Harsunan Mande

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Harsunan Mande
Linguistic classification
ISO 639-5 dmn
Glottolog mand1469[1]

Harsunan Mande ( Mandén, Manding ;  ) rukuni ne na harsunan da al'ummar Mandé ke magana a ƙasashe da yawa a Yammacin Afirka . Wadannan sun hada da; Maninka, Mandinka, Soninke, Bambara, Kpelle, Jula, Bozo, Mende, Susu, and Vai . Akwai kusan harsuna 60 zuwa 75 waɗanda mutane miliyan 30 zuwa 40 ke magana, musamman a cikin; Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Saliyo, Laberiya, Ivory Coast, Mauritania, Ghana da kuma arewa maso yammacin Najeriya da arewacin Benin .

Harsunan Mande sun nuna ƴan kamanceceniya na ƙamus da dangin harshen Atlantika-Congo, don haka tare an gabatar da su a matsayin wani yanki na babban dangin harshen Nijar-Congo tun daga shekarun 1950. Koyaya, yarukan Modes sun rasa ilimin ilimin halittar juna wanda shine babban yanayin gano asalin na Atlantika-Congo. Saboda haka, masana harshe suna ƙara ɗaukar Mande da Atlantic-Congo a matsayin iyalai masu zaman kansu. [2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai ra'ayoyi daban-daban game da shekarun harsunan Mande.

Valentin Vydrin ya kammala cewa " Ƙasar mahaifar Mande a rabi na biyu na karni na 4 BC yana cikin Kudancin Sahara, wani wuri zuwa Arewacin 16 ° ko ma 18 ° na Latitude Arewa kuma tsakanin 3 ° da 12 ° na yammacin Longitude." Wato yanzu Mauritania da kuma kudancin Saharar yamma .".

Idan dangantakar harshen Mande ta kasance karara wanda zai taimaka wajen sanar da tarihinsa. Misali, Joseph Greenberg ya ba da shawarar cewa kungiyar Niger-Congo, wacce a ra'ayinsa ya hada da dangin harshen Mande, sun fara wargaje a kusan shekaru 7000 BP . Masu iya magana da ita sun yi aiki da al'adun Neolithic, kamar yadda kalmomin Proto-Niger-Congo suka nuna don " saniya", "akuya" da "noma".

Ilimin farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sigismund Wilhelm Koelle ne ya fara gane ƙungiyar a cikin 1854 a cikin Polyglotta Africana . Ya ambaci harsuna 13 a ƙarƙashin taken Arewa-Western High-Sudan Family, ko Mandéga Family of Languages . A cikin 1901, Maurice Delafosse ya bambanta ƙungiyoyi biyu. Ya yi maganar ƙungiyar mandé-tan ta arewa da ƙungiyar mandé-fu ta kudu. Bambancin an yi shi ne kawai saboda harsunan arewa suna amfani da furcin tan na goma, kuma harsunan kudu suna amfani da fu . A cikin 1924, Louis Tauxier ya lura cewa bambancin ba a kafa shi da kyau ba kuma akwai akalla rukuni na uku da ya kira mandé-bu . Sai 1950 André Prost ya goyi bayan wannan ra'ayi kuma ya ba da ƙarin bayani.

A cikin 1958, Welmers ya buga kasida mai suna "The Mande Languages," inda ya raba harsunan zuwa rukuni uku: Arewa maso Yamma, Kudu da Gabas. [3] Ƙarshensa ya dogara ne akan binciken lexicostatistic . Joseph Greenberg ya bi wannan bambanci a cikin Harsunan Afirka (1963). Dogon (1971) da Gérard Galtier (1980) sun bi bambance-bambancen zuwa rukuni uku amma tare da bambance-bambance masu ban mamaki.

Rabewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dangantaka da Niger-Congo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mande ba ya raba yanayin halittar mafi yawan dangin Nijar – Kongo, kamar tsarin ajin suna . Haka kuma babu wasu da yawa da aka sani a cikin ainihin ƙamus tsakanin Mande da Niger-Congo. Saboda haka, Dimmendaal (2008) ya yi jayayya cewa shaidar haɗawa ba ta da ƙarfi, kuma a yanzu Mande an fi ɗauka a matsayin dangi mai zaman kansa. [2] Güldemann (2018) yana da ra'ayi iri ɗaya.

