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John Locke

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John Locke
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Wrington (en) Fassara, 29 ga Augusta, 1632
ƙasa Kingdom of England (en) Fassara
Mutuwa High Laver (en) Fassara, 28 Oktoba 1704
Makwanci High Laver (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (Ciwon zuciya)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi John Locke
Mahaifiya Agnes Keene
Abokiyar zama Not married
Ahali Thomas Locke (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Westminster School (en) Fassara
(1647 -
Christ Church (en) Fassara
(1652 - 1675)
Harsuna Turanci
Harshen Latin
Sana'a
Sana'a mai falsafa, ɗan siyasa, likita, marubuci, scientist (en) Fassara da philosopher of law (en) Fassara
Employers Jami'ar Oxford
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (en) Fassara
Caleb Banks (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (en) Fassara
Two Treatises of Government (en) Fassara
A Letter Concerning Toleration (en) Fassara
Some Thoughts Concerning Education (en) Fassara
Of the Conduct of the Understanding (en) Fassara
The prince and the cobbler (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Thomas Hobbes (en) Fassara, René Descartes, Hugo Grotius (en) Fassara, Robert Filmer (en) Fassara, Samuel von Pufendorf (en) Fassara, Thomas Sydenham (en) Fassara, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (en) Fassara da Damaris Cudworth Masham (en) Fassara
Mamba Royal Society (en) Fassara
Fafutuka empiricism (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Protestan bangaskiya
Hoton John Locke na Godfrey Kneller, National Portrait Gallery, London.

John Locke FRS (/lɒk/; 29 ga Agusta 1632 -28 ga Oktoba 1704) wani masanin falsafa ne kuma likita dan kasar Ingila, wanda aka fi sani da shi a matsayin daya daga cikin manyan masu tunani na Fadakarwa kuma wanda akafi sani da "father of 'liberalism". An yi la'akari ya ɗaya daga cikin na farko na masu mulkin mallaka na Birtaniya, bin al'adar Francis Bacon, Locke yana da mahimmanci ga ka'idar kwangilar zamantakewa. Ayyukansa sun shafi ci gaban ilimin kimiyya da falsafar siyasa. Rubuce-rubucensa sun rinjayi Voltaire da Jean-Jacques Rousseau, da kuma masu tunani da yawa na Hasken Scotland, da kuma juyin juya halin Amurka. Gudunmawar da ya bayar ga tsarin jamhuriya na gargajiya da ka'idar sassaucin ra'ayi suna nunawa a cikin sanarwar 'Yancin kai na Amurka. [1] A duniya baki daya, ka'idojin siyasa-dokar Locke na ci gaba da yin tasiri mai zurfi kan ka'idar da ayyuka na gwamnati mai iyaka da kare hakki da 'yanci na asali a karkashin doka. [2]

Sau da yawa ana ambaton ka'idar Locke a matsayin asalin tunanin zamani na identity and the self wanda ya yi fice a cikin ayyukan masana falsafa na baya kamar Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Hume, da Immanuel Kant. Locke shine farkon wanda ya ayyana self ta hanyar ci gaba da sani.

Ya sanya cewa, lokacin haihuwa, mind ba komai bane, ko tabula rasa . Sabanin falsafar Cartesian dangane da abubuwan da suka rigaya sun kasance, ya ci gaba da cewa an haife mu ba tare da ra'ayoyi na asali ba, kuma ilimin da aka ƙaddara shi ne kawai ta hanyar kwarewa da aka samo daga fahimtar hankali, ra'ayi da aka sani da empiricism.

Da yake nuna akidar kimiyya a cikin abubuwan da ya gani, wanda dole ne wani abu ya kasance mai iya gwadawa akai-akai kuma babu wani abu da ya kebe daga karya, Locke ya bayyana cewa "duk abin da na rubuta, da zarar na gano cewa ba gaskiya ba ne, hannuna zai kasance. wanda zai jefa shi a cikin wuta”. Irin wannan misali ɗaya ne na gaskatawar Locke ga empiriricism.[3]

Ƙuruciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Locke a ranar 29 ga watan Agusta a karni na 1632, a cikin wani ɗan ƙaramin gida mai daɗaɗɗen coci a Wrington, Somerset, kimanin mil 12 daga Bristol. Ya yi baftisma a wannan rana, domin dukan iyayensa ’yan Puritan ne. Mahaifin Locke, wanda kuma ake kira John, lauya ne wanda ya yi aiki a matsayin magatakarda ga alkalai na Aminci a Chew Magna kuma a matsayin kyaftin na sojan doki ga sojojin majalisar a farkon yakin basasar Ingila. Mahaifiyarsa ita ce Agnes Keene. Ba da daɗewa ba bayan haihuwar Locke, dangin sun ƙaura zuwa Market house na Pensford, kimanin mil bakwai kudu da Bristol, inda Locke ya girma a wani gidan Tudor na karkara a Belluton.[4]

A cikin karni na 1647, an aika Locke zuwa babbar makarantar Westminster da ke Landan a ƙarƙashin tallafin Alexander Popham, ɗan majalisa kuma tsohon kwamandan John Sr. Bayan ya kammala karatu a can, an shigar da shi Cocin Christ, Oxford, a cikin kaka na 1652 yana ɗan shekara 20. Shugaban kwalejin a lokacin shi ne John Owen, mataimakin shugaban jami'ar. Kodayake ɗalibi ne mai ƙwazo, Locke ya fusata da tsarin karatun digiri na lokacin. Ya sami ayyukan masana falsafa na zamani, irin su René Descartes, mafi ban sha'awa fiye da kayan gargajiya da aka koyar a jami'a.[5] Ta hanyar abokinsa Richard Lower, wanda ya san daga Makarantar Westminster, Locke an gabatar da shi ga likitanci da falsafar gwaji da ake bi a wasu jami'o'i da kuma a cikin Royal Society, wanda daga bisani ya zama memba.[ana buƙatar hujja]

John Locke

An bawa Locke digiri na farko a cikinwa watan Fabrairu 1656 da digiri na biyu a watan Yuni 1658. Ya sami digirin farko na likitanci a cikin watan Fabrairu 1675, bayan ya yi nazarin batun sosai a lokacinsa a Oxford kuma, ban da Lower, ya yi aiki tare da manyan masana kimiyya da masu tunani kamar Robert Boyle, Thomas Willis da Robert Hooke. A cikin karni na 1666, ya hadu da Anthony Ashley Cooper, Lord Ashley, wanda ya zo Oxford don neman maganin ciwon hanta. Ashley ya ji daɗin Locke kuma ya lallashe shi ya zama wani ɓangare na ƙungiyarsa.[6]

Sana'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Locke ya kasance yana neman aiki kuma a cikin 1667 ya koma gidan Ashley a Exeter House a Landan, don zama likitan kansa. A London, Locke ya ci gaba da karatun likitancinsa a karkashin kulawar Thomas Sydenham. Sydenham ya sami babban tasiri akan tunanin falsafar Locke – Tasirin da zai bayyana a cikin Maƙala Game da Fahimtar Dan Adam.

An gwada ilimin likitancin Locke a lokacin da cutar hanta Ashley ta zama mai barazana ga rayuwa. Locke ya haɗu da shawarar likitoci da yawa kuma mai yiwuwa ya taimaka wajen shawo kan Ashley don yin tiyata (sa'an nan kuma mai barazanar rai a kanta) don cire cyst. Ashley ya tsira kuma ya ci gaba, yana yaba Locke da ceton rayuwarsa.[7]


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Fumerton, Richard (2000). "Foundationalist Theories of Epistemic Justification" . Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 19 August 2018.Empty citation (help)
  2. Foreword and study guide to John Locke's Two Treatises on Government: A Translation into Modern English, ISR Publications, 2013, page ii.
  3. Uzgalis, William (1 May 2018) [September 2, 2001]. "John Locke" . In E. N. Zalta (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  4. Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian (2010). A History of Political Philosophy: From Thucydides to Locke . New York: Global Scholarly Publications. p. 291.
  5. Foreword and study guide to John Locke's Two Treatises on Government: A Translation into Modern English , ISR Publications, 2013, page ii. ISBN 9780906321690
  6. Baird, Forrest E.; Walter Kaufmann (2008). From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 527–29. ISBN 978-0-13-158591-1
  7. Henning, Basil Duke (1983), The House of Commons, 1660–1690 , vol. 1, ISBN 978-0-436-19274-6 , retrieved 28 August 2012