Afirka ta Yamma

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Wikidata.svgAfirka ta Yamma
yankin taswira
Bayanai
Bangare na Afirka
Ƙasantuwa a yanayin ƙasa Afirka
Sun raba iyaka da Arewacin Afirka, Afirka ta Tsakiya da Tekun Atalanta
Karatun ta West African studies (en) Fassara
Wuri
West Africa countries (strict).png
 12°N 3°E / 12°N 3°E / 12; 3

Afirka ta Yamma ko Yammacin Afirka itace yammancin nahiya Afirka. Majalisan Dinkin Duniya sun bayyana Yammacin Afirka a matsayin Kasashe Goma sha shida 16, sune Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Gana, Gini, Guinea-Bissau, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Mali, Muritaniya, Nijar, Najeriya, Senegal, Sierra Leone da kuma Togo, haka kuma harda wasu tsuburi[1] Yawan yan Yammacin Afirka sun kai kimanin , Mutane 381,981,000 a kidayar shekarar 2017, Mata sun kai kimanin 189,672,000, Maza kuma 192,309,000.[2] Its age and widespread distribution and diversity across the continent makes its exact origin point within Africa difficult to trace with any confidence,[3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Kasashen yammacin Afrika[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasashe goma sha bakwai ne kamar haka:

Taswirar kasashen Afrika ta yamma;

* Benin * Burkina Faso * Cape Verde * Côte d'Ivoire * The Gambia

* Ghana * Gini * Guinea-Bissau * Liberia * Mali

* Nijer * Nigeria * Senegal * Sierra Leone * Togo

Hotuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manyan biranen kasashen yammacin Afrika[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Karin wasu fitattun hotuna na biranen yammacin Afrika.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Paul R. Masson, Catherine Anne Pattillo, "Monetary union in West Africa (ECOWAS): is it desirable and how could it be achieved?" (Introduction). International Monetary Fund, 2001. 08033994793.ABA
  2. Soares, Pedro; Luca Ermini; Noel Thomson; Maru Mormina; Teresa Rito; Arne Röhl; Antonio Salas; Stephen Oppenheimer; Vincent Macaulay; Martin B. Richards (4 June 2009). "Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 84 (6): 82–93. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. PMC 2694979. PMID 19500773. Retrieved 13 August 2009.
  3. Salas, Antonio et al., The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape, American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 71, no. 5 (2002), pp. 1082–1111.
  4. Atlas of the Human Journey: Haplogroup L2 Archived 6 Oktoba 2011 at the Wayback Machine The Genographic Project, National Geographic.
  5. Shrine, Daniel; Rotimi, Charles (2018). "Whole-Genome-Sequence-Based Haplotypes Reveal Single Origin of the Sickle Allele during the Holocene Wet Phase". American Journal of Human Genetics. Am J Hum Genet. 102 (4): 547–556. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.02.003. PMC 5985360. PMID 29526279.
  6. Trombetta, Beniamino (2015). "Phylogeographic Refinement and Large Scale Genotyping of Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup E Provide New Insights into the Dispersal of Early Pastoralists in the African Continent". Genome Biology and Evolution. Genome Biol Evol. 7 (7): 1940–1950. doi:10.1093/gbe/evv118. PMC 4524485. PMID 26108492.
  7. Sims, Lynn; Garvey, Dennis; Ballantyne, Jack (2007). "Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs". Human Mutation. 28 (1): 97. doi:10.1002/humu.9469. PMID 17154278.

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