Ba tare da tabbatar da cewa Mande ba dan Niger-Congo ne ko kuma ba shi ba, Vydrin (2016) ya lura cewa ainihin ƙamus na proto-Mande ya dace da Nijar-Congo, kuma ma'auni na rubutu kamar rashin tsarin suna ya kamata. ba za a dauka a matsayin mai yiwuwa ba; Ya lura cewa "Idan aka tabbatar da matsayin Mande a cikin Niger-Congo ... Mande zai wakilci mafi dadadden reshe na phylum". [4] Blench yana ɗaukarsa a matsayin reshe na farko wanda ya ɓarke kafin tsarin halittar suna-aji ya haɓaka. Dwyer (1998) ya kwatanta shi da sauran rassan Nijar – Kongo kuma ya gano cewa sun kafa iyali mai dunkulewa, inda Mande ya kasance mafi banbance-banbance na rassan da ya yi la’akari da su.

Rabewar ciki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bambance-bambance da zurfin dangin Mande yana kama da na Indo-Turai. An kusan yarda da rassan Mande guda goma sha ɗaya a duniya: Kudancin Mande (Dan da sauransu), Mande ta Gabas (Bisa, Boko da sauransu), Samogo, Bobo, Soninke – Bozo, Mande Kudu maso Yamma (Mende, Kpelle, Loma da sauransu). Soso–Jalonke, Jogo, Vai–Kono, Mokole and Manding (Bambara, Djula da sauransu). An kuma yarda cewa waɗannan rassa na farko biyu ne, na farko a matsayin Mande Kudu maso Gabas, sauran kuma a matsayin Western Mande.

Yawancin rarrabuwar Mande na ciki sun dogara ne akan lexicostatistics, alal misali, wanda ya dogara da jerin Swadesh . Wani madadin rarrabuwa daga Kastenholz (1996) ya dogara ne akan sabbin dabaru da ilimin harshe . Kastenholz yayi kashedin duk da haka cewa wannan baya dogara ne akan ma'auni na haƙiƙa don haka ba rarrabuwa ba ne a cikin kunkuntar ma'ana. Rarraba mai zuwa tarin duka biyu ne.   Vydrin (2009) ya ɗan bambanta da wannan: ya sanya Soso-Jalonke tare da Kudu maso Yamma (komawa zuwa André Prost 1953); Soninke-Bozo, Samogho da Bobo a matsayin rassa masu zaman kansu na Western Mande, da Mokole tare da Vai-Kono. Yawancin rarrabuwa suna sanya Jo a cikin Samogo.

Siffofin Morphosyntactic[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Harsunan Mande ba su da tsarin ajin suna ko faɗaɗa magana na harsunan Atlantika-Congo waɗanda harsunan Bantu suka shahara sosai don su, amma Bobo yana da nau'ikan fi'ili da ke haifar da rashin fahimta . Harsunan Mande na Kudu maso Yamma da Soninke suna da maye gurbi na farko. Yawanci yawanci ana yiwa alama da clitic; a wasu harsuna, tare da sautin, misali a cikin Sembla . Sau da yawa karin magana suna da rabe-raben da ba za a iya raba su ba da kuma haɗawa da keɓancewa . Tsarin kalma a cikin juzu'i masu jujjuyawa shine batun - taimako - abu - fi'ili - adverb . Ana amfani da madaidaicin matsayi . A cikin jimlolin sunaye, masu mallaka suna zuwa gaban suna, da sifofi da alamomin jam’i bayan fi’ili; Ana samun nuni tare da umarni biyu.

Kwatankwacin ƙamus[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A ƙasa akwai samfurin ƙamus na ƙamus na gyare-gyaren da aka sake ginawa:

Harshe ido kunne hanci hakori harshe baki jini kashi itace ruwa ci suna
Proto-Mande [4] *ɲíŋ *lɛɓ́ Ṽ *yiti
Proto-West Mande *tuli *sʸún *ɲín **nɛ̌N *da ~ ɗá *jio ~ yi *guri ~ wuri *jio ~ yi *tako
Proto- Manding (Mandekan) *nya *tulo *nun *yin *na (e) *da *joli *kolo *yiri *ji *domin (n) *tɔgu
Proto- Gabas Mande (Niger-Volta) *JɛN (< *gɛN) *toro *N-jẽ *son (-ka) *N-le *lɛ *(N-)wa (-ru) *(N-) gero *li/*da *jin *ba (-le) *tɔ
Proto- South Mande *yũ̀ã́ *tɔɗa *yṹã̄ *sɔ̃̀ɛ̃́ *nã̄nɛ̃́ *Dé *yɔ̃̀mũ̄ *wɔ̃́nɛ̃́ * yi * yi * ɓɪ̀lɪ̀ *tɔ
GLOSS PROTO-

