Djémila

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Kasuwar Tarihi

Djémila (Larabci: جميلة, the Beautiful one), tsohon Cuicul, ƙaramin ƙauye ne na tsaunuka a Aljeriya, kusa da bakin tekun arewa gabas da Algiers, inda ake samun wasu rusassun rukunan Romawa mafi kyau a Arewacin Afirka. Yana cikin yankin da ke kan iyaka da Constantinois da Petite Kabylie (Basse Kabylie).

A cikin 1982, Djémila ta zama Cibiyar Tarihi ta Duniya ta UNESCO don daidaitawa ta musamman na gine-ginen Roman zuwa yanayin dutse. Muhimman gine-gine a cikin tsohuwar Cuicul sun haɗa da gidan wasan kwaikwayo, dandali biyu, temples, basilicas, arches, tituna, da gidaje. Kango na musamman da aka adana suna kewaye da dandalin Harsh, wani babban fili mai faffada wanda ke da alamar shiga da babban baka.

Cuicul na Romawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Karkashin sunan Cuicul, an gina birnin da nisan mita 900 (3,000 ft) sama da matakin teku a ƙarni na 1 AD a matsayin sansanin soja na Romawa da ke kan ƴar ƴan ƴancin tudu mai kusurwa uku a lardin Numidia. Ƙasar tana ɗan daƙiƙa, tana a mahadar koguna biyu.

Cuicul akan taswirar Numidia, kudu da Milevium da Cirta. Atlas Antiquus, H. Kiepert, 1869

Maginin Cuicul sun bi daidaitaccen tsari tare da taron tattaunawa a cibiyar da manyan tituna guda biyu, Cardo Maximus da Decumanus Maximus, waɗanda suka haɗa manyan gatura.[1] Da farko sojojin Romawa daga Italiya ne suka mamaye birnin, kuma daga baya ya zama babbar kasuwar ciniki. Abubuwan da suka taimaka wajen ci gaban birnin sun kasance na noma ( hatsi, zaitun da gonaki).

A lokacin mulkin Caracalla a cikin karni na 3, masu gudanar da Cuicul sun rushe wasu tsoffin ginshiƙai kuma suka gina sabon dandalin. Sun kewaye shi da manyan gine-gine masu ban sha'awa fiye da waɗanda suka yi iyaka da tsohon dandalin. Ƙasar ta hana gine-gine, ta yadda suka gina gidan wasan kwaikwayo a wajen katangar garin, wanda ya kasance na musamman.

Kiristanci ya shahara sosai a karni na 4 (bayan wasu tsanantawa a farkon karni na uku[2]) kuma ya kawo kari na Basilica da wurin baftisma. Suna kudu da Cuicul a cikin kwata da ake kira "Kirista", kuma sanannen abubuwan jan hankali ne.[1]

Daga cikin bishops na Cuicul, Pudentianus ya shiga cikin Majalisar Carthage (255) game da ingancin baptismar bidi'a, da Elpidophorus a Majalisar Carthage (348). Cresconius shine bishop na Katolika wanda ya wakilci Cuicul a Majalisar Carthage (411) tsakanin Katolika da bishops Donatist; Bishop Donatist na garin ya mutu kafin a fara taron. Crescens yana ɗaya daga cikin bishops Katolika waɗanda Sarkin Arian Vandal Sarkin Huneric ya kira zuwa Carthage a cikin 484. Victor ya kasance a Majalisa ta biyu na Constantinople a 553.[3][4][5][6] Ba bishop na zama ba, Cuicul a yau Cocin Katolika ya lissafa shi a matsayin titular gani.[7]

An yi watsi da birnin a hankali bayan faduwar daular Roma a kusan karni na 5 da karni na 6. An sami wasu gyare-gyare a ƙarƙashin sarki Justinian I, tare da ƙarfafa bango.

Daga baya musulmi suka mamaye yankin, amma ba su sake mamaye wurin da ake kira Cuicul ba, inda suka rada masa suna Djémila ("kyakkyawa" a Larabci).

Takardun 3D[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Takaddun bayanai na Djémila ya faru ne a lokacin yakin neman zabe guda biyu na Zamani a shekarar 2009,[8] wanda aka gudanar tare da hadin gwiwar Farfesa Hamza Zeghlache da tawagarsa daga Jami'ar Setif, Aljeriya, da kuma Cibiyar Nazarin Kasa ta Afirka ta Kudu (NRF). An rubuta tsarin da yawa, ciki har da Baptistry,[9] Ƙofar Caracalla, Kasuwa, Temple na Septimius-servus da gidan wasan kwaikwayo.

Sanannen mazauna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi ƴan Afirka da dama na Romanized a Cuicul:[10]

  • Lucius Alfenus Senecio: gwamnan Britannia (205 zuwa 207).
  • Gaius Valerius Pudens: gwamnan Britaniya.
  • Tiberius Claudius Subatianus Aquila: gwamnan Mesopotamiya da Masar.
  • Tiberius Claudius Subatianus Proculus: gwamnan Numidia.

Hotuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Djemila, Morocco, Algeria, & Tunisia, Geoff Crowther and Hugh Finlay, Lonely Planet, 2nd Edition, April 1992, pp. 298 - 299.
  2. Christian persecutions in Cuicul
  3. A. Berthier, v. Cuicul, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XIII, Paris 1956, coll. 1095–1097
  4. H. Jaubert, Anciens évêchés et ruines chrétiennes de la Numidie et de la Sitifienne, in Recueil des Notices et Mémoires de la Société archéologique de Constantine, vol. 46, 1913, pp. 32-33 (nº 46)
  5. J. Mesnage L'Afrique chrétienne, Paris 1912, pp. 283-284
  6. Stefano Antonio Morcelli, Africa christiana, Volume I, Brescia 1816, p. 147
  7. Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 08033994793.ABA), p. 877
  8. "Site - Djemila". zamaniproject.org. Retrieved 2019-09-19.
  9. "3D Heritage Models, with a Twist". SPAR 3D (in Turanci). Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  10. Anthony R. Birley, Septimius Severus, the African Emperor, Éd. Routledge, 08033994793.ABA