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Constance Mabel Winchell

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Constance Mabel Winchell (Nuwamba 2,1896 - Mayu 23, 1983)[1]ma'aikaciyar ɗakin karatu ne Ba'amurke. Winchell ta yi aiki a Jami'ar Columbia tsawon shekaru talatin da takwas kafin ta yi ritaya a 1962.An fi tunawa da ita don fitar da bugu na bakwai da na takwas na Jagoran Littattafan Magana .A cikin 1999,Dakunan karatu na Amurka sun haɗa da Constance Winchell a cikin jerin mutane 100 da suka fi tasiri a fagen ɗakin karatu da kimiyyar bayanai.[2]

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Constance Winchell a ranar 2 ga Nuwamba,1896. Iyalinta sun zauna a Northampton, Massachusetts .Abin takaici,mahaifin Winchell ya mutu da wuri, lokacin da Constance yana ɗan shekara bakwai kawai. [3] Wannan ya bar mahaifiyarta a matsayin mai ba da sabis na Winchell da 'yan uwanta uku. [4] Duk da waɗannan matsalolin,ilimin Winchell bai taɓa yin haɗari ba.

Iyalin Winchell sun daraja koyo da ilimi. Yawancin 'yan uwanta sun kammala karatun jami'a kuma malamai,duk da karancin samun digiri na gaba a farkon karni na ashirin.[4]Goggonta Mabel Winchell wacce ma'aikaciyar dakin karatu ce a New Hampshire ta kara yin tasiri a rayuwar Winchell ta gaba.[4]Bugu da ƙari,mahaifiyarta a wasu lokatai ta kan yi hayar ɗakuna ga malamai daga kwalejin gida don tallafa wa iyali.[4]Kasancewar waɗannan iyakoki na ilimi ya ƙara ƙarfafa yaran Winchell don bincika duniyar ra'ayoyi da neman ilimi. [4]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Winchell ta halarci makarantar sakandare mai zaman kanta da ake kira Makarantar Capen.[4]Daga baya a wannan shekarar,danginta sun ƙaura zuwa Ann Arbor, Michigan.A Ann Arbor,Winchell ya shiga cikin azuzuwan a Jami'ar Michigan.A lokacin bazarar ƙaramarta da manyanta a Michigan,ta halarci laccoci na kimiyyar ɗakin karatu,wanda darektan ɗakin karatu na Michigan William Warner Bishop ya jagoranta.[4]Winchell ta sami digiri na farko na Arts a cikin 1918.Tare da ƙarfafawar Bishop,Winchell ya shiga cikin shirin makarantar ɗakin karatu da aka bayar a Laburaren Jama'a na New York a shekara mai zuwa.Ko da yake shirin ya kasance shekaru biyu, shekara ta biyu na zaɓi ne. [4] Saboda matsalolin kuɗi Winchell ya zaɓi kammala shekarar farko ta shirin. [4] Ta sami takardar shaida a 1920. [5]

A cikin 1928, bayan Winchell ta karɓi matsayi a Jami'ar Columbia,ta shiga Makarantar Sabis ɗin Laburare ta Columbia. [4] An kira rubutun littafinta "Gano Littattafai don Lamuni na InterLibrary." Maƙalar ta ƙunshi yawancin ilimin da mai aikinta kuma farfesa Isadore Gilbert Mudge ta samu yayin ba da lamuni tsakanin ɗakin karatu a tsawon lokacin aikinta. [5] An karɓi rubutun Winchell sosai bayan buga shi a cikin 1930,kuma yawancin masu karatu sun gane shi ya zama ɗaya daga cikin ingantattun littattafan kan lamuni tsakanin ɗakunan karatu na shekaru masu yawa.[5]Winchell ya sami digiri na biyu a Sabis na Laburare a cikin 1930.

Farkon aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Winchell ta san farkon rayuwarta cewa tana son zama ma'aikaciyar laburare.Aikin karatunta na farko ya samu ne a cikin laburare na Jami'ar Michigan a lokacin karatun digirinta.Ta taimaka wajen inganta kundin laburare kuma ta ba da sabis na tunani a wasu ɗakunan karatu na sassan. [4] Aikinta na ƙwararru na farko shine ma'aikacin laburare na Duluth Minnesota's Central High School. [4] Ta kuma koyar da azuzuwan tarihi na d ¯ a a lokacin da take aiki a Babban Babban Jami'a. [4] Winchell ya rike wannan matsayi na tsawon shekara guda, kafin ya koma New York don halartar makarantar laburare.

Bayan samun takardar shaidar Kimiyyar Laburare, Winchell ta ɗauki aiki tare da Ma'aikatar Kasuwancin Amurka.Wannan matsayi ya buƙaci Winchell ta yi tafiya mai yawa a gabar tekun Gabashin Amurka, inda ta ke da alhakin ƙirƙira da kuma samun littattafai don ɗakunan karatu na hasumiya. [4] Wannan matsayi ya kasance na tsawon watanni biyar,a lokacin Winchell ya koma Ann Arbor don shiga ma'aikatan ɗakin karatu na Jami'ar Michigan. A cikin shekaru uku da Winchell ta yi aiki da Michigan ta yi aiki a sashen kasida, kuma daga baya a matsayin mataimakiyar magana. [4] Winchell na gaba ya karɓi aiki a ɗakin karatu na Amurka da ke Paris, Faransa. Anan, ta yi shekara ɗaya da rabi tana aiki a matsayin babban ma'aikacin laburare. [4]

  1. "Constance M(abel) Winchell." Contemporary Authors Online. Detroit: Gale, 2002. Biography In Context. Web. 13 Oct. 2013.
  2. Kniffel, L., & Sullivan, P., & McCormick E: (1999). "100 of the most important leaders of the 20th century". American Libraries, 30 (11), 38.
  3. Newton Horace Winchell and Winchell, Alexander Newton (1917). "The Winchell Genealogy", 2nd Ed. (pp. 423-424). Minneapolis, MN: Horace V. Winchell.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 Wiegand, W. A. (1990). "Winchell, Constance Mabel". In Wiegand, Wayne A. (ed.), Supplement to the Dictionary of American Library Biography (pp. 163-165). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Wedgeworth, R. (1993). "Winchell, Constance M." In Wedgeworth, Robert (ed.), World Encyclopedia of Library and Information Services (pp. 867-868). Chicago, IL: American Library Association.