MANDÉ
Manding Kono-Vai Susu Mandé (SW) Soninké Sembla Bobo San Busa Mano Dan Guro Mwa
'mouth' *da da da la laqqe jo do le le le Di le le, di
'saliva' *da-yi da-ji da- sɛ-ye la-yi laxan-ji jon-fago dibe se le-i le-yi Di-li leri liri
'water' *yi je yi yi ya ji jo ji, zio mun i yi yi yi yi
'breast' *n-koŋ sin susu sisi ŋeni konbe kye ɲiŋi ɲo ɲo ɲoŋ ɲoŋ ɲoŋ ɲoŋ
'milk' *n-kon-yi nɔnɔ susu-ji xin-yɛ gen-iya -xatti kye-n-dyo n-yan-niŋi n-yo- n-yoŋ-yi n-yoŋ-yi
'goat' *bo(re) ba ba ɓoli sugo bi gwa bwe ble bori
'buck' *bore-guren ba-koro diggeh gu-gura ble-sa bɔ-gon bɔ-gon gyagya bɔ-guren
'sheep' *saga saga bara-wa yexe ɓara jaxe sega sɛge sere sa baa bla bera bla
'ram' *saga-guren saga-koro jaxampade kekyere si-gula da-gu bla-gon bra-gon bla-gure
'head' * Koun-kolo yin-kola

Yi la'akari da cewa a cikin waɗannan cognates:

  • 'saliva' = 'baki'+'ruwa'
  • 'madara' = 'nono'+'ruwa'
  • 'Buck (he-goat)' = 'akuya'+'namiji'
  • 'rago' = 'tumaki'+'namiji'

Lambobi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kwatanta lambobi a cikin yaruka ɗaya:

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Bissa Bissa (Bisa) díí píjà kakʊ́ sɪ̀ sɔ́ɔ̀ sòàtɪ (5 + 1) sáápra (5 + 2) síɲe (2 x 4) ? nɛfʊ̀ (10 -1) ? bʊ̀
Busa Boko do pla ʔààɔ̃ sííɔ̃ sɔ́o soolo (5 + 1) sopla (5 + 2) swaàɔ̃ (5 + 3) kɛ̃̀okwi [ litː tear away 1 (from) 10 ] kwi
Busa Bokobaru (Zogbẽ) do pláa ʔààɡɔ̃ sííɡɔ̃ sɔ́ɔ́ro swɛ́ɛ̀do (5 + 1) swɛ́ɛ̀pláa (5 + 2) sɔ́rààɡɔ̃ (5 + 3) kɛ̃́ndo (10–1) kurì
Busa Illo Busa do pia ʔààkɔ̃ ʃííkɔ̃ sɔ́o sóodo (5 + 1) soopia (5 + 2) swààkɔ̃ (5 + 3) kĩ́ṇdokwi [litː tear away 1 (from) 10] kwi
Busa Busa do pla ʔààkɔ̃ sííkɔ̃ sɔ́ɔ́ro súddo (5 + 1) súppla (5 + 2) sɔ́rààkɔ̃ (5 + 3) kɛ̃́ndo (10–1) kurì
Kyanga Kyanga (Kyenga) (1) dúú fʸáā ˀāàː ʃíí sɔ́ɔ́rū sɔ̄ɔ̄dū (5 + 1) sʷāhʸáā (5 + 2) sōōwà (5 + 3) sòòʃí (5 + 4) kōōrì
Kyanga Kyanga (Kyenga) (2) dūː fʲâː ʔàː ʃíː sɔ̂ːwû sɔ̂ːdū (5 + 1) sɔ̂ːfʲá (5 + 2) sōːuwà (5 + 3) sōwēʃíː (5 + 4) kōːlì
Kyanga Kyenga (3) do hia / fia ʔà ʃí sɔɔlu sɔɔdu (5 + 1) sɔɔhia (5 + 2) soowà (5 + 3) sooʃí (5 + 4) korì
Kyanga Shanga do ʍa ʔà ʃí sɔ́ɔ sɔbodo (5 + 1) sɔhia (5 + 2) sɔboʔà (5 + 3) sɔdoʃí (5 + 4) wókòì
Samo Matya Samo ɡɔ̀rɔ́ prá tjɔwɔ sɔ́rɔ́ sɛ̀rɛ́ (5 + 1) tjʊ́sʊ́ (5 + 2) tjisí (2 x 4) ménaŋɡɔrɔ (10–1) flè / fʊ̀
Samo Maya Samo dɛ́nɛ́ fúrá kàakú síirí sɔ́ɔrɔ́ sɔ̀rɔ̀ (5 + 1) sɔ̀frá (5 + 2) cíɡísí (2 x 4 ) ? sóosí (5 + 4) ?
Guro-Tura Guro fíé yaá zĩ̀ɛ̃́ sólú sʊɛdʊ / sʊɛlʊ (5 + 1) sʊlàyíé (5 + 2) sʊlaá (5 + 3) sʊlàzĩ̀ɛ̃́ (5 + 4) vu
Guro-Tura Yaouré tʊ̀ fli̋ yaaɡa sĩjɛ̃ = sĩɟɛ̃ or sĩd͡ʒɛ̃ sóolu ʃɛ́dʊ (5 + 1) sɔ́ravli (5 + 2) sɔ́ra (5 + 3) sɔ́rasiɛ̃ (5 + 4)
Guro-Tura Mann (Mano) doó pèèlɛ yààka yììsɛ sɔ́ɔ́li sáláádo (5 + 1) sálápèèlɛ (5 + 2) sálàka (5 + 3) sɛ́lɛ̀ìsɛ (5 + 4) vũ̀
Nwa-Ben Beng do plaŋ ŋaŋ siéŋ sɔ́ŋ sɔ́do (5 + 1) sɔ́pla (5 + 2) sɔ́wa (5 + 3) sisi (5 + 4) ebu
Nwa-Ben Gagu fɪ́n yía zié súu sɛ́dò (5 + 1) sɛ́fɪ́n (5 + 2) sɛà (5 + 3) tízie (5 + 4)
Nwa-Ben Mwan (Muan) do plɛ yaɡa yiziɛ sóó srɔádo (5 + 1) srɔáplɛ (5 + 2) srɔ́a (5 + 3) srɔáyiziɛ (5 + 4) vu
Nwa-Ben Wan do pilɔŋ ʔã́ sijá sɔ̀lú wáŋ́ séaʔã́ (5 + 2) séjãŋ́ (5 + 3) sɔlásijá (5 + 4) sɔ́jɔlú
Jogo-Jeri Jalkunan dúlì fìlɑ̀ siɡ͡bù nɑ̄ːnī sōːlō mìːlù mɑ̀ɑ́lɑ̀ mɑ̀sīɡ͡bū (5 + 3) mɑ́nɑ̄nì (5 + 4) tɑ̄
Jogo-Jeri Ligbi díén / díyé fàlà / fàlá sèɡ͡bá / siɡ͡bá náánè / náani sóólò / sóolo mɔ̀ɔ̀dó / mooró (5 + 1) màúlà / mafála (5 + 2) másèɡ͡bá / masiɡ͡bá (5 + 3) màdááné / maráni (5 + 4) táàn / táa
