Liberalism

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Wikidata.svgLiberalism
political philosophy (en) Fassara da political ideology (en) Fassara
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789.jpg
Bayanai
Hashtag (en) Fassara liberals da liberal
Hannun riga da Conservatism
Tarihin maudu'i history of