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Bude albarkatun ilimi

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Bude albarkatun ilimi
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na learning material (en) Fassara da open content (en) Fassara
Gajeren suna OER da REA
Motsi free-culture movement (en) Fassara
Shafin yanar gizo offenebildungsressourcen.de…
External data available at URL (en) Fassara https://es.unesco.org/themes/tic-educacion/rea da https://en.unesco.org/themes/ict-education/oer
Amfani wajen ɗalibi da Malami
Alamar albarkatun ilimi ta duniya ta UNESCO

Buɗe albarkatun ilimi ( OER ) [1] suna koyarwa, koyo, da kayan bincike da gangan ƙirƙira da lasisi don zama 'yanci don mai amfani na ƙarshe ya mallaki, raba, kuma a mafi yawan lokuta, gyara. [2] [3] Kalmar "OER" tana bayyana abubuwan da ake iya samun damar jama'a da albarkatu ga kowane mai amfani don amfani, sake haɗawa, haɓakawa, da sake rarrabawa ƙarƙashin wasu lasisi. [4] An ƙirƙira waɗannan don rage shingen samun dama ta hanyar aiwatar da mafi kyawun ayyuka a cikin koyarwa da kuma daidaita su don yanayi na musamman na gida. [5] [6]

Ci gaba da inganta albarkatun ilimi masu budewa galibi ana motsa su ne ta hanyar sha'awar samar da madadin ko ingantaccen tsarin ilimi.[7]

Ma'anar da iyaka

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Open ilimi albarkatun (OER) wani bangare ne na "rashin matakai" [8] masu bincike da malamai suka yi amfani da su don fadada damar samun dama ga ilimi da kuma kirkirar tattaunawa. [9] [10][11] Kodayake ma'anar aiki na kalmar OER na iya bambanta dangane da mahallin amfani da su, ma'anar 2019, da UNESCO ta bayar tana ba da harshe mai amfani don tsara fahimtar halaye na OER.[12][13] Ma'anar UNESCO ta 2019, ta bayyana OER a matsayin "koyarwa, ilmantarwa da kayan bincike waɗanda ke amfani da kayan aikin da suka dace, kamar buɗe lasisi, don ba da izinin sake amfani da su kyauta, ci gaba da ingantawa da sake amfani da wasu don dalilai na ilimi. "[6][13]

Duk da yake haɗin gwiwa, rabawa, da buɗewa sun kasance "wani fasalin ci gaba na ilimi" da ayyukan bincike "na baya da na yanzu", an fara kirkirar kalmar "OER" don bayyana albarkatun da ke da alaƙa a UNESCO ta 2002 Forum on Open Courseware, wanda ya ƙayyade cewa "Open Educational Resources (OER) suna ilmantarwa, koyarwa da kayan bincike a kowane tsari da matsakaici wanda ke zaune a cikin yankin jama'a ko kuma suna ƙarƙashin haƙƙin mallaka waɗanda aka saki a ƙarƙashin lasisi mai buɗewa, wanda ke ba da damar samun dama ba tare da farashi ba, sake amfani, sake amfani da amfani, sakewa ba, daidaitawa da sake rarrabawa.

