Tekun Guinea

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Tekun Guinea
Gulf of Guinea 5.24136E 2.58756N.jpg
General information
Vertical depth (en) Fassara 5,000 m
Labarin ƙasa
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 1°N 4°E / 1°N 4°E / 1; 4
Bangare na Tekun Atalanta
Flanked by South Atlantic Ocean (en) Fassara
Hydrography (en) Fassara
Tributary (en) Fassara

Tekun Guinea shine yankin arewa maso gabas na yankin Tekun Atlantika mai zafi daga Cape Lopez a Gabon, arewa da yamma zuwa Cape Palmas a Laberiya.[1] Yankin mahada na Equator da Prime Meridian (latitude da longitude digiri) yana cikin gulf.

Daga cikin koguna da yawa da ke malala zuwa Tekun Guinea sun hada da Nijar da Volta. Yankin bakin teku da ke gabar teku ya hada da Gwanin Benin da na Bonny.

Suna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asalin sunan Guinea ana zaton yanki ne a yankin, ko da yake takaddama game da takamaiman sunan Bovill (1995) ya ba da cikakken kwatancen:[2]

Sunan Guinea galibi ana cewa ya kasance lalatacciyar hanyar sunan Ghana, waɗanda theasar Portugal suka karɓa a cikin Maghreb. Marubucin na yanzu bai yarda da wannan ba. Sunan Guinea ya kasance ana amfani dashi duka a Maghrib da Turai tun kafin lokacin Yarima Henry. Misali, a taswirar kwanan wata ta 1320 ta mai zane-zanen Genoese Giovanni di Carignano, wanda ya samo labarinsa game da Afirka daga wani ɗan ƙasa a cikin Sijilmasa tsohon garin ciniki a Arewacin Afirka, mun sami Gunuia, kuma a cikin atlan Catalan na 1375 a matsayin Ginyia. Wani yanki a cikin Leo Africanus (mujalladi na 3, 822) yana nuni zuwa Guinea kasancewar cin hanci da rashawa na Djenné tsohon birni mai shekaru 2,000 a tsakiyar Mali akan kogin Niger, wanda bai fi Ghana shahara ba duk da haka ƙarnuka da yawa sun shahara a Maghrib a matsayin babbar kasuwa da mazaunin koyo. Wurin da ya dace ya karanta: "Masarautar Ghinea..... Wanda 'yan kasuwar kasarmu suka kira Gheneoa, da mazaunan kasar na Genni da Portugals da sauran mutanen Ghinea Turai." Amma da alama mafi yuwuwar cewa Guinea ta samo asali ne daga aguinaou , da Berber don Negro. Marrakech birni a kudu maso gabashin Morocco yana da ƙofa, wanda aka gina a karni na goma sha biyu, wanda ake kira Bab Aguinaou, ofofar Negro (Delafosse, Haut-Sénégal-Niger, II, 277-278). Aikace-aikacen zamani na sunan Guinea zuwa gabar tekun ya fara ne kawai daga 1481. A waccan shekarar Turawan Fotigal suka gina katafaren gini, São Jorge da Mina (zamani Elmina), a kan Gold Coast (yankin)), da Paparoma (John II), Fafaroma ya ba shi izinin Sixtus II ko Innocent VIII su tsara kansa Ubangijin Gini, taken da ya wanzu har zuwa ƙarshen zamanin masarauta.

Sunan "Guinea" an kuma amfani dashi a gaɓar tekun kudu na Yammacin Afirka, arewacin Tekun Guinea, wanda ya zama sananne da "Upper Guinea", da kuma yammacin gabar Kudancin Afirka, zuwa gabas, wanda ya zama ana kiranta "Lower Guinea". Sunan "Guinea" har yanzu yana nan a cikin sunayen ƙasashe uku na Afirka: Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, da Equatorial Guinea, da New Guinea a Melanesia.

Labarin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban kogin da ke zubar da ruwansa a cikin kogin shine Kogin Neja.

An bayar da ma'anoni daban-daban game da iyakokin Tekun Guinea; Kungiyar Hydrographic International ta bayyana iyakar kudu maso yamma na Tekun Guinea a matsayin "layin B daga Cap Lopez (0°37′S 8°43'E), a Gabon, arewa maso yamma zuwa Ihléu Gago Coutinho (Ilhéu das Rôlas) (0° 01'S 6°32′E); kuma daga can layin daga Ihléu Gago Coutinho arewa maso yamma zuwa Cape Palmas (4 ° 22′N 7 ° 44′W), a Laberiya.[1]

Tsibiri a cikin Tekun Guinea[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tekun Guinea ya ƙunshi tsibirai da yawa, mafi girma daga cikinsu suna cikin jerin kudu maso yamma-arewa maso gabas, suna zama wani ɓangare na layin Kamaru na aman wuta.

