Jump to content

Casbah na Algiers

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Casbah na Algiers


Wuri
Map
 36°47′00″N 3°03′37″E / 36.78333°N 3.06028°E / 36.78333; 3.06028
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaAljeriya
Province of Algeria (en) FassaraAlgiers Province (en) Fassara
District of Algeria (en) FassaraBab El Oued District (en) Fassara
Commune of Algeria (en) FassaraCasbah (en) Fassara
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 60 ha
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci

Casbah (Larabci: قصبة, qaṣba, ma'ana kagara) shine kagara ta Algiers a Algeria kuma kwata-kwata na gargajiya sun kewayeta. A shekarar 1992, Hukumar Kula da Ilmi, Kimiyya da Al'adu ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UNESCO) ta shelanta Kasbah na Algiers a matsayin wurin tarihin al'adun duniya, a matsayin "Akwai ragowar kagarar, kamar yadda "Akwai ragowar katanga, tsoffin masallatai da gidajen sarauta irin na Ottoman da kuma ragowar tsarin birni na gargajiya da ke da alaƙa da zurfin tunanin al'umma."[1]

Bayanin Lantarki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gabaɗaya, kasbah ita ce katanga ta garuruwa da biranen Arewacin Afirka da yawa.[2] Sunan ya sami shiga cikin Ingilishi daga Faransanci a ƙarshen karni na 19 (ƙamus ɗin Turanci na Oxford ya ce 1895), kuma ana iya rubuta shi "kasbah" ko "casbah."[3]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An kafa Casbah na Algiers a kan rusasshen tsohuwar Icosium a cikin karni na 10. Birni ne da aka gina akan tsauni, ya miƙe zuwa teku, ya kasu zuwa "Babban birni" da "Lowananan birni". Daya daga cikinsu ya samo gine-ginen gine-gine da masallatai tun daga ƙarni na 17: Masallacin Ketchaoua (wanda Dey Baba Hassan ya gina a shekarar 1794) wanda minaret biyu suka haɗa shi; Djama’a al-Djedid (1660, a lokacin Ottomans) tare da manyan abubuwan da ya ƙare na kopo cupola yana nuna wasu da kuma kopolas huɗu; Djamaâ el Kebir (mafi tsufa daga masallatai), wanda Almoravid mai mulki Yusuf ibn Tashfin ya gina; da Masallacin Ali Bitchin (Raïs, 1623). Casbah kuma ya ƙunshi fadoji da dama, ciki har da Dar Aziza, Dar Mustapha Pacha, Fadar Dey, da Dar Hassan Pacha wanda aka gina a cikin 1791 don ɗaukar Pasha, wanda ya zauna a can shekaru takwas.[4]

A cikin shekara ta 1839, jim kaɗan bayan mamayar Faransa, gwamnan Faransa ya koma Dar Hassan Pacha. A shekarar 1860, Napoleon III da Eugénie de Montijo sun ziyarci.[4] Kafin mulkin faransa, gidan casbah ya kunshi kusan Jama Masjid 13, masallatai 109, kaburbura 32 da Zawiya 12, duka gine-ginen da suka shafi addini 166. Koyaya, yawancin waɗannan gine-ginen addini sun lalace yayin mamayar. A shekarar 1862, akwai Masallatan Jama tara kawai, masallatai 19, masallatai 15 da Zawiya biyar. Masallatai da yawa kamar Masallacin Ketchauoua da Masallacin Berrani an canza su zuwa gini tare da wasu dalilai da ba na Musulunci ba, kamar barikin soja da majami'u.[5]

Casbah sun taka muhimmiyar rawa a lokacin Yaƙin Samun 'Yanci na Aljeriya (1954-1962). A farkon shekarun yakin, Casbah ita ce cibiyar cibiyar tawayen kungiyar 'yanci ta kasa (FLN), daga inda ta tsara tare da aiwatar da hare-hare kan' yan Faransa da jami'an tsaro a Algeria a lokacin. Domin dakile kokarinsu, hukumomin Faransa suka fara gudanar da ayyukansu a cikin Casbah yayin yakin Algiers.

Yanayin halin yanzu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

ANSS, hukumar kiyayewa na gwamnatin Aljeriya, ta ba da rahoton cewa gine-gine 373 a cikin Casbah sun rushe. Daga cikin gine-ginen 1816 da suka rage, 40% sun lalace ko kuma suna cikin mawuyacin hali, kuma 10% suna hawa.[6]

Kamfanin dillancin labarai na Reuters ya ruwaito a cikin watan Agustan 2008 cewa Casbah na cikin wani yanayi na rashin kulawa kuma wasu yankuna na fuskantar barazanar rugujewa.[7]

Hukumomin Aljeriya sun lissafa shekaru, rashin kulawa da yawan mutane a matsayin manyan masu bayar da gudummawa ga lalacewar. Yawan mutane ya sa matsalar ta zama mai wahalar warwarewa musamman saboda kokarin da za a yi don sauya mazauna. Alkaluma sun nuna daga mutane 40,000 zuwa 70,000, kodayake yana da wahala a iya tabbatarwa saboda yawan masu zama a cikin gine-ginen da babu kowa.[8] Daya daga cikin dalilan da yasa gwamnati ke son inganta yanayin Casbah shine kasancewarta maboya ga masu aikata laifi da terroristsan ta'adda. A ƙarshen 1950s da lokacin tawayen jama'a da gwagwarmaya da turawan mulkin mallaka na Faransa shine mafaka ga Rundunar 'Yanci ta Kasa (Algeria).