Sau da yawa ana ambaton shi ne rahoton 2007 ga .[14][15] wanda ya bayyana OER a matsayin "koyarwa, ilmantarwa, da albarkatun bincike waɗanda ke zaune a cikin yankin jama'a ko kuma an sake su a ƙarƙashin lasisin mallakar ilimi wanda ke ba da izinin amfani da su kyauta ko sake yin amfani da wasu. Bayanan albarkatun ilimi sun haɗa da cikakkun darussan, kayan karatun, kayan karatun darussan darussan su, modules, littattafai masu gudana, bidiyo, gwaje-ƙwalwa, kayan aikin da aka saki don tallafawa, ko dabarun da aka saki su don tallafawa don tallafawa damar samun dama ga ilimi na OER da dama ga kowane nau'in amfani da OER ba da aka yi amfani da su don tallafa wahayi zuwa ga ilimi ba su ba su ba da ilimi" [16] Gidawa ba da dama ga waɗannan maganganun OER ba su ba za su ba su damar yin amfani da O-  –  – A cikin wani bayyani na 2022 na ayyukan Gidauniyar William da Flora Hewlett da ke tallafawa ilimi tun daga shekara ta 2002, Gidauniwar ta bayyana OER a matsayin "yancin lasisi, albarkatun ilmantarwa masu sakewa", ci gaba da haɗa da ma'anar Creative Commons na OER a cikin "koyarwa, ilmantarwa, da kayan bincike waɗanda ko dai (a) a cikin yankin jama'a ko (b) lasisi a cikin hanyar da ke ba da kowane mutum kyauta da izini don shiga cikin ayyukan 5R riƙewa, sake fasalin, sake fashewa, sake amfani da sake rarraba albarkatun.[17][3] – [15]

Ayyukan 5R / izinin da aka ambata a cikin ma'anar da ke sama David Wiley ne ya gabatar da su, kuma sun haɗa da: [18]

  • Tsayawa - haƙƙin yin, mallaka, da sarrafa kwafin abun ciki (misali, saukewa, kwafi, adanawa, da sarrafawa)
  • Sake amfani - haƙƙin amfani da abun ciki a hanyoyi da yawa (misali, a cikin aji, a cikin ƙungiyar karatu, a shafin yanar gizon, a cikin bidiyo)
  • Gyara - haƙƙin daidaitawa, daidaitawa, gyarawa, ko canza abun ciki kanta (misali, fassara abun ciki zuwa wani harshe)
  • Remix - haƙƙin haɗa ainihin ko sake fasalin abun ciki tare da wasu kayan don ƙirƙirar sabon abu (misali, haɗa abun ciki cikin mashup)
  • Redistribute - haƙƙin raba kwafin abun ciki na asali, sake dubawa, ko remixes tare da wasu (misali, ba da kwafin abun cikin ga aboki) [19]

Marubutan, masu kirkirar, da al'ummomi na iya amfani da lasisi ko kwatanci iri-iri kamar waɗanda Creative Commons ko Local Contexts TK Labels suka sauƙaƙe zuwa aikinsu don sadarwa har zuwa yadda suke niyyar masu amfani da ƙasa su shiga cikin ayyukan 5R ko wasu bincike na hadin gwiwa, masu kirkira da kuma ayyukan ilimi.[20][21]

Kungiyar Hadin Kan Tattalin Arziki da Ci Gaba (OECD) ta bayyana OER a matsayin: "kayan dijital da aka bayar kyauta kuma a bayyane ga malamai, ɗalibai, da masu koyon kansu don amfani da sake amfani da su don koyarwa, koyo, da bincike. OER ya haɗa da abubuwan koyo, software. kayan aiki don haɓakawa, amfani, da rarraba abun ciki, da aiwatar da albarkatun kamar buɗaɗɗen lasisi". (Wannan ita ce ma'anar da 'yar'uwar Wikipedia ta fito da ita, Wikiversity .) Ta hanyar kwatanta, Commonwealth of Learning "ta karbi mafi girman ma'anar Bude Ilimin Ilmi (OER) a matsayin 'kayan da ake bayarwa kyauta kuma a bayyane don amfani da daidaitawa don koyarwa, ilmantarwa, haɓakawa da bincike ' . [22] Aikin WikiEducator yana nuna cewa OER yana nufin "zuwa albarkatun ilimi (tsare-tsaren darasi, tambayoyin tambayoyi, tsarin karatu, tsarin koyarwa, simulations, da sauransu) waɗanda ke da kyauta don amfani, sake amfani da su, daidaitawa, da rabawa'. [23] [24] Cibiyoyin da ke jaddada sanin aiki tare da buɗaɗɗen albarkatu na ilimi a cikin haɓaka ɗalibai da aiki suna jaddada amfani da su a cikin bincike, ilimi da ayyukan ƙirƙira suma. [25]

