Immanuel Kant

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Immanuel Kant
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Königsberg (en) Fassara, 22 ga Afirilu, 1724
ƙasa Kingdom of Prussia (en) Fassara
Kingdom of Prussia (en) Fassara
Russian Empire (en) Fassara
Mazauni Königsberg (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Jamusanci
Mutuwa Königsberg (en) Fassara, 12 ga Faburairu, 1804
Makwanci Königsberg Cathedral (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Johann Georg Kant
Abokiyar zama Not married
Karatu
Makaranta University of Königsberg (en) Fassara
Collegium Fridericianum (en) Fassara
Dalibin daktanci Anton Friedrich Justus Thibaut (en) Fassara
Markus Herz (en) Fassara
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (en) Fassara
Karl Leonhard Reinhold (en) Fassara
Harsuna Jamusanci
Malamai Martin Knutzen (en) Fassara
Johann Gottfried Teske (en) Fassara
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a mai falsafa, anthropologist (en) Fassara, physicist (en) Fassara, librarian (en) Fassara, marubuci, ilmantarwa, university teacher (en) Fassara, masanin lissafi da philosopher of law (en) Fassara
Employers University of Königsberg (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Critique of Pure Reason (en) Fassara
Critique of Practical Reason (en) Fassara
Critique of Judgment (en) Fassara
Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (en) Fassara
Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment? (en) Fassara
The Metaphysics of Morals (en) Fassara
Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason (en) Fassara
Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (en) Fassara
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa David Hume (en) Fassara, George Berkeley (en) Fassara, Christian Wolff (en) Fassara, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (en) Fassara, Francis Hutcheson (en) Fassara, Isaac Newton, Plato, Johannes Nikolaus Tetens (en) Fassara, Michel de Montaigne (en) Fassara, René Descartes, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, John Locke, Nicolas Malebranche (en) Fassara da Benedictus de Spinoza (en) Fassara
Mamba Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Russian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Fafutuka German idealism (en) Fassara
Age of Enlightenment (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Lutheranism (en) Fassara
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (UK: /kænt/, US: /kɑː nt/, German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl ˈkant] ; a ranar 22 ga watan Afrilu shekara ta 1724  zuwa 12 ga watan Fabrairu shekara ta 1804) masanin falsafar Jamus ne kuma ɗaya daga cikin masu tunani na wayewa na tsakiya. (Central enlightenment thinkers) An kuma haife shi a Königsberg, ayyukan Kant na gama-gari da nagartaccen ayyuka a fannin ilimin zamani, metaphysics, ɗabi'a, da ƙayatarwa sun sanya shi zama ɗaya daga cikin fitattun mutane a falsafar Yammacin zamani.

A cikin rukunansa na ra'ayin transcendental, Kant yayi jayayya cewa sararin samaniya da lokaci ne kawai "nau'i na hankali" wanda ke tsara duk kwarewa, sabili da haka, yayin da "abubuwa-cikin kansu" sun wanzu kuma suna taimakawa wajen kwarewa, duk da haka sun bambanta da ababubua na kwarewa. Daga wannan ya biyo baya cewa abubuwan da aka sani sune kawai "bayyanar", ku ma cewa yanayin abubuwa kamar yadda suke a cikin kansu ba shi da masaniya a gare mu. A yunƙurin yaƙi da shakkun da ya samu a cikin rubuce-rubucen masanin falsafa David Hume, [1] ya rubuta Critique of Pure Reason a shekara ta (1781 zuwa 1787), [2] ɗaya daga cikin sanannun ayyukansa. A ciki, ya haɓaka ka'idarsa ta gwaninta don amsa tambayar ko ilimin halitta na farko zai yiwu, wanda hakan zai iya ba da damar tantance iyakokin binciken metaphysical. Kant ya zana daidaici da juyin juya halin Copernican a cikin shawararsa dan yin tunanin abubuwan da suka dace da abubuwan da suka dace da yanayin sararin samaniya da na zahiri na zahirinmu, dan mu sami fifikon sanin waɗannan abubuwan. [lower-alpha 1]

Immanuel Kant

Kant ya yi imani da cewa hankali kuma shine tushen ɗabi'a, kuma kyawawan dabi'u sun fito ne daga ikon yanke hukunci. Ra'ayoyin Kant na ci gaba da yin tasiri sosai kan falsafar zamani, musamman ma fannonin ilimin zamani, ɗabi'a, ka'idar siyasa, da ƙayatarwa na zamani. Ya yi ƙoƙari ya bayyana dangantakar da ke tsakanin hankali da ƙwarewar ɗan adam da kuma wuce abin da ya yi imani da shi na gazawar falsafar gargajiya da metaphysics. Ya so ya kawo ƙarshen abin da ya gani a matsayin zamanin banza da hasashe na tunanin ɗan adam, tare da tsayayya da shakku na masu tunani irin su Hume. Ya ɗauki kansa a matsayin yana nuna hanyar da ta wuce rashin jituwa tsakanin masu ra'ayin tunani da empiriricists, [4] kuma ana ɗauka a ko'ina dan haɗa labarai biyu a cikin tunaninsa.

