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Dan harshe

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Dan harshe
Default
  • Dan harshe
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3
Mai magana da yawun Dan, wanda aka rubuta a Laberiya.

Dan /ˈdæn/ [1] yaren Mande ne na Kudancin da ake magana da shi da farko a Ivory Coast (~ 800,000 masu magana) da Laberiya (150,000-200,000 masu magana). Har ila yau, akwai yawan mutane kusan 800 a Guinea. Dan yare ne na sauti, tare da 9 zuwa 11 da kuma yin rajistar sautuna, dangane da yaren.

Sauran sunayen yaren sun hada da Yacouba ko Yakubasa, Gio, Gyo, Gio-Dan, da Da. Harsuna sune Gio (Liberian Dan), Gweetaawu (Eastern Dan), Blowo (Western Dan), da Kla. Kla a bayyane yake yare ne na musamman.

Fasahar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sautin sautin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A gaba Tsakiya Komawa
<small id="mwMA">Rashin jituwa.</small> <small id="mwMw">Ruwa.</small> <small id="mwNg">Rashin jituwa.</small> <small id="mwOQ">Ruwa.</small>
Kusa i ɯ u
Kusa da kusa ɪ An tsara shi ʊ
Tsakanin Tsakiya da kuma ɵ Bayani o
Tsakanin ə
Bude-tsakiya ɛ Zuwa Owu
Bude æ ne Ƙarshen ɒ
Kalmomin da ake kira JI da kuma

1Kawai a cikin Dan na Laberiya.

2Kawai a Gabashin Dan lokacin da yake cikin matsayi na karin sautin.

Sautin hanci a Gabashin Dan
A gaba Komawa
<small id="mwkA">Rashin jituwa.</small> <small id="mwkw">Ruwa.</small>
Kusa Ya kasance ɯ̃ A cikin su
Bude-tsakiya ɛ̃ ʌ̃ O.A.
Bude æ̃ Bayyanawa ɒ̃

Sautin da aka yi amfani da shi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Labari Alveolar Palatal Velar Labar da ke cikin baki<br id="mwvw"> Gishiri
fili L<small id="mwxw">ab.</small>
Hanci m n ɲ ŋ ŋw ŋ͡m
Plosive ba tare da murya ba p t k kw k͡p
<small id="mw7Q">murya</small> b d ɡ ɡw ɡ͡b
Ba a yarda da shi ba ɓ ɗ
Fricative ba tare da murya ba f s x h
<small id="mwARo">murya</small> v z
Kusanci j w
Hanyar gefen l
Trill (r)

2Ba a cikin Dan na Laberiya ba.

  • /l/ ana jin sautin a matsayin [r] lokacin da alveolar ko palatal suka riga su.
  • jin haɗin ƙwayoyin /sl, zl/ a matsayin sautunan fricative na gefe [ɬ, ♡] .[2]

Tsarin rubuce-rubuce[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rubutun Laberiya ya haɗa da wannan haruffa:

Dan haruffa (Liberia)
A B Ɓara D Ɗa E Ɛ F G GB H Na K KP KW L M N NW NY Ŋ O O Ə Sanya P R S T U Sanya V W X Y Z
a b ɓ d ɗ da kuma ɛ f g gb h i k kp kw l m n nw ny ŋ o Owu ə ɵ p r s t u Ƙarshen v w x da kuma z
Darajar IPA
a b ɓ d ɗ da kuma ɛ f ɡ ɡ͡b h i k k͡p kw l m n ŋw ɲ ŋ o Owu ə ɵ p r s t u ɯ v w x j z
Harshen Dan West (Côte d'Ivoire)
A B BH D DH E Ɛ Ni ƐA F G GB GW Na K KP KW L M N NG O O Ö P R S T U Ü V W Y Z
a b bh d dh da kuma ɛ Ya kasance a cikin ɛa f g gb gw i k kp kw l m n ng o Owu ö p r s t u ü v w da kuma z
Darajar IPA
a ɒ b ɓ d ɗ da kuma ɛ Zuwa æ ne f ɡ ɡ͡b gw i k k͡p kw l m n ŋ o Owu Bayani p r s t u ɯ v w j z
Harshen Dan East (Côte d'Ivoire), 1982
A B BH D DH E Ni Ɛ ƐA F G GB GW H Na Yaro da aka yi K KP KW L M N O Ö O P R S T U Ü Uwargidan Uwargidan V W Y Z
a b bh d dh da kuma Ya kasance a cikin ɛ ɛa f g gb gw h i A bayyane yake k kp kw l m n o ö Owu p r s t u ü Bayyanawa Bayyanawa v w da kuma z
Darajar IPA
a ɒ b ɓ d ɗ da kuma Zuwa ɛ æ ne f ɡ ɡ͡b gw h i ɪ k k͡p kw l m n o Bayani Owu p r s t u ɯ ʊ ʉ v w j z
Harshen Dan East (Côte d'Ivoire), 2014
A Ɗaya daga cikin B BH D DH E Sanya Ɛ Æ F G GB GW H Na Yaro da aka yi K KP KW L M N O Sanya O P R S T U Sanya Uwargidan V W Y Z
a ya b bh d dh da kuma Zuwa ɛ æ ne f g gb gw h i A bayyane yake k kp kw l m n o Bayani Owu p r s t u ɯ Bayyanawa v w da kuma z
Darajar IPA
a ɒ b ɓ d ɗ da kuma Zuwa ɛ æ ne f ɡ ɡ͡b ɡw h i ɪ k k͡p kw l m n o Bayani Owu p r s t u ɯ ʊ v w j z

Za a sanya Bayani aiki a cikin wani nau'i na gaba na The Unicode Standard .

Ana nuna sautuna kamar haka: karin sautin sama: a̋; sautin sama - á; sautin matsakaici: ā; sautin ƙasa: à; sautin sautin saurin sautin saunin sautin saitin sautin sawun sautin saun sautin saut sautin sauti sautin sauni sautin saiti sautin sautan sautin sautar sautin sauna sautin sa sautin sauka sautin sautum sautin sa

Digraphs Ōn, dh, gb gw, kp, kwā suna riƙe da dabi'u iri ɗaya kamar yadda yake a cikin rubutun 1982, kuma ana nuna wasula na hanci ta hanyar ƙara harafin n bayan harafin wasula Ōn.

Bayanan da aka ambata[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  2. Vydrin, Valentin (2020). Dan. In Rainer Vossen and Gerrit J. Dimmendaal (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of African Languages: Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 451–462.

Haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]