Afirka ta Yamma

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Afirka ta Yamma
geographic region
bangare naAfirka Gyara
located on terrain featureAfirka Gyara
coordinate location12°0′0″N 3°0′0″E Gyara
sun raba iyaka daNorth Africa, Afirka ta Tsakiya, Tekun Atalanta Gyara
studied byWest African studies Gyara
category for mapsCategory:Maps of West Africa Gyara

Afirka ta Yamma ko Yammacin Afirka itace yammancin nahiya Afirka. Majalisan Dinkin Duniya sun bayyana Yammacin Afirka a matsayin Kasashe Goma sha shida 16, sune Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Gana, Gini, Guinea-Bissau, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Mali, Muritaniya, Nijar, Najeriya, Senegal, Sierra Leone da kuma Togo, haka kuma harda wasu tsuburi[1] Yawan yan Yammacin Afirka sun kai kimanin , Mutane 381,981,000 a kidayar shekarar 2017, Mata sun kai kimanin 189,672,000, Maza kuma 192,309,000.[2] Its age and widespread distribution and diversity across the continent makes its exact origin point within Africa difficult to trace with any confidence,[3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Kasashen yammacin Afrika[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasashe goma sha bakwai ne kamar haka:

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Paul R. Masson, Catherine Anne Pattillo, "Monetary union in West Africa (ECOWAS): is it desirable and how could it be achieved?" (Introduction). International Monetary Fund, 2001. Template:ISBN
  2. Soares, Pedro; Luca Ermini; Noel Thomson; Maru Mormina; Teresa Rito; Arne Röhl; Antonio Salas; Stephen Oppenheimer; Vincent Macaulay; Martin B. Richards (4 June 2009). "Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". The American Journal of Human Genetics 84 (6): 82–93. PMC 2694979. PMID 19500773. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. Retrieved 13 August 2009. 
  3. Salas, Antonio et al., The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape, American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 71, no. 5 (2002), pp. 1082–1111.
  4. Atlas of the Human Journey: Haplogroup L2 Template:Webarchive The Genographic Project, National Geographic.
  5. Shrine, Daniel; Rotimi, Charles (2018). "Whole-Genome-Sequence-Based Haplotypes Reveal Single Origin of the Sickle Allele during the Holocene Wet Phase". American Journal of Human Genetics (Am J Hum Genet) 102 (4): 547–556. PMC 5985360 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 29526279. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.02.003. 
  6. Trombetta, Beniamino (2015). "Phylogeographic Refinement and Large Scale Genotyping of Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup E Provide New Insights into the Dispersal of Early Pastoralists in the African Continent". Genome Biology and Evolution (Genome Biol Evol) 7 (7): 1940–1950. PMC 4524485. PMID 26108492. doi:10.1093/gbe/evv118. 
  7. Sims, Lynn; Garvey, Dennis; Ballantyne, Jack (2007). "Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs". Human Mutation 28 (1): 97. PMID 17154278. doi:10.1002/humu.9469.