Dakin Karatun Poland

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Template:Infobox libraryBabban Laburaren ( Polish ) shine babban ɗakin karatu na Yaren mutanen Poland, kai tsaye ga Ma'aikatar Al'adu da Kayan Tarihi na Jamhuriyar Poland .

Laburaren yana tattara littattafai, majallu, kamfuta mai amfani da lantarki da na sauti da aka buga a yankin Poland, da Polonica da aka buga a ƙasashen waje. Ita ce mafi mahimmancin laburaren binciken ɗabi'a, babban tarihin tarihin rubutun Yaren mutanen Poland da kuma cibiyar nazarin tarihin littattafai domin tsaftace littattafai. Hakanan yana taka muhimmiyar rawa a matsayin babban cibiyar bincike, kuma yana da muhimmiyar cibiyar hanya don sauran ɗakunan karatu na Yaren mutanen Poland.

Laburaren na Kasa yana karbar kwafin kowane littafin da aka buga a Poland azaman ajiya na doka . Laburaren Jagiellonian shine kawai sauran laburaren a Poland don samun matsayin ɗakin karatu na ƙasa.

Tsarin laburarin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai bangarori guda uku:

  • Laburaren
  • Cibiyar Bibliographic Institute of National Library
  • Littafin da Karanta Makaranta

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gine-gine na Musamman Musamman: Fadar Krasiński (Fadar Commonwealth), Warsaw

Tarihin Laburaren Kasa ya samo asali ne a karni na 18 ( Załuski Library ) [1] gami da abubuwa daga tarin John III Sobieski waɗanda aka samo daga ɗiyarsa Maria Karolina Sobieska, Duchess na Bouillon. Koyaya, sojojin na Rashaa sun kwace tarin Załuski daga tsarina Catherine na II a bayan Raba ta biyu na Poland kuma aka aika zuwa Saint Petersburg, inda littattafan suka kafa tarin Laburaren Jama'a na Imperial a kan kirkirar ta a 1795. [2] [3] [4] Sassan tarin sun lalace ko lalata kamar yadda aka kula dasu yayin cire su daga dakin karatun sannan aka kaisu Rasha, kuma da yawa aka sata. A cewar masanin tarihi Joachim Lelewel, littattafan Zaluskis, "ana iya sayan su a Grodno ta kwandon".

Saboda haka, lokacin da Poland ta sake samun 'yancinta a 1918, babu wata cibiya da za ta yi aiki a matsayin ɗakin karatu na ƙasa. A ranar 24 ga Fabrairu 1928, ta dokar shugaban ƙasa Ignacy Mościcki, an ƙirƙiri theakin Karatu na inasa ta hanyar zamani. [5] An buɗe shi a cikin 1930 kuma da farko yana da kundin dubu 200. Babban Darakta na farko shi ne Stefan Demby, wanda Stefan Vrtel-Wierczyński ya gaje shi a 1934. An kara saurin tarin dakin karatun. Misali, a cikin 1932 shugaba Mościcki ya ba da dukkan littattafai da rubuce rubuce daga Gidan Tarihi na Wilanów Palace zuwa laburaren, mujalladi dubu 40 da hotuna dubu 20 daga tarin Stanisław Kostka Potocki .

Tun farko dakin karatun na kasar bai da isashsehn gurin wurin zama, Saboda wannan ne yasa dole masu bincike su sami tarin wurare da yawa. Babban ɗakin karatun yana cikin sabon ginin ɗakin karatu na Warsaw School of Economics . A cikin 1935 Fadar Potocki a Warsaw ta zama gida don tarin musamman. An tsara sabon gini, wanda aka gina shi mai ma'ana don dakin karatu a inda ake kira Pole Mokotowskie a yanzu, a cikin wani yanki mai ban mamaki "Gundumar Gwamnati". Koyaya, ɓarkewar Yaƙin Duniya na II ya sami matsala.