Ma'anar da ke sama sun fallasa wasu matsalolin da ke akwai tare da OER:

  • Yanayin albarkatun: Da yawa daga cikin ma'anar da ke sama suna iyakance ma'anar OER ga albarkatun dijital, yayin da wasu ke la'akari da cewa duk wani albarkatun ilimi za a iya haɗa shi cikin ma'anonin.
  • Tushen albarkatun: Duk da yake wasu daga cikin ma'anar suna buƙatar albarkatun da za a samar da su tare da manufar ilimi a zuciya, wasu suna fadada wannan don haɗawa da duk wata albarkatun waɗanda za a iya amfani da su don koyo.
  • Matsayin buɗewa: Yawancin ma'anoni suna buƙatar a sanya hanya a cikin yankin jama'a ko a ƙarƙashin cikakken lasisi. Sauran suna buƙatar kawai cewa ana ba da amfani kyauta don dalilai na ilimi, watakila ba tare da amfani da kasuwanci ba.

Wadannan ma'anoni suna da abubuwa na kowa, wato dukansu:

  • rufe amfani da sake amfani, sake amfani, da gyare-gyare na albarkatun;
  • sun haɗa da amfani kyauta don dalilai na ilimi ta malamai da masu koyo
  • ya ƙunshi kowane nau'in kafofin watsa labarai na dijital.

Idan aka ba da bambancin masu amfani, masu kirkirar da masu tallafawa albarkatun ilimi, ba abin mamaki ba ne a sami lokuta da buƙatu iri-iri. Saboda wannan dalili, yana iya zama da taimako a yi la'akari da bambance-bambance tsakanin bayanin albarkatun ilimi kamar yadda yake la'akari le bayanin da kansu. Ɗaya daga cikin rikice-rikice da yawa don cimma bayanin yarjejeniya na OER (kamar yadda aka samu a cikin ma'anar da ke sama) shine ko ya kamata a ba da fifiko ga takamaiman fasahohi. Misali, ana iya ba da lasisi a bayyane kuma ana amfani da shi kyauta ba tare da kasancewa bidiyo yawo ba. Ana iya ba da lasisi a bayyane kuma ana amfani da shi kyauta ba tare da kasancewa takardar lantarki ba. Wannan tashin hankali na fasaha yana da alaƙa sosai da magana game da lasisi mai budewa. Don ƙarin bayani, duba Lasisi da Nau'ikan OER daga baya a cikin wannan labarin.

Fa'idodi da rashin fa'idodi

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fa'idodin amfani da OER sun haɗa da: [6]

  • Ƙarin damar ilmantarwa ana iya samun damar zuwa ko'ina a kowane lokaci –
  • Ikon canza kayan karatun - ana iya taƙaita shi zuwa batutuwan da suka dace da karatun='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"snd","href":"./Template:Snd"},"params":{},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwASU" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Entity"> 
  • Inganta kayan aiki - ana iya amfani da matani, hotuna da bidiyo don tallafawa hanyoyi daban-daban don ilmantarwa-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwASc" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Entity"> 
  • Saurin yaduwar bayanai - ana iya gabatar da litattafan karatu da sauri a kan layi fiye da buga littafi –
  • Ajiye kuɗi ga ɗalibai - duk karatun suna samuwa a kan layi, wanda ke adana ɗalibai daruruwan daloli [26] –
  • Tsayar da farashi ga malamai - ana samun laccoci da shirye-shiryen darussan a kan layi, adana lokacin malami, ƙoƙari da kuɗi, yayin koyon sabon ilmi [27]
  • Ƙarfafa tushe don ƙarin sakewa da kuma hada kimiyya [28]
  • Inganta ingancin binciken da masu bincike na gaba suka samar [3][28]
  • Yana cire shingen shiga da sauƙaƙe ci gaban aiki ta hanyar ba da ɗalibai su shiga cikin samar da ilimi, haɓaka bambancin da wakilci a cikin kimiyya.[3][28]

