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Epic Poetry

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Waƙar almara
literary genre (en) Fassara da literary genre by form (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na epic literature (en) Fassara, verse poetry (en) Fassara da narrative poetry (en) Fassara
Model item (en) Fassara Iliad (en) Fassara
Tablet mai ɗauke da guntun almara na Gilgamesh

  Waƙar almara, ko kuma kawai almara, waƙa ce mai tsawo ta ba da labari game da ayyuka na ban mamaki na mutane masu ban mamaki waɗanda, a cikin mu'amala da alloli ko wasu sojojin da suka fi ƙarfin ɗan adam, sun ba da siffar duniya mai mutuwa ga zuriyarsu.[1]

Etymology[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmar epic ta Ingilishi ta fito ne daga Latin epicus, wanda kanta ya fito daga tsohuwar sifa ta Girka ἐπικός (epikos), daga ἔπος (epos),[2] "kalmomi, labari, waka."[3]

A ancient ta Hellenanci, 'epic' na iya nufin duk waƙar dactylic hexameter (epea), wanda ya haɗa ba kawai Homer ba har ma da waƙar hikima na Hesiod, maganganun Delphic, da kuma ayoyin tauhidi masu ban mamaki da aka danganta ga Orpheus. Al'adar baya, duk da haka, ta taƙaita kalmar 'epic' zuwa almara na jaruntaka, kamar yadda aka bayyana a cikin wannan labarin.

Overview[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bugu na farko (1835) na waƙar almara na ƙasar Finnish Kalevala na Elias Lönnrot

An samo asali kafin ƙirƙirar rubuce-rubuce, firamare na farko, irin su na Homer, sun haɗa da bard waɗanda suka yi amfani da ma'auni mai mahimmanci da ma'auni wanda za su iya haddace almara kamar yadda aka karɓa a cikin al'ada kuma su kara da almara a cikin wasan kwaikwayo. Daga baya marubuta kamar Virgil, Apollonius na Rhodes, Dante, Camões, da Milton sun karɓa kuma sun daidaita salon Homer da batun batun, amma sun yi amfani da na'urorin da ke samuwa kawai ga waɗanda suka rubuta.

Mafi tsufa almara da aka gane shine Almara na Gilgamesh (c. 2500–1300 BCE ), wanda aka rubuta a zamanin Sumer lokacin daular Neo-Sumerian. Waƙar ta ba da cikakken bayani game da abubuwan da Gilgamesh, sarkin Uruk ya yi. Ko da yake an san shi a matsayin ɗan tarihi, Gilgamesh, kamar yadda aka wakilta a cikin almara, babban almara ne ko tatsuniya. [4]

Mafi tsayin almara da aka rubuta shi ne tsohuwar Indiya Mahabharata (c. karni na 3 BC–karni na 3 AD), [5] wanda ya ƙunshi ślokas 100,000 ko sama da layin aya 200,000 (kowane shloka ma'aurata ne), da kuma dogon nassosi na rubutu, don haka. Cewa a ~ 1.8 kalmomi kusan ninki biyu na tsawon Shahnameh, ninki huɗu na tsawon Ramayaṇa, kuma kusan ninki goma na Iliad da Odyssey a hade.

Epic Poetry

Shahararrun misalan wakokin almara sun haɗa da Epic na Sumerian na Gilgamesh, tsohuwar Indiya Mahabharata da Rāmāyaṇa a Sanskrit da Silappatikaram da Manimekalai a Tamil, Shahnameh na Farisa, Odyssey na tsohuwar Girka da Iliad, Virgil 's Aeneid, Tsohon Turanci Betewu. s Divine Comedy, the Finnish Kalevala, the Estoniya Kalevipoeg, the German Nibelungenlied, the French Song of Roland, the Spanish Cantar de mio Cid, the Portuguese Os Lusíadas, the Armenian Daredevils of Sassoun, John Milton 's Paradise Lost, da Malian Sundiata. Wakokin almara na wannan zamani sun haɗa da Derek Walcott 's Omeros, Mircea Cărtărescu 's <i id="mwkA">The Levant</i> da Adam Mickiewicz 's Pan Tadeusz. Paterson na William Carlos Williams, wanda aka buga a cikin littattafai biyar daga 1946 zuwa 1958, an yi wahayi zuwa wani ɓangare na wani almara na zamani, The Cantos by Ezra Pound.[6]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Michael Meyer (2005). The Bedford Introduction to Literature. Bedford: St. Martin's Press. pp. 21–28. ISBN 0-312-41242-8.
  2. "epic". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  3. "Epic". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  4. (Maynard ed.). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. Austin, p. 21.
  6. Leibowitz, Herbert (29 December 2011). "Herbert Leibowitz on William Carlos Williams and Ezra Pound: Episodes from a sixty-year friendship". News. Library of America (loa.org) (blog). Retrieved 12 October 2020.