  • 6.5 littattafai da mujallu daga ƙarni na 19 da 20
  • 3,000 farkon bugawa
  • Inchi inchi 2,200
  • Rubuce-rubuce 52,000
  • maps, gumaka da kiɗa

A cikin 1940 'yan Nazi sun canza ɗakin karatu na ƙasa zuwa ɗakin karatu na birni na Warsaw kuma suka rarraba shi kamar haka:

  • Sashen Littattafai don Jamusawa (wanda ke cikin ginin Jami'ar Warsaw)
  • Departmentuntataccen Sashe, dauke da littattafan da babu su ga masu karatu (wanda yake a babban kujerar ɗakin karatun a lokacin — Makarantar Tattalin Arziki)
  • Duk tarin kuɗi na musamman daga ofisoshi da cibiyoyi daban-daban na Warsaw (waɗanda ke cikin Fadar Jamhuriyar )

A cikin 1944 'yan Nazi sun banka wa tarin kayan wuta wuta a matsayin wani bangare na danniya bayan Yakin Warsaw . [6] Wannan ya haifar da lalata littattafan da aka buga da wuri 80,000, gami da ƙimar ƙarnin ƙarni na 16 zuwa 18 na Polonica, rubuce-rubucen 26,000, abubuwan da ba za a iya cire su ba 2,500, zane dubu 100 da zane-zane, kayan kiɗa da kayan wasan kwaikwayo guda 50,000. [7] An kiyasta cewa daga cikin sama da mujalladai miliyan shida a manyan dakunan karatu na Warsaw a cikin 1939, an rasa kundin mujallu miliyan 3.6 a lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na II, yawancin su na Libraryakin Karatun ne. [8] [9]

Tarin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban dakin karatu

A yau tarin Laburare na Kasa suna daya daga cikin mafi girma a kasar. Daga cikin kundin dubu 7,900,000 (2004) da aka gudanar a laburaren akwai abubuwa 160,000 da aka buga kafin 1801, sama da rubuce-rubuce 26,000 (gami da rubuce-rubucen waƙoƙi 6,887), sama da kwafin kiɗa 114,000 da zane 400,000. Har ila yau, tarin dakunan karatun sun hada da hotuna da wasu takardu masu zane, sama da zane dubu 101 da taswira, sama da 2,000,000 ephemera, da kuma litattafai sama da 2,000,000 da kuma kwafin mujallu kimanin 800,000 daga karni na 19 zuwa 21. Abubuwan sananne a cikin tarin sun hada da ganye 151 na Codex Suprasliensis, wanda aka rubuta a cikin Memory na Rajistar Shirin Duniya a 2007 don girmamawa ga mahimmancin fifikon ta da ikon ta. [10]

A shekarar 2012 laburaren ya sanya hannu kan wata yarjejeniya don kara wajan adana laburaren Poland miliyan 1.3 zuwa WorldCat .

Hasken Littattafai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Littafin Adireshin Archbishops na Gniezno da Rayuwar Bishof na Cracow na Jan Długosz rubutu ne na karni na 16 wanda Stanislaw Samostrzelnik ya haskaka tsakanin 1531-1535. A yau yana zaune a cikin tarin Laburaren Libraryasa a cikin Warsaw.

Wasu zaɓaɓɓun shafuka masu haske waɗanda ba a san su ba da ke aiki a ciki da kewayen Paris, Bruges da Gent a tsakiyar ƙarni na 15. Karkatawa (daga Latin brevis, 'short' ko 'concise') littafi ne na litattafan addinin Latin da ke cikin cocin Katolika wanda ke dauke da jama'a ko addu'o'in canonical, waƙoƙin yabo, Zabura, karatu, da sanarwa don amfanin yau da kullun, musamman ta bishops, firistoci, da diakoni a Ofishin Allahntaka.

Littafin Haske mai haske na Stephan Schriber (1494).

Duba nan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Laburaren Dijital na Babban Laburaren (asar Poland
  • Jerin dakunan karatu da aka lalace yayin yakin duniya na II
  • Ossolineum

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Diddigin bayanai waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Pasztaleniec-Jarzyńska & Tchórzewska-Kabata 2000
  2. Czechowicz, ¶ "After the fall..."
  3. Witt, ¶ "The Dispersal of the collection"
  4. Basbanes, p. 185
  5. Pasztaleniec-Jarzyńska & Tchórzewska-Kabata 2000
  6. Knuth, p. 166
  7. Pasztaleniec-Jarzyńska & Tchórzewska-Kabata 2000
  8. Mężyński, p. 296
  9. Balcerzak, p. 4
  10. UNESCO, ¶ "The codex was written..."