Kant ya kasance mafarin ra'ayin cewa za a iya tabbatar da zaman lafiya ta hanyar dimokuradiyya ta duniya da hadin gwiwar ƙasa da ƙasa, kuma watakila wannan zai iya zama matakin karshe na tarihin duniya. [5] Halin ra'ayoyin addini na Kant ya ci gaba da zama batun muhawarar masana, tare da ra'ayoyin da suka fito daga ra'ayi cewa ya canza daga farkon kare hujja na mahallin Allah zuwa agnosticism mai ka'ida, zuwa ƙarin jiyya mai mahimmanci wanda Schopenhauer ya kwatanta wanda ya soki tsarin da'a na Kantian mai mahimmanci a matsayin "ɗabi'un tauhidi" da "Decalogue na Musa a ɓarna", [6] da Nietzsche, waɗanda suka yi iƙirarin cewa Kant yana da "jinin tauhidi" kuma ya kasance kawai sophisticated uzuri ga addinin Kirista na gargajiya. [lower-alpha 2] Bayan ra'ayinsa na addini, Kant kuma ya sha suka game da wariyar launin fata da aka gabatar a wasu ƙananan takardunsa, kamar "Akan Amfani da Ka'idodin Watsa Labarai a Falsafa" da "Akan Daban-daban Races na Mutum". [8] Kodayake ya kasance mai goyon bayan wariyar launin fata na kimiyya don yawancin aikinsa, ra'ayin Kant game da launin fata ya canza sosai a cikin shekaru goma na rayuwarsa, kuma ya ƙi amincewa da tsarin launin fata da mulkin mallaka na Turai a cikin Aminci na dindindin: A Falsafa Sketch (1795). [9]

Immanuel Kant

Kant ya wallafa wasu muhimman ayyuka akan ɗa'a, addini, shari'a, da'a, ilmin taurari, da tarihi a lokacin rayuwarsa. Waɗannan sun haɗa da Tarihin Halitta na Duniya (1755), Ƙididdigar Dalili mai Aiki (1788), Ƙididdigar Shari'a (1790), Addini a cikin Iyakokin Bare Dalili (1793), da Metaphysics of Morals (1797).

Tarihin Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haife shi a ranar 22 ga watan Afrilu shekara ta (1724), a cikin dangin Prussian Jamus na bangaskiyar Lutheran Protestant a Königsberg, Gabashin Prussia tun a shekara ta (1946), birnin Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast, Rasha). Mahaifiyarsa, Anna Regina Reuter (1697 zuwa 1737), an haife shi a Königsberg ubansa a Nuremberg yake.[ana buƙatar hujja] Sunanta wani lokacin kuskure ana ba shi azaman Porter. Mahaifin Kant, Johann Georg Kant (1682 zuwa 1746), ɗan Jamus ne mai kera kayan aiki daga Memel, a lokacin birni mafi arewa maso gabashin Prussia (yanzu Klaipėda, Lithuania). Kant ya yi imanin cewa kakan mahaifinsa Hans Kant dan asalin Scotland ne. [10] Yayin da masana rayuwar Kant suka daɗe suna yarda da wannan iƙirari, ƙwarewar zamani ta ƙalubalanci shi. Yana yiwuwa Kants sun sami suna daga ƙauyen Kantvainiai (Jamus: Kantwaggen-a yau wani ɓangare na Priekulė) kuma sun fito ne daga asalin Kursenieki. [11] [12] Kant shi ne na hudu a cikin yara tara (shida daga cikinsu sun girma).

Immanuel Kant signature

Ya yi Baftisma Emanuel, daga baya ya canza harafin sunansa zuwa Immanuel [13] bayan ya koyi Ibrananci. An rene shi a gidan ’ yan Bidi’a da suka nanata ibada, tawali’u, da fassarar Littafi Mai Tsarki na zahiri.[ana buƙatar hujja] mai tsauri, hukunci da ladabtarwa, kuma ya mai da hankali kan koyarwar Latin da addini akan lissafi da kimiyya. [14] A cikin Groundwork na Metaphysic of Morals, ya bayyana imani ga rashin mutuwa a matsayin yanayin da ya dace na tsarin ɗan adam zuwa mafi girman halin kirki mai yiwuwa. [15] Duk da haka, kamar yadda Kant ya kasance mai shakka game da wasu hujjojin da aka yi amfani da su a gabaninsa don kare ilimin tauhidi kuma ya ci gaba da cewa fahimtar mutum yana da iyaka kuma ba zai iya samun ilimi game da Allah ko rai ba, masu sharhi daban-daban sun lakafta shi a matsayin agnostic na falsafa, [16] ko da yake an kuma ba da shawarar cewa Kant yana nufin wasu mutane su yi la'akari da shi a matsayin "mai tunani mai tsabta", wanda Kant da kansa ya bayyana a matsayin wanda ya gane wahayi amma ya tabbatar. cewa saninsa da kuma yarda da shi a matsayin gaske ba wajibi ne ga addini ba.