Manding Marka (Dafing) kyen / kyeren fila / fila saba / saba nɛi / naani luu / luuruSamfuri:Typo help inline wɔɔ / wɔɔrɔ wəna / wonla sii / siɡi konon / kondon tan / tan
Manding Bambara kélen [kélẽ́] fìla [fìlá] sàba [sàbá] náani [náːní] dúuru [dúːrú] wɔ́ɔrɔ [wɔ́ːrɔ́] wólonwula [wólṍwulá] sèɡin [sèɡĩ́] kɔ̀nɔntɔn [kɔ̀nɔ̃̀tɔ̃́] tán [tã́]
Manding Jula (1) kelen [ké.lẽ́] filà [fì.là] ~ [flà] sàbà [sà.bà] nàànìn [nàːnĩ̀] dùùrù [dù.ɾù] wɔ̀ɔ̀rɔ̀ [wɔ̀ːɾɔ́] wolon fìlà [wò.lṍ.fi.̀là] sieɡi [sí.é.ɡí] kɔ̀nɔ̀ndon [kɔ.̀nɔ̃.ⁿdṍ] tan [tã́]
Manding Jula (2) kelen [kélẽ́] fila [fìlá] / fla [flá] saba [sàbá] naani [náːní] looru [lóːrú] wɔɔrɔ [wɔ́ːrɔ́] wolonfila [wólṍfìlá] / wolonfla seɡin [sèɡĩ́] / seeɡi [sèːɡí] kɔnɔntɔn [kɔ̀nɔ̃̀tɔ̃́] tan [tã́]
Manding Sankaran Maninka kɛlɛn fila sawa naani loolu / looli wɔɔrɔn wɔɔrɔn (fi)la sen konondo tan
Manding Mahou kéléŋ fyàà sàwà náání lóó wɔ́ɔ́lɔ́ wóóŋvyàà sɛ́ɲíŋ kɔ̀ɔ̀nŋdɔ́ŋ táŋ
Manding Mandinka kíliŋ fula saba náani lúulu wóoro wórówula sáyi konónto táŋ
Manding Xaasonga kilin fula saba naani luulu wooro woorowula saɡi xononto tan
Mokole Kakabe kélen fìla sàba náani lɔ́ɔlu wɔ́ɔrɔ wɔ́rɔwila (6 + 1) sáɡin kɔ̀nɔntɔ tán
Mokole Kuranko kelen fila sawa / saba nani loli wɔrɔ wɔrɔnfila (6 + 1) ? seɡin kɔnɔnt tan
Mokole Lele kelɛŋ fela sawa nani luuli wɔɔrɔ wɔrɔŋ kela (6 + 1) seŋ kɔnɔndɔ taŋ
Vai-Kono Kono ncélen / ncéle, dɔ́ndo fèa sàwa náani dúʔu wɔ́ɔlɔ wɔ́nfèa / ɔ́ɱfèa séi / séin kɔ̀nɔ́ntɔn tán
Vai-Kono Vai lɔ̀ndɔ́ fɛ̀(ʔ)á sàk͡pá náánì sóó(ʔ)ú sɔ̂ŋ lɔ̀ndɔ́ (5 + 1) sɔ̂ŋ fɛ̀(ʔ)á (5 + 2) sɔ̂ŋ sàk͡pá (5 + 3) sɔ̂ŋ náánì (5 + 4) tâŋ
Susu-Yalunka Susu kérén [kɛ́rɛ̃́] fìrín [fìrĩ́] sàxán [sàxã́] náání súlí sénní [sẽní] (5 + 1) sólófèré (5 + 2) sólómásàxán (5 + 3) sólómánáání (5 + 4) fuú
Susu-Yalunka Yalunka (1) kèdé fìríŋ sàkáŋ nànì sùlù sènì (5 + 1) fòlófɛ̀rɛ́ (5 + 2) fòlòmàsàkáŋ (5 + 3) fòlòmànànì (5 + 4)
Susu-Yalunka Yalunka (Jalonke) (2) keden fidin saxan naani suuli sɛnni (5 + 1) solofɛdɛ (5 + 2) solomasɛɡɛ (5 + 3) solomanaani (5 + 4) fuu
Kpelle Guinea Kpelle tááŋ hvèèlɛ̌ / hvèèlɛ́ hààbǎ / hààbá nááŋ́ lɔ́ɔ́lí mɛ̀í dà (5 + 1) mɛ̀ì hvéélɛ̀ (5 + 2) mɛ̀ì háábà (5 + 3) mɛ̀ì nááŋ́ (5 + 4) pòǔ
Kpelle Liberia Kpelle taaŋ / tɔnɔ / dɔnɔ feerɛ saaɓa náaŋ nɔ́ɔlu / lɔ́ɔlu mɛi da (5 + 1) mɛi feerɛ (5 + 2) mɛi saaɓa (5 + 3) mɛi náaŋ (5 + 4) puu
Mende-Loma Looma (Toma) (1) ɡílàɡ félé(ɡɔ̀) sáwà(ɡɔ̀) náánĩ̀(ɡɔ̀) dɔ́ɔ́lù̀(ɡɔ̀) dòzìtà (5 + 1) dɔ́fèlà (5 + 2) dɔ́sáwà (5 + 3) tàwù̀(ɡɔ̀) (10–1) ? pù̀(ɡɔ̀)
