Fedor Dostoevsky

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Fedor Dostoevsky
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Moscow, 30 Oktoba 1821 (Julian)
ƙasa Russian Empire (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Rashanci
Mutuwa Saint-Petersburg, 28 ga Janairu, 1881 (Julian)
Makwanci Tikhvin Cemetery (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa  (Farfaɗiya
pulmonary emphysema (en) Fassara)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Mikhail Andreyevich Dostoevsky
Mahaifiya Maria Fiodorovna Dostoïevskaïa
Abokiyar zama Maria Dostoevskaya (en) Fassara  (1857 -  unknown value)
Anna Dostoyevskaya (en) Fassara  (1867 -  unknown value)
Yara
Ahali Mikhail Dostoyevsky (en) Fassara, Andrey Dostoyevsky (en) Fassara da Nikolaj Michajlovič Dostoevskij (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Military Engineering-Technical University (en) Fassara
Nikolay engineering school (en) Fassara
Harsuna Rashanci
Sana'a
Sana'a mai aikin fassara, Marubuci, essayist (en) Fassara, short story writer (en) Fassara, ɗan jarida, mai falsafa, biographer (en) Fassara, marubuci, dan jarida mai ra'ayin kansa da prosaist (en) Fassara
Employers Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Notes from Underground (en) Fassara
Crime and Punishment (en) Fassara
The Idiot (en) Fassara
Demons (en) Fassara
The Brothers Karamazov (en) Fassara
The House of the Dead (en) Fassara
The Gambler (en) Fassara
Poor Folk (en) Fassara
The Double (en) Fassara
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Alexander Pushkin (en) Fassara, Mikhail Lermontov (en) Fassara, Nikolai Gogol (en) Fassara, Vladimir Solovyov (en) Fassara, Vissarion Belinsky (en) Fassara, Alexander Ivanovich Herzen (en) Fassara, Adam Mickiewicz (en) Fassara, Immanuel Kant, William Shakespeare, Honoré de Balzac (en) Fassara, Miguel de Cervantes, Charles Dickens (en) Fassara, Victor Hugo (en) Fassara, George Sand (en) Fassara, Friedrich Schiller (en) Fassara, E. T. A. Hoffmann (en) Fassara, Edgar Allan Poe, Christ (en) Fassara da Nikolay Karamzin (en) Fassara
Mamba Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Fafutuka literary realism (en) Fassara
Sunan mahaifi Д., Друг Кузьмы Пруткова, Зубоскал, —ий, М., Летописец, М-ий, Н. Н., Пружинин, Зубоскалов, Ред., Ф. Д. da N.N.
Imani
Addini Russian Orthodox Church (en) Fassara
IMDb nm0234502
fedordostoevsky.ru
Fedor Dostoevsky 1879
Fedor Dostoevsky
Dostoevsky 1863

Fyodor Mikhailovich [lower-alpha 1] UK ƙananan-alpha 1 ] ( Birtaniya : / ˌdɒ s US ˈɛfsk i, [1] US: / ˌdɒstə ˈjɛfsk , ˌd ʌ s -/ ; [1] Russian Fyódor Mikháylovich Dostoyévskiy , IPA: [ˈfʲɵdər mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪdʑ dəstɐˈjefskʲɪj] ( saurare); 11 ga Nuwamba, 1821 – 9 Fabrairu 1881 [lower-alpha 2] ), wani lokacin ana fassara shi azaman Dostoyevsky, marubuci ne na Rasha, marubucin gajerun labarai, kuma ɗan jarida. Ayyukan adabi na Dostoevsky sun bincika yanayin ɗan adam a cikin rikice-rikice na siyasa, zamantakewa, da ruhi na Rasha na ƙarni na 19, kuma suna aiki tare da jigogi iri-iri na falsafa da na addini. Littattafansa da ya fi yabo sun haɗa da Laifuka da Hukunci (1866), The Idiot (1869), <i id="mwKg">Demons</i> (1872), da Brothers Karamazov (1880). Littafin littafinsa na 1864, Bayanan kula daga ƙarƙashin ƙasa, ana ɗaukarsa ɗaya daga cikin ayyukan farko na wallafe-wallafen wanzuwa.[2] Masu sukar adabi da yawa suna ɗaukarsa a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin manyan marubutan marubuta a duk adabin duniya, saboda yawancin ayyukansa ana ɗaukarsa ƙwararru masu tasiri sosai.[3]