Kalubale na amfani da OER sun hada da: [6]

  • Matsalolin inganci / dogaro – Wasu kayan kan layi kowa na iya gyara su a kowane lokaci, wanda zai iya haifar da bayanan da ba su da mahimmanci ko mara kyau
  • Ƙayyadaddun kariyar haƙƙin mallaka – Lasisin OER sun canza "Dukkan haƙƙin mallaka." zuwa "Wasu haƙƙoƙin da aka keɓance.", [29] ta yadda masu ƙirƙirar abun ciki dole ne su kasance da gangan game da abubuwan da suke samarwa.
  • Abubuwan fasaha – wasu ɗalibai na iya samun wahalar samun damar albarkatun kan layi saboda jinkirin haɗin intanet, ko ƙila ba su sami damar yin amfani da software da ake buƙata don amfani da kayan [26]
  • Harsunan da aka rarraba OER a cikinsu - amfani da Ingilishi a matsayin harshen farko na isarwa na iya iyakance amfani da shi [6]
  • Fadakarwa tsakanin cibiyoyin ilimi [6] - iyakance amfani da OER don bincike, koyarwa da koyo

Bayanan da aka ambata

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
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  3. Pownall, Madeleine; Azevedo, Flávio; König, Laura M.; Slack, Hannah R.; Evans, Thomas Rhys; Flack, Zoe; Grinschgl, Sandra; Elsherif, Mahmoud M.; Gilligan-Lee, Katie A.; de Oliveira, Catia M. F.; Gjoneska, Biljana; Kalandadze, Tamara; Button, Katherine; Ashcroft-Jones, Sarah; Terry, Jenny (May 2023). "Teaching open and reproducible scholarship: a critical review of the evidence base for current pedagogical methods and their outcomes". Royal Society Open Science (in Turanci). 10 (5): 221255. Bibcode:2023RSOS...1021255P. doi:10.1098/rsos.221255. ISSN 2054-5703. PMC 10189598 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 37206965 Check |pmid= value (help).
  4. Bell, Steven. "Research Guides: Discovering Open Educational Resources (OER): Home". guides.temple.edu (in Turanci). Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  5. Smith, Marshall S. (2009-01-02). "Opening Education". Science (in Turanci). 323 (5910): 89–93. Bibcode:2009Sci...323...89S. doi:10.1126/science.1168018. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 19119226. S2CID 11073287.
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  9. Nusbaum, Amy T. (2020). "Who Gets to Wield Academic Mjolnir?: On Worthiness, Knowledge Curation, and Using the Power of the People to Diversify OER". Journal of Interactive Media in Education. 2020 (1). doi:10.5334/jime.559 ISSN 1365-893X.
  10. Ossiannilsson, E. (2021). Human Rights and Social Justice through Open Educational Resources and Lifelong Learning. Macro Management & Public Policies, 3(1).
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  16. Atkins, D. E.; Brown, J. S.; Hammond, A. L. (2007). "A review of the open educational resources (OER) movement: Achievements, challenges, and new opportunities" (PDF). Report to The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
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  19. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  20. Baas, Marjon; van der Rijst, Roeland; Huizinga, Tjark; van den Berg, Ellen; Admiraal, Wilfried (June 1, 2022). "Would you use them? A qualitative study on teachers' assessments of open educational resources in higher education". The Internet and Higher Education. 54: 100857. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2022.100857. S2CID 248455635 Check |s2cid= value (help). |hdl-access= requires |hdl= (help)
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  29. "Copyright and Creative Commons are friends". Creative Commons. Retrieved 24 September 2019.