Mende-Loma Loma (2) ɡila feleɡɔ saaɡɔ naaɡɔ dooluo dɔzita (5 + 1) dɔfela (5 + 2) dɔsava (5 + 3) taawu (10–1) ? puu
Mende-Loma Bandi (1) ìtá(ŋ), hítà(ŋ) fèlé(ŋ) sàwá(ŋ), sàá(ŋ) náánì(ŋ) ndɔ̀ɔ́lú(ŋ) nɡɔ̀hítá(ŋ) (5 + 1) ŋɡɔ̀félà(ŋ) (5 + 2) ŋɡɔ̀hák͡pá(ŋ), ŋɡwahák͡pá(ŋ) (5+ 4) tààwú(ŋ), tààvú(ŋ) (10–1) ? pû(ŋ), púù(ŋ)
Mende-Loma Bandi (2) iitá feelé saawá naáni ndɔɔ́lu nɡɔhíta (5 + 1) nɡɔféla (5 + 2) nɡwahák͡pa (5 + 3) taávu (10–1) ? púu
Mende-Loma Loko (1) íla(ŋ) félé(ŋ), féé(ŋ) sáwá(ŋ), cáwá(ŋ) nááí(ŋ) ńdɔu(ŋ) ŋɡɔhita (5 + 1) ŋɡɔfɛla (5 + 2) ŋɡɔsaak͡pa karaabu, raabu puu(ŋ), kapuu(ŋ)
Mende-Loma Loko (2) ila fele itʃawa naiŋ ndɔu nɡɔita (5 + 1) nɡɔfla (5 + 2) nɡɔsaɡ͡ba (5 + 3) karabu (10–1) ? kapu
Mende-Loma Mende yilá / itáá felé sawá nááni lɔ́ɔ́lu wɔ́íta (5 + 1) wɔ́fíla (5 + 2) wáyák͡pá (5 + 3) táálú (10–1) ? puú
Samogo Duungooma sɔʔi fíʔi ʒiʔi naai tũmɛ̃ ɲɛ̃ːnũ ŋaai kleːlo ceũ
Samogo Dzùùngoo sōː ́ / sōːrē fíː / fíːkí ʒìːɡī ́ nàːlẽ́ nũ̀ tsũ̀mɛ̃̄ ́ ɲɛ̃̀ːnṹ ŋáːlõ̀ kjèːrṍ tsjéù
Samogo Jowulu (Jo) tẽẽna fuuli bʒei pʃɪrɛᶦ tãã tãmãnɪ (5 + 1) dʒɔ̃mpʊn (3 + 4) fulpʊn (2 x 4) tẽmpʊn (5 + 4) bʒĩĩ
Samogo Seeku swɛ̃̄ fĩ́ ʃwɛ̀ nàà nɔ̄ tsìì ɲɛ̀ɛ̀ kàà kùòmɛ̀
Soninke-Bobo Konabéré tálɪ̄ pálà nìã̄ kʊ̄ kʊ̀tã́nɪ̀ (5 + 1) kʊ̀rʊ̀párá (5 + 2) kʊ̀rʊ̀sɔ̄ʊ̀ (5 + 3) kʊ̀rʊ̀nɔ̂ŋ (5 + 4) m̥ḿ̩
Soninke-Bobo Southern Bobo Madare tèlé plá sáà náà kóò kònálá (5 + 1) kòk͡pùrá (5 + 2) kórósɔ̃̌ (5 + 3) kórónɔ̃̌ (5 + 4) fʊ̃̀
Soninke-Bobo Hainyaxo Bozo (Kelenga) sâ:nà fíenù sí:yù ná:nà kɔ́lɔ́hɔ̀ tú:mì dʒíenì sɛ́kì káfì tã̄
Soninke-Bobo Tièmà-Cièwè Bozo sàn:á pẽ̀ːndé sì:yé nà:rá kɔ̀lɔ́ tù:mì dʒiènĩ́ tʃèkí kìáwí
Soninke-Bobo Tiéyaxo Bozo (Tigemaxo) (1) sáná fẽ́:ndè sí:yò kɔ́lɔ̀ kɔ́lɔ̀ tú:mĩ̀ dʒê:nì sɛ̄kī kìáwì tã́
Soninke-Bobo Tiéyaxo Bozo (2) sanna / kuɔn fendeen / pendeen siiyon naaran kɔlɔn tuumi jeeni sekiin kiawi tan
Soninke-Bobo Jenaama Bozo (1) sànːá pẽ̀ndéː síkɛ̃̀ũ nàtã́ kɔ̀ːɡṍ tǔːmí yíèní sèkːí kàpːí tʃɛ́mí
Soninke-Bobo Jenaama Bozo (2) sanna pende sikɛũ / siɡɛũ nataũ kɔɡõ tuumi yeeni seki kapi tʃɛmi / tʃami
Soninke-Bobo Soninke bàanè fíllò / filːi síkkò / sikːi náɣátò / naɣati káráɡò / karaɡi tṹmù / tũmi ɲérù / ɲeri séɡù / seɡi kábù / kabi tã́mú / tãmi

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/mand1469 |chapterurl= missing title (help). Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
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Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]