Annobón, wanda aka fi sani da Pagalu ko Pigalu, tsibiri ne wanda ke cikin yankin Equatorial Guinea.

Tsibirin Bobowasi tsibiri ne da ke gabar yamma da gabar Afirka a cikin Tekun Guinea wanda ke cikin Yankin Yammacin Ghana.

Bioko tsibiri ne daga yankin Ambazonian na Kamaru a cikin Tekun Gini a ƙarƙashin ikon Equatorial Guinea.

Corisco tsibiri ne na Equatorial Guinea.

Elobey Grande da Elobey Chico wasu ƙananan tsibirai ne biyu na ƙasar Equatorial Guinea.

São Tomé da Príncipe (a hukumance Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar São Tomé da Príncipe) ƙasa ce tsibiri mai jin yaren Fotigal a cikin Tekun Guinea da ta sami yancin kai daga Portugal a 1975. Tana can daga gabar yamma ta yammacin Afirka kuma tana da tsibirai biyu, São Tomé da Príncipe. Suna kusa da kilomita 140 (mil 87) nesa da kusan kilomita 250 da 225 (155 da 140 mi), bi da bi, kusa da gabar arewa maso yammacin Gabon. Duk tsibiran wani bangare ne na tsaunuka masu lalacewa. São Tomé, babban tsibirin kudu, yana arewacin arewacin Equator.

Tsaron teku[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsaron teku a tekun Guinea ya kunshi kasashe 18 masu cikakken iko. Yawancin umarni na hukumomi sun magance matsalar tsaro a tekun Guinea na Guinea: Kungiyar Tattalin Arzikin ƙasashen Afirka ta Yamma (ECOWAS) da Kungiyar Tattalin Arziƙin Kasashen Afirka ta Tsakiya (ECCAS).[3] Bugu da kari, kwamitin kula da gabar ruwan Guinea (GGC) ya magance matsalar tsaron tekun a yankin na Guinea.[3] Tsaron teku a cikin Gulf of Guinea ba a san shi kadai bane ta hanyar fashin teku ba amma akwai dumbin laifuffukan teku duk da fashin da galibi ke mamaye tattaunawar kan tsaron ruwan. Dangane da ‘Takardar da ta Bada mahimmanci ga kokarin Danemark don yaki da masu satar fasaha da sauran nau’ikan Laifukan Jirgin Ruwa na shekarar 2019-2022 satar fasinjoji da aikata laifukan ruwa kamar haka:


Za a iya bayyana fashin teku a matsayin duk wani haramtaccen aiki na tashin hankali, tsarewa ko ɓata rai da aka yi don dalilai na sirri a manyan tekuna kan wani jirgi ko jirgin sama.[4] Laifin teku na iya hadawa da fashi da makami a teku, safarar mutane ko safarar haramtattun kayayyaki, kwayoyi da makamai, kamun kifi ba bisa doka ba, satar mai da sauransu.[4]

Sauran laifukan da ake gani a Tekun Guinea sun hada da kamun kifi ba bisa ka'ida ba, satar mutane don neman kudin fansa, fataucin miyagun kwayoyi da kuma fasa-kwaurin mai.[5] Fataucin mai ba bisa ka'ida ba ya kunshi kai hare-hare kan jiragen ruwa da ke jigilar mai da kuma tura mai zuwa jirgin ruwan barayi.[3] Bayan haka ana sayar da man a kasuwannin gida da na waje.

Satar mutane domin neman kudin fansa na daya daga cikin laifuffukan teku na yankin. Tsakanin shekarar 2018 zuwa 2019, yawan ma’aikatan da aka sace a tekun Guinea ya karu da kashi 50%, wanda hakan ya sa yankin ke yin kashi 90 na sace-sacen duniya da ake yi a teku.[6]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Limits of Oceans and Seas, Draft 4th Edition: North Atlantic Ocean and its Sub-Divisions". International Hydrographic Organization. 2002. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  2. Hale, Thomas A. "From the Griot of Roots to the Roots of Griot: A New Look at the Origins of a Controversial African Term for Bard" (PDF). Oral Tradition.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Jessica., Larsen. Reconciling international priorities with local needs DENMARK AS A NEW SECURITY ACTOR IN THE GULF OF GUINEA. Danish Institute for International Studies. OCLC 1152018425.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. (2019). Priority paper for the Danish efforts to combat piracy and other types of maritime crime 2019-2022. Copenhagen: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark.
  5. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. (2018). Gulf of Guinea Maritime Security Programme, 2019-2021. Copenhagen: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark.
  6. Nicoloso, Giulia (2020-07-17). "Stark increase in kidnapping at sea in the Gulf of Guinea". Critical Maritime Routes (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-05-30.