Mai kiyayewa Belkacem Babaci ya bayyana halin da ake ciki a matsayin mai wahala, amma ba za a iya shawo kansa ba, yana mai cewa: “Har yanzu na yi imanin cewa abu ne mai yiyuwa a adana shi, amma kuna bukatar wofinta shi kuma kuna buƙatar samun ƙwararrun mutane waɗanda za su girmama salon, kayan. Babban kalubale ne."[9] Ayyuka na maidowa sun kasance cikin damuwa da jinkiri da rashawa ta yau da kullun.[6]

A cikin al'adun gargajiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Casbah na Algiers suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a fim din Faransa na 1937 Pépé le Moko da fim na 1938 na Algiers na Amurka, wanda shahararren barawon nan mai suna Pepe le Moko, wanda Jean Gabin ya buga a Faransanci da Charles Boyer a cikin fassarar Amurka ya ɓoye a can bayan ya yi kaurin suna a Faransa, kuma ya zama shugaba na gari, amma yayin da lokaci ya wuce, sai ya fara jin tarko a cikin gundumar. Kodayake a fim ɗin Amurka, Boyer bai taɓa ce wa costar Hedy Lamarr "Ku zo tare da ni zuwa ze Casbah ba," wannan layin yana cikin fim ɗin Hollywood, kuma zai kasance tare da shi, saboda albarkacin ƙarni na masu sha'awar ra'ayi da kuma kayan Looney Tunes.[10][11]
  • Matsayin Boyer a matsayin Pepe Le Moko ya riga ya shahara a duniya lokacin da mai raye rashi Chuck Jones ya kirkiro halayen Pepé Le Pew, skunk na soyayya da aka gabatar a cikin Warner Bros. zane mai ban dariya Odor-can Kitty, akan Boyer, muryarsa - wacce Mel Blanc ta kwaikwayi - jimlar kamawa "Zo tare da ni zuwa ze Casbah" daga sanannen wasan kwaikwayonsa.[12]

Sananne mutane[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Abd al-Rahman al-Tha'alibi (1384-1479)
  • Abdelhalim Bensmaia (1866-1933)
  • Mohamed Charef (1908-2011)
  • Brahim Boushaki (1912-1997)
  • Djamila Bouhired (born 1935)
  • Djamila Boupacha (born 1938)
  • Mustapha Toumi (1937-2013)

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. UNESCO, Decision Text, World Heritage Centre, retrieved 21 July 2017
  2. Arabic Name Translator. "The Casbah (Arabic: قصبة, qaṣba, meaning citadel (fortress)) is specifically the citadel of Algiers in Algeria and the traditional quarter clustered around it. More generally, a kasbah is the walled citadel of many North African cities and towns."
  3. Tanya Reinhart Israel/Palestine: How to End the War of 1948 2011- Page 151 "The Jenin refugee camp and the Casbah in Nablus were considered by the Israeli army to be the toughest areas to conquer. Preparations to seize these areas began long in advance. In January 2002, Amir Oren reported in Ha'aretz that the ..."
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Interior of Governors Palace, Algiers, Algeria". World Digital Library. 1899. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
  5. دويرات القصبة تحتضّر ومساجدها العتيقة مهدّدة بالاندثار.. فهل من مغيث؟. El Mihwar. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Layli Foroudi, The Algerians battling to save the Casbah from crumbling, Apollo (March 19, 2020).
  7. William Maclean (2008-09-01). "REUTERS, William Maclean, Aug 31, 2008". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
  8. "Algeria Channel". Algeria.com. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
  9. "Wall Street Journal Blogs, The Informed Reader, July 5, 2007, 9:39 AM ET". Blogs.wsj.com. 2007-07-05. Archived from the original on 2012-03-30. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
  10. TCM Film Guide (2006). The 50 Most Unforgettable Actors of the Studio Era: Leading Men. San Francisco, California: Chronicle Books. p. 29.
  11. Boller, Jr., Paul F.; George, John (1989). They Never Said It: A Book of Fake Quotes, Misquotes, and Misleading Attributions. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505541-1.
  12. TCM Film Guide (2006). The 50 Most Unforgettable Actors of the Studio Era: Leading Men. San Francisco, California: Chronicle Books. p. 31.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]