Fedor Dostoevsky 1859

An haife shi a Moscow a 1821, Dostoevsky an gabatar da shi ga wallafe-wallafe tun yana ƙarami ta hanyar tatsuniyoyi da tatsuniyoyi, kuma ta hanyar littattafai daga marubutan Rasha da na waje. Mahaifiyarsa ta mutu a 1837 lokacin da yake da shekaru 15, kuma a lokaci guda, ya bar makaranta don shiga Cibiyar Injiniya ta Nikolayev . Bayan kammala karatunsa, ya yi aiki a matsayin injiniya kuma ya ɗan more rayuwa mai daɗi, yana fassara littattafai don samun ƙarin kuɗi. A tsakiyar 1840s ya rubuta littafinsa na farko, Poor Folk, wanda ya ba shi damar shiga da'irar adabin Saint Petersburg. Duk da haka, an kama shi a cikin 1849 don kasancewa cikin ƙungiyar wallafe-wallafen, Petrashevsky Circle, wanda ya tattauna littattafan da aka haramta wa Tsarist Rasha . An yanke wa Dostoevsky hukuncin kisa amma an sassauta hukuncin a karshe . Ya yi shekaru huɗu a sansanin fursuna na Siberiya, sannan ya yi aikin soja na dole na shekara shida a gudun hijira. A cikin shekaru masu zuwa, Dostoevsky ya yi aiki a matsayin ɗan jarida, bugawa da kuma gyara wasu mujallu na kansa kuma daga baya A Writer's Diary, tarin rubuce-rubucensa. Ya fara yawo a yammacin Turai kuma ya haɓaka jarabar caca, wanda ya haifar da wahalar kuɗi. Na ɗan lokaci, ya kasance yana roƙon kuɗi, amma a ƙarshe ya zama ɗaya daga cikin marubutan Rasha da aka fi karantawa kuma ana ɗaukansu sosai. Aikin Dostoevsky ya ƙunshi litattafai goma sha uku, litattafai uku, gajerun labarai goma sha bakwai, da sauran ayyuka masu yawa. An karanta rubuce-rubucensa a ko'ina a ciki da bayan ƙasarsa ta Rasha kuma sun yi tasiri daidai da adadi mai yawa na marubuta daga baya ciki har da Rashawa irin su Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn da Anton Chekhov, masana falsafa Friedrich Nietzsche da Jean-Paul Sartre, da bayyanar Existentialism da Freudianism. An fassara littattafansa zuwa fiye da harsuna 170, kuma sun zama abin ƙarfafawa ga fina-finai da yawa.

Zuri'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  Kakannin kakannin Dostoevsky sun kasance ɓangare na dangi mai daraja na Kiristocin Orthodox na Rasha. Iyalin sun samo asalinsu zuwa Danilo Irtishch, wanda aka ba da filaye a cikin yankin Pinsk (tsawon ƙarni na wani ɓangare na Grand Duchy na Lithuania, yanzu a Belarus na zamani) a cikin 1509 don ayyukansa a ƙarƙashin wani yarima na gida, zuriyarsa sa'an nan kuma ya dauki. Sunan "Dostoevsky" bisa wani ƙauye da ake kira Dostoïevo (wanda aka samo daga Tsohon Yaren mutanen Poland dostojnik - mai daraja).[4]

Kakannin Dostoevsky na nan da nan a gefen mahaifiyarsa sun kasance 'yan kasuwa; Namijin na wajen mahaifinsa firistoci ne. [5] [6]

A 1809, Mikhail Dostoevsky dan shekaru 20 da haihuwa shiga a Moscow ta Imperial Medical-Surgical Academy. Daga nan aka sanya shi zuwa asibitin Moscow, inda ya yi aiki a matsayin likita na soja, kuma a 1818 ya nada babban likita. A 1819 ya auri Maria Nechayeva. A shekara ta gaba, ya ɗauki matsayi a asibitin Mariinsky don matalauta. A shekara ta 1828, sa’ad da ’ya’yansa biyu, Mikhail da Fyodor, suka kasance takwas da bakwai, sai aka ƙara masa girma zuwa ma’aikacin tantance koleji, matsayin da ya ɗaga matsayinsa na shari’a zuwa na manyan mutane kuma ya ba shi damar mallakar ƙaramin gida a Darovoye, wani gari. kusan 150 kilomita (mil 100) daga Moscow, inda iyali sukan yi lokacin bazara. [5] Iyayen Dostoevsky daga baya sun sami ƙarin 'ya'ya shida: Varvara (1822-1892), Andrei (1825-1897), Lyubov (an haife shi kuma ya mutu 1829), Vera (1829-1896), Nikolai (1831-1883) da Aleksandra (1835). -1889). [5] [6]