Ga alama Kant ya yi rayuwa mai tsauri da tarbiyya; an ce makwabci za su saita agogon su ta hanyar tafiya ta yau da kullun. Bai taɓa yin aure ba, [17] amma da alama yana da rayuwar zamantakewa mai lada— shi mashahurin malami ne, haka kuma marubuci mai cike da kunya tun ma kafin ya fara kan manyan ayyukansa na falsafa. Yana da da'irar abokai waɗanda yake yawan saduwa da su—daga cikinsu akwai Joseph Green, ɗan kasuwa ɗan Ingila a Königsberg, wanda aka ruwaito ya fara magana da shi a cikin jayayya a cikin shekara ta 1763, ko kafin. Kamar yadda labarin ya nuna, Kant yana yawo a cikin Dänhofscher Garten, sai ya ga daya daga cikin abokansa yana magana da wasu mutanen da bai sani ba. Ya shiga tattaunawar, wanda ba da daɗewa ba ya juya zuwa abubuwan da ba a saba gani ba a duniya. Batun rashin jituwar da ke tsakanin Birtaniya da Amurka ya taso. Kant ya ɗauki gefen Amirkawa, kuma wannan ya tayar da Green. Ya kalubalanci Kant da fada. An ruwaito Kant ya bayyana cewa kishin kasa bai shiga cikin ra'ayinsa ba, kuma duk wani dan kasa na duniya zai iya daukar matsayinsa idan ya rike ka'idojin siyasar Kant, wanda Kant ya bayyana wa Green. Green ya yi mamakin yadda Kant ya iya bayyana ra'ayinsa, har Green ya ba da damar yin abota da Kant, kuma ya gayyace shi zuwa gidansa da yamma.

Tsakanin shekarar (1750 da kuma 1754) Kant ya yi aiki a matsayin malami (Hauslehrer) a ƙauyen Lithuania na Jučiai (Jamus: Judtschen; kusan 20 km gabas da Königsberg, kuma a cikin Groß-Arnsdorf (yanzu Jarnołtowo kusa da Morąg (Jamus: Mohrungen), Poland), kusan 145 km gabas da Königsberg.

Immanuel Kant

Tatsuniyoyi da yawa sun taso game da halin Kant na sirri; an jera waɗannan, an bayyana, kuma an karyata su a cikin gabatarwar Goldthwait zuwa fassararsa na Abubuwan Lura akan Jin Kyawun Kyakkyawa da ɗaukaka.



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Since he had written his last habilitation thesis 14 years earlier, a new habilitation thesis was required (see S.J. McGrath, Joseph Carew (eds.), Rethinking German Idealism, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 24).Empty citation (help)
  2. There are two relatively recent translations:
  3. Kant, Immanuel (1999). Critique of Pure Reason. The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. Translated and edited by Paul Guyer and Allen W. Wood. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P. ISBN 978-0-5216-5729-7.
  4. Rockmore, Tom (2004). On Foundationalism: A Strategy for Metaphysical Realism . Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 65 . ISBN 978-0-7425-3427-8Empty citation (help)
  5. Kant, Immanuel (1784). "Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose".
  6. Arthur Schopenhauer, On the Basis of Morals, in The Two Fundamental Problems of Ethics, trans. Chris Janaway (2009), sections 4–5.
  7. Friedrich Nietzsche (trans. Walter Arnold Kaufmann), The Portable Nietzsche, 1976, p. 96.
  8. Hanna, Robert, Kant, Science, and Human Nature. Clarendon Press, 2006, p. 16.Empty citation (help)
  9. Oberst, Michael (2015). "Kant on Universals". History of Philosophy Quarterly . 32 (4): 335–352.Empty citation (help)
  10. Mortensen, Hans and Gertrud, Kants väterliche Ahnen und ihre Umwelt, Rede von 1952 in Jahrbuch der Albertus-Universität zu Königsberg, Pr., Holzner-Verlag, Kitzingen, Main 1953, Vol. 3, p. 26.
  11. R.K. Murray, "The Origin of Immanuel Kant's Family Name", Kantian Review 13(1), March 2008, pp. 190-93.
  12. Rosa Kohlheim, Volker Kohlheim, Duden – Familiennamen: Herkunft und Bedeutung von 20.000 Nachnamen, Bibliographisches Institut & F.A. Brockhaus AG, Mannheim 2005, p. 365.
  13. Kuehn 2001, p. 26.
  14. Kuehn 2001, p. 47.
  15. Metaphysics, p. 131
  16. "While this sounds skeptical, Kant is only agnostic about our knowledge of metaphysical objects such as God. And, as noted above, Kant's agnosticism leads to the conclusion that we can neither affirm nor deny claims made by traditional metaphysics." Andrew Fiala, J.M.D. Meiklejohn, Critique of Pure Reason – Introduction, p. xi.
  17. Kuehn, M. (2001). Kant: A biography. New York: Cambridge University Press. p 169


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