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Existentialism

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Existentialism
cultural movement (en) Fassara da philosophical movement (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Gudanarwan existentialist (en) Fassara
Daga hannun hagu daga sama zuwa agogo: Søren Kierkegaard, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Jean-Paul Sartre, Friedrich Nietzsche.

Wanzuwa (/ˌɛɡzɪˈstɛnʃəlɪzəm/ˌɛksə [1] /tʃəˌlɪzəm/) [ 2 ] siffa ce ta _ _ _ _ bincike na falsafa wanda ta binciko al'amarin wanzuwar dan'adam. Masana falsafa na wanzuwa suna bincika tambayoyi masu alaƙa da ma'ana, manufa, da ƙimar rayuwar ɗan adam. Ra'ayoyin gama-gari a cikin tunanin wanzuwar wanzuwa sun haɗa da rikicin wanzuwa, tsoro, da damuwa a gaban duniyar Absurd, da kuma sahihanci, ƙarfin hali, da nagarta.

Kasancewar wanzuwa tana da alaƙa da yawancin masana falsafar Turai na ƙarni na 19 da 20 waɗanda suka ba da fifiko kan batun ɗan adam, duk da bambance-bambance masu zurfi a cikin tunani.[2][3][4] Daga cikin alkaluma na farko da ke da alaƙa da wanzuwa akwai masana falsafa Søren Kierkegaard da Friedrich Nietzsche da marubuci Fyodor Dostoevsky, waɗanda dukkansu suka soki ra'ayi kuma sun damu kansu da matsalar ma'ana. A cikin karni na 20, fitattun masu tunani na wanzuwar sun hada da Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, Martin Heidegger, Simone de Beauvoir, Karl Jaspers, Gabriel Marcel, da Paul Tillich.

Yawancin masu wanzuwa sun ɗauki tsarin falsafa na gargajiya ko na ilimi, a cikin salo da abun ciki, a matsayin abin da ba za a iya gani ba kuma an cire su daga ainihin ƙwarewar ɗan adam. Babban abin kirki a tunanin wanzuwa shine sahihanci. Existentialism zai rinjayi fannoni da yawa a wajen falsafar, gami da tiyoloji, wasan kwaikwayo, fasaha, adabi, da ilimin halin ɗan adam.

Asalin kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmar existentialism (Faransanci: L'existentialisme) ɗan falsafar Katolika na Faransa Gabriel Marcel ne ya ƙirƙira a tsakiyar 1940s. [5] [6] [7] Lokacin da Marcel ya fara amfani da kalmar zuwa Jean-Paul Sartre, a wani taro a 1945, Sartre ya ƙi shi. [8] Daga baya Sartre ya canza ra'ayinsa kuma, a ranar 29 ga watan Oktoba, 1945, a bainar jama'a ya karɓi lakabin wanzuwar a cikin lacca ga Club Maintenant a Paris, wanda aka buga a matsayin L'existentialisme est un humanisme ( Existentialism Is a Humanism), ɗan gajeren littafi wanda ya taimaka yaɗa masu wanzuwa tunani. [9] Daga baya Marcel ya zo ya ki amincewa da lakabin kansa don goyon bayan Neo-Socratic, don girmama maƙalar Kierkegaard " A kan Ra'ayin Irony".

Wasu malaman suna jayayya cewa ya kamata a yi amfani da kalmar kawai don komawa ga motsin al'adu a Turai a cikin shekarar 1940s da 1950s da ke hade da ayyukan masana falsafa Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, da Albert Camus. Wasu kuma suna kara wa'adin zuwa Kierkegaard, kuma wasu sun mika shi har zuwa Socrates. [10] Koyaya, galibi ana gano shi tare da ra'ayoyin falsafa na Sartre.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "existentialism". Lexico. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  2. Crowell, Steven (October 2010). "Existentialism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Macquarrie
  4. Honderich, Ted, ed. (1995). Oxford Companion to Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-19-866132-0.
  5. D.E. Cooper, Existentialism: A Reconstruction, Basil Blackwell, 1990, p. 1.
  6. Thomas R. Flynn, Existentialism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 89.
  7. Christine Daigle, Existentialist Thinkers and Ethics, McGill-Queen's Press, 2006, p. 5.
  8. Ann Fulton, Apostles of Sartre: Existentialism in America, 1945–1963, Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1999, p. 18–19.
  9. L'Existentialisme est un Humanisme (Editions Nagel, 1946); English Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism and Humanism (Eyre Methuen, 1948).
  10. Crowell, Steven. The Cambridge Companion to Existentialism, Cambridge, 2011, p. 316.