Yarinta (1821-1836)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dostoevsky 1876

Fyodor Dostoevsky, an haife shi a ranar 11 Nuwamba a Moscow, shi ne ɗa na biyu na Dr. Mikhail Dostoevsky da Maria Dostoevskaya (haife Nechayeva). Ya girma a cikin gidan iyali a cikin filin Mariinsky Hospital for Poor, wanda yake a cikin ƙananan yanki a gefen Moscow. [7] Dostoevsky ya sadu da marasa lafiya, waɗanda suke a ƙarshen ma'auni na zamantakewa na Rasha, lokacin da suke wasa a cikin lambunan asibiti. [8]

Dostoevsky an gabatar da shi ga wallafe-wallafe tun yana ƙarami. Tun yana da shekaru uku, an karanta shi labarin jarumtaka, tatsuniyoyi da tatsuniyoyi daga mahaifiyarsa, Alena Frolovna, wani mutum mai tasiri musamman a cikin tarbiyyarsa da kuma son labarun almara. [9] Sa’ad da yake ɗan shekara huɗu mahaifiyarsa ta yi amfani da Littafi Mai Tsarki wajen koya masa karatu da rubutu. Iyayensa sun gabatar da shi ga wallafe-wallafe masu yawa, ciki har da marubutan Rasha Karamzin, Pushkin da Derzhavin; Almarar Gothic irin su ayyukan daga marubuci Ann Radcliffe ; ayyukan soyayya na Schiller da Goethe ; labarun jaruntaka na Miguel de Cervantes da Walter Scott ; da almara na Homer. [5] [6] Dostoevsky ya sami tasiri sosai da aikin Nikolai Gogol . Ko da yake an bayyana tsarin mahaifinsa a matsayin mai tsauri da tsauri, [10] Dostoevsky da kansa ya ruwaito cewa iyayensa sun kawo tunaninsa ta hanyar karatun dare. [8]

Wasu abubuwan da ya faru a yarinta sun sami hanyar shiga cikin rubuce-rubucensa. Sa’ad da wani mashayi ya yi wa wata yarinya ‘yar shekara tara fyade, aka ce ya kawo mahaifinsa ya yi mata hidima. Abin da ya faru ya damu da shi, kuma jigon sha'awar wani balagagge ga yarinya ya bayyana a cikin Shaidanun, Brothers Karamazov, Laifuka da azabtarwa, da sauran rubuce-rubuce. [11] Wani abin da ya faru da wani bawa na iyali, ko serf, a cikin ƙasa a Darovoye, an kwatanta shi a cikin " The Peasant Marey ": lokacin da matashin Dostoevsky ya yi tunanin jin kullun a cikin daji, Marey, wanda ke aiki a kusa, yana ƙarfafa shi.

Ko da yake Dostoevsky yana da tsarin tsarin jiki mai laushi, iyayensa sun bayyana shi a matsayin mai zafi, taurin kai, da kuma kunci. [5] A cikin 1833, mahaifin Dostoevsky, wanda yake da zurfin addini, ya tura shi makarantar kwana ta Faransa sannan zuwa makarantar kwana ta Chermak. An bayyana shi a matsayin kodadde, mai mafarkin shiga ciki kuma mai yawan jin daɗin soyayya. [5] Don biyan kuɗin makaranta, mahaifinsa ya ranci kuɗi kuma ya tsawaita aikin likita na sirri. Dostoevsky ya ji ba shi da wuri a cikin 'yan makarantarsa masu daraja a makarantar Moscow, kuma an nuna kwarewa a cikin wasu ayyukansa, musamman The Adolescent . [5] [6]

Samarta (1836-1843)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dostoevsky a matsayin injiniyan soja

An ranar 27 Satumba 1837 Mahaifiyar Dostoevsky ta mutu da tarin fuka. A watan Mayun da ya gabata, iyayensa sun aika Dostoevsky da ɗan'uwansa Mikhail zuwa Saint Petersburg don halartar Cibiyar Injiniya ta Soja ta Nikolayev kyauta, ta tilasta 'yan'uwa su watsar da karatunsu na ilimi don aikin soja. Dostoevsky shiga makarantar kimiyya a Janairu 1838, amma kawai tare da taimakon 'yan uwa. An ki yarda da Mikhail saboda dalilai na kiwon lafiya kuma an aika shi zuwa makarantar kimiyya a Reval (yanzu Tallinn, Estonia). [5] [6]

Dostoevsky ba ya son makarantar, musamman saboda rashin sha'awar kimiyya, lissafi, da injiniyanci na soja da kuma fifikon zane da gine-gine. Kamar yadda abokinsa Konstantin Trutovsky ya taɓa cewa, “Babu wani ɗalibi a cikin duka jami’ar da ke da ƙarancin aikin soja kamar FM Dostoevsky. Ya motsa a dunkule da firgita; Unifom ɗin sa ya rataye shi da kyar; da jakarsa, da [11] da bindigar duk sun yi kama da wani nau'i na sarƙoƙi da aka tilasta masa sa na ɗan lokaci, kuma waɗanda suka yi masa yawa." da kuma tsananin adalci, kare sabbin shiga, ya hada kansa da malamai, ya soki cin hanci da rashawa a tsakanin jami’an, da taimakawa manoma marasa galihu. Ko da yake shi kaɗai ne kuma yana zaune a duniyarsa ta adabi, abokan karatunsa suna girmama shi. Kasancewarsa da sha'awar addini ya sa ake masa lakabi da "Monk Photius ". [5] [6]

Alamun farfadiya Dostoevsky na iya fara bayyana ne a lokacin da ake sanin mutuwar mahaifinsa a ranar 16 ga Yuni 1839, [12] ko da yake rahotannin kamawa sun samo asali ne daga asusun da 'yarsa ta rubuta (daga baya Sigmund Freud ya fadada shi [13] wanda yanzu ya kasance. dauke da rashin dogara. Dalilin mutuwar mahaifinsa a hukumance shine bugun jini, amma wani makwabcinsa Pavel Khotiaintsev ya zargi barayin mahaifin da kisan kai. Da a ce an sami masu laifin da aka aika su Siberiya, Khotiaintsev zai kasance a cikin matsayi don siyan ƙasar da aka bari. An wanke masu laifin a cikin shari'a a Tula, amma ɗan'uwan Dostoevsky Andrei ya ci gaba da labarin. [11] Bayan mutuwar mahaifinsa, Dostoevsky ya ci gaba da karatunsa, ya ci jarrabawarsa kuma ya sami digiri na injiniya, ya ba shi damar zama daga makarantar. Ya ziyarci Mikhail a cikin Reval (Tallinn) kuma yakan halarci kide-kide, wasan kwaikwayo, wasan kwaikwayo da ballets. A wannan lokacin, abokansa biyu sun gabatar da shi game da caca. [5] [6]

Fedor Dostoevsky

A ranar 12 ga Agusta 1843 Dostoevsky ya ɗauki aiki a matsayin Laftanar Injiniya kuma ya zauna tare da Adolph Totleben a wani gida mallakar Dr. Rizenkampf, abokin Mikhail. Rizenkampf ya siffanta shi da cewa "ba shi da halin kirki kuma ba shi da ladabi fiye da ɗan'uwansa, amma idan ba a cikin yanayi mai kyau ba yakan kalli komai ta gilashin duhu, ya zama mai ban sha'awa, ya manta da kyawawan dabi'u, wani lokacin kuma ana kai shi zuwa ga ma'ana. zagi da rashin sanin kai”. [6] Dostoevsky na farko kammala aikin adabi, fassarar littafin Honoré de Balzac na Eugénie Grandet, an buga shi a watan Yuni da Yuli 1843 a cikin 6th da 7th kundin mujallolin Repertoire da Pantheon, [8] ya biyo baya da yawa. sauran fassarorin. Babu wanda ya yi nasara, kuma matsalar kuɗinsa ta sa shi ya rubuta labari. [5] [6]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. His name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
  2. In Old Style dates: 30 October 1821 – 28 January 1881
  1. "Dostoevsky". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. Empty citation (help)
  3. Scanlan 2002.
  4. Dominique Arban, Dostoïevski, Seuil, 1995, p. 5
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 Kjetsaa 1989.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 Frank 1979.
  7. Bloom 2004.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Breger 2008.
  9. Leatherbarrow 2002.
  10. Mochulsky 1967.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Lantz 2004.
  12. Sekirin 1997.
  13. Reik, Theodor (1940). "The Study on Dostoyevsky." In From Thirty Years with Freud, Farrar & Rhinehart, Inc., pp. 158–76.