake adawa da ikon Faransa. [6] A shekarar 1889 turawan ingila suka kulla yarjejeniya da turawan faransa wadanda suka gane cewa Futa Jallon yana cikin yankin faransan. Duk da haka, Turawan ingila a Freetown, Saliyo, sun ci gaba da ba da tallafin ga Futa Jallon har zuwa 1895. [7]

Almami na Futa Jallon[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bokar Biro na cikin kungiyar Soriya. Tushen sa kuma shi ne Timbo, babban birnin tarayyar Futa Jallon. [8] A cikin 1890, dogon mulkin Almami Ibrahima Sori Dongolfella ya ƙare da mutuwarsa, wanda ya kuma haifar da gwagwarmayar iko. [6] Majalisar dattawa ta zabi babban wansa Bokar Biro a matsayin mai mulki. Bokar Biro ya karbi mulki a wani juyin mulki bayan kashe dan uwansa, kuma ya fara sanya maza masu biyayya gare shi a mukamai. [6] Bokar Biro dole ne ya jimre da gwagwarmaya tsakanin bangarorin siyasa na Alfaya da Soriya, da yunƙurin da shuwagabannin laré na Labé, Timbi da Fugumba suka yi don samun ikon cin gashin kai. Hakanan, duka bayi da talakawa masu 'yanci suna barin ƙasar zuwa yankuna da ke ƙarƙashin ikon Faransa. [6]

A watan Yulin 1892 Bokar Biro an tilasta shi ya ba da mulki ga Amadu na ɓangaren Alfaya . Ya kuma sake darewa karagar mulki a watan Yunin 1894. Wasu daga cikin shugabannin sun nemi taimakon Faransa don kawar da shi. Alfa Yaya na Labé ya fara motsa jiki don samun cikakken yanci na lardin sa. [6] A ranar 13 ga watan Disamba 1895 sarakunan da suka fusata karkashin jagorancin Modi Abdoullaye Dhokhiré suka kai hari tare da kayar da Bokar Biro a Bantignel, kuma da kyar ya samu ya tsere. [9] Makonni da yawa bayan haka, lokacin da yawancin mutane suka yi tunanin cewa Bokar Biro ya mutu, sai ya fito a Keebu, da ke kan iyakar yamma da lardin Timbi, wanda shugabanta ya ba shi taimako wajen komawa Timbo. [10] Ya sami nasarar tara sabuwar runduna wacce ta kunshi sojoji 1,500 wanda ya doke abokan gabarsa a ranar 2 ga Fabrairu 1896. Manyan sarakunan sun shiga buya. [6]

Tsoma bakin Faransa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ƙarshen 1894 Faransanci sun aika Raoul de Beeckman a matsayin wakilin su don ganawa da Bokar Biro kuma shirya yarjejeniya. A watan Maris 1895 de Beeckman ya share kusan watanni uku a kan iyakar Futa Jallon kuma yana ba da begen shirya taro. [10] Ba tare da izini ba, mai kula da Faransa ya tsallaka kan iyaka ya afkawa ƙauyen Nanso, kusa da Demukulima, wanda ya yi zargin cewa ya wawushe wani ayari na ƙawancen Faransa. An kashe ɗaya daga cikin dattawan ƙauyen. Wannan lamarin ya rura wutar rashin jituwa ta Bokar Biro, wanda ya zargi Faransawan da wasu ayyukan nuna kiyayya, gami da danne cinikin bayi tare da Sudan, da kuma kin dawo da bayin da suka gudu. [10] Ya kuma kasance mai shakkun ziyarar da wakilan Faransa suka kai wa Futa Jallon bisa dalilan cinikayya ko yin nazarin kasa, wanda yake tunanin shirye-shiryen shiga soja ne. [10]

De Beeckman ya koma Futa Jallon shekara mai zuwa. A ranar 18 ga watan Maris 1896 de Beeckman ya isa Timbo, babban birnin Futa Jallon, tare da rundunonin sojoji. Faransawa sun nemi ‘yancin gina hanyoyi ta hanyar Futa Jallon, don kafa wakili a Timbo, don tantance duk nadin sarakunan larduna da mamayar kasuwanci. Bokar Biro ya ƙi, amma daga ƙarshe ya nuna kamar ya rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniya don kawar da Faransanci daga hanya yayin da yake ma'amala da abokan hamayyarsa. [6] Lokacin da aka bincika takaddar yarjejeniyar a cikin Saint Louis, ya zama cewa a madadin sa hannu Bokar Biro ya rubuta "Bismillah", ma'ana "da sunan Allah". [7] <> Da zarar ta bayyana cewa Bokar Biro ba ya nufin mika wuya ga bukatun Faransa, sai suka yanke shawarar zuwa amfani da makami idan da hali da zarar damina ta wuce. Sojojin Faransa sun janye na wani lokaci zuwa Sangoya. [6]

Bokar Biro ya dauki ficewar Faransa a matsayin nasara. Ya ƙaddamar da manufar ƙiyayya da Faransa. Lokacin da wa'adinsa na Almami ya kare a watan Afrilu 1896 ya ki mika mulki. Yaƙin neman iko ya haɓaka, tare da rikice-rikicen tashin hankali, yana zuwa gab da yaƙin basasa kai tsaye, tare da kira don neman taimako ga Faransanci a cikin Satumba da Oktoba. Faransawan sun yanke shawarar lokaci ya yi da za su yi tafiyarsu, inda suka raba Futa Jallon zuwa kananan jihohin abokan ciniki, tare da abokin kawancensu Umar Bademba a matsayin Almami na abin da ya rage na jihar da ke Timbo. [6]

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An tura sojoji daga Senegal, Guinea da Sudan, inda suka hadu kan Futa Jallon. Wani shafi na Faransa ya kama Timbo a ranar 3 Nuwamba Nuwamba 1896. Bokar Biro bai sami damar neman goyon bayan shugabannin ba don tsayayya da Faransanci ba. A ranar 13 ga Nuwamba Nuwamba 1896 Bokar Biro suka yi wani fage a filin Porédaka . Bindigogin Faransa sun lalata sojojinsa. Wani mawaki wanda ya bayyana yakin yace Bokar Biro ya cika maganarsa. Bai gudu daga Faransa ba, amma fashewar igwa ya kashe shi. [6] A zahiri, Bokar Biro ya sami damar tserewa amma ba da daɗewa ba wasu sojoji na abokan gabarsa, Sori Illili suka kama shi, kuma suka yanke jiki. [11] Ban Bokar Biro ya mutu tare da shi. [12]

Tare da mutuwar Bokar Biro, Faransawa suka zama masu kariya. A watan Yunin 1897 Ernest Noirot, tsohon mai tsara zane na Folies Bergère, ya zama mai gudanarwa kuma ya fara shirin kawar da bautar. [7] A cikin 1904 Faransawa suka cire ikon shugabannin. A cikin 1905 sun kame babban abokin hamayyar Bokar Biro Alfa Yaya kuma suka tura shi gudun hijira. [12]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Ruthven 2006.
  2. Ndukwe 1996.
  3. Gray 1975.
  4. Ogot 1992.
  5. Fage & Tordoff 2002.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 Barry 1998.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Klein 1998.
  8. Pepito 2010.
  9. Diallo 2002.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Barry 1997.
  11. Roche 2011.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Derman & Derman 1973.