Dutsen Kamaru

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Dutsen Kamaru
Mount Cameroon from Tiko.jpg
General information
Height above mean sea level (en) Fassara 4,095 m
Topographic prominence (en) Fassara 3,901 m
Labarin ƙasa
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 4°13′00″N 9°10′21″E / 4.2167°N 9.1725°E / 4.2167; 9.1725
Mountain range (en) Fassara Cameroon line (en) Fassara
Kasa Kameru
Territory Fako (en) Fassara
Mountaineering (en) Fassara
First ascent (en) Fassara 1861
Geology
Material (en) Fassara basalt (en) Fassara

Dutsen Kamaru wani dutsen mai fitar da wuta ne a yankin Kudu maso Yammacin Kamaru kusa da garin Buea kusa da Tekun Guinea. Dutsen Kamaru kuma ana kiranta Kamaru Dutsen ko Fako (sunan mafi girma daga kololuwarsa biyu) ko kuma da sunan asalin ƙasar Mongo ma Ndemi ("Dutsen Girma)".Shine wuri mafi girma a yankin kudu da hamadar Sahara da tsakiyar Afirka,[1] na huɗu mafi shahara a Afirka, kuma na 31-mafi shahara a duniya.

Dutsen wani bangare ne na yankin da ake yin aman wuta da aka fi sani da layin Volcanic na Kamaru, wanda ya hada har da Tafkin Nyos, wurin da wani bala'i ya faru a 1986.Fashewa ta baya-bayan nan ta faru ne a ranar 3 ga Fabrairu, 2012.

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dutsen Kamaru, a safiyar rana mai haske

Dutsen Kamaru na ɗaya daga cikin manyan duwatsu na Afirka, wanda ke hawa zuwa mita 4,040 (ƙafa 13,255) sama da bakin tekun yammacin Kamaru.[2] Tana tashi daga bakin teku zuwa cikin dazuzzuka masu zafi zuwa ƙwanƙolin taro, wanda yake da sanyi, iska, kuma lokaci-lokaci ƙura da dusar ƙanƙara. Babban dutsen mai aman wuta wanda yake da yawa a cikin tsaunuka wanda aka gina sama da ginshiƙan duwatsun Precambrian metamorphic wanda aka rufe da Cretaceous zuwa Quaternary sediments. Fiye da ƙananan bishiyoyi 100, galibi ana sarrafa su da ƙafafu zuwa ga dogayen dogayen tsaunin 1,400-cubic-kilomita (336 cu mi), wanda ke faruwa a gefen gefuna da kewaye. Babban tsafin tauraron dan adam, Etinde (wanda aka fi sani da Little Mount Cameroon), yana kan gefen kudu kusa da bakin teku.

Duba dutsen Etinde Peak

Dutsen Kamaru ya fi yawan fashewar a Afirka ta Yamma. Rubutun farko da aka rubuta game da ayyukan dutse zai iya zama wanda ya fito ne daga Hanno mai binciken daga Carthaginian, wanda ƙila ya lura da dutsen a karni na 5 kafin haihuwar Yesu. Explosananan fashewar abubuwa da fashewar abubuwa sun faru a cikin tarihi daga duka taron kolin da kuma gefen iska. Wani fashewa a 1922 a gefen kudu maso yamma ya samar da kwararar ruwa wanda ya isa gabar tekun Atlantika. Wata lawa daga kwararar kudu ta gefen kudu ta tsayar da mita 200 (mita 660) daga teku, tana yanke babbar hanyar bakin teku.

Dutsen Fako

Flora[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton dazuzzuka na dazuzzuka a tsaunin shakatawa na ƙasar Kamaru

Tsarin ciyawar dutsen ya bambanta da daukaka. Babban dangin tsire-tsire a kan dutsen sun hada da:[3]

Stinkhorn naman kaza dutsen kamaru na kasa
  • Kananan gandun dajin sun mamaye bakin gangaren, daga matakin teku zuwa tsawan mita 800. Kananan gandun daji ɓangare ne na gandun dajin bakin teku na Cross-Sanaga-Bioko. Sun haɗu ne da bishiyoyi marasa ɗumi-ɗumi tare da tsattsauran alfarwa mai tsawon mita 25 zuwa 30, tare da dogayen bishiyoyi masu tasowa sama da alfarwa. Yawancin bishiyoyi suna da tushen gindi. Gandun daji iri-iri ne kuma masu wadataccen nau'in, tare da lianas da yawa. Mafi yawan gandun dajin canjin an canza shi zuwa noma da noma, gami da gonakin dabinon mai.
  • Kananan dajin montane, wanda aka fi sani da gandun daji mai tsafta ko gandun dajin girgije, yana girma tsakanin tsawan mita 800 zuwa 1,600. Forestananan gandun daji na montane sun haɗu da bishiyoyi masu banƙyama, waɗanda ke samar da alfarwa mai tsayin mita 20 - 25 wanda aka rufe ko aka daina. Akwai yankuna da aka warwatse na makiyaya da filaye, tare da ciyawa, ganye, shuke-shuke masu tsayi (ciki har da Acanthaceae), bishiyoyin bishiyoyi, bishiyun bishiyoyi, da ƙananan bishiyoyi. Girgije mai yawo da hazo suna ci gaba da amfani da epiphytes, gami da moss, ferns, da orchids. Kananan gandun daji na montane daban-daban ne kuma suna da wadataccen nau'in, tare da halayen Afromontane da nau'ikan halittu. Impatiens etindensis[4] da I. grandisepala[5] sune cututtukan epiphytes na ganye wadanda ke fama da gandun daji na dutsen Kamaru. Kananan gandun daji na montane, tare da gandun daji masu tsayi, tsirrai, da filayen ciyawa, ɓangare ne na Dutsen Kamaru da gandun daji na Bioko monoret ecoregion.
  • Babban gandun daji yana girma daga tsawan mita 1,600 - 1,800. Bishiyoyi har zuwa mita 20 masu tsawo sun zama gandun dajin da ke buɗe tare da ɗimbin yawa. Manyan gandun daji na montane ba su da wadatattun nau'ikan halittu fiye da gandun daji masu zurfin ƙasa, kuma wuta tana yawaita.
  • Goge Montane yana girma tsakanin tsawan mita 1,800 da 2,400. Treesananan bishiyoyi na mita 1 zuwa 15 suna yin buɗaɗɗun gandun daji, dazuzzuka, da shrublands, tare da ƙananan ƙananan shrubs, ganye, ferns, da masu hawa.
  • Yankin ciyawar Montane yana faruwa tsakanin tsawan mita 2,000 zuwa 3,000. Babban ciyayi shine ciyawar tussock, tare da warwatse bishiyoyi masu haƙuri da wuta da ƙananan bishiyoyi.
  • Ana samun yankin da ke ƙasa mai tsayi a mafi tsayi, daga 3,000 zuwa fiye da mita 4,000. Ciyawar da ke jure wa yanayin sanyi, bishiyun dwarf da bishiyoyi, da murhunniya, foliose, da fruticose lichens sun fi yawa.[3]

Fauna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manyan dabbobi masu shayarwa a kan tsaunin sun hada da giwar dajin Afirka (Loxodonta cyclotis), tare da yawan mutane sama da 100. Sauran ciyawar grass sun hada da hog jan kogi (Potamochoerus porcus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), bay duiker (Cephalophus dorsalis), blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), da duiker mai goyon rawaya (Cephalophus sylvicultor). Dutsen gida ne ga nau'ikan halittu da yawa, ciki har da chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), rawar soja (Mandrillus leucophaeus), mangabey mai ja-ja (Cercocebos torquatus), biri mai hanci (Cercopithecus nictitans), biri biri (Cercopithecus mona), ja- kunnen biri (Cercopithecus erythrotis), Preuss 'guenon (Cercopithecus preussii), da kuma guenon (Cercopithecus pogonias).[3]

Nau'in tsuntsayen biyu suna da tarin tsaunin Kamaru, spurfowl na Dutsen Kamaru (Pternistis camerunensis) da speirops dutsen Kamaru (Zosterops melanocephalus).[3]

Filin shakatawa na Dutsen Kamaru[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kofar zuwa Dutsen Kamaru National Park da ke Buea, yankin kudu maso yamma

Filin shakatawa na Dutsen Kamaru (Parc National du Mont Cameroun) an bude shi a cikin 2009. Yana da fadin yanki na 581.23 km².[6] Wurin shakatawa ya hada da tsohon Gandun Dajin Etinde da mafi yawan Mazaunin Bomboko[7]. Wani yanki na Gandun Dajin Bomboko ya kasance a wajen wurin shakatawa, a kan gangaren arewacin arewacin dutsen.[3]

Duwatsun wurare masu zafi na Dutsen Kamaru

Hanya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hawan ƙasa masu yawo.
Tseren tsaunin Kamaru

Masu hawa suna hawan dutsen akai-akai. Tseren Fata na Kamaru na shekara-shekara yana auna kusan awanni 4½. Sarah Etonge ta lashe tseren har sau bakwai kuma ita ma mai yawon bude ido ce.

Wuraren kwana a tsaunin Fako

Marubuciya Ingila mai suna Mary Kingsley, daya daga cikin Turawan farko da suka fara hawan dutsen, ta ba da labarin balaguron da ta yi a cikin littafin tarihinta Travels in West Africa na 1897.

Flora

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. . "Mount Cameroon", Encyclopedia Britannica
  2. Geiger, Harri; Barker, Abigail K.; Troll, Valentin R. (2016-10-07). "Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions, insights from Mt. Cameroon". Scientific Reports (in Turanci). 6 (1): 33629. doi:10.1038/srep33629. ISSN 2045-2322.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 The Management Plan of the Mount Cameroon National Park and its Peripheral Zone, 2015 - 2019. The Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife, Republic of Cameroon.
  4. Cheek, M. and S. Cable. 2000. Impatiens etindensis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Downloaded on 03 July 2013.
  5. Cheek, M. and S. Cable. 2000. Impatiens grandisepala. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Downloaded on 03 July 2013.
  6. "Mont Cameroun". Protected Planet. Accessed 15 June 2020
  7. Martin, Alex ed. (2012) Interactive Forest Atlas of Cameroon, Version 3.0. Overview Report. World Resources Institute. 08033994793.ABA.

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • DeLancey, M. W. and M. D. DeLancey. (2000). Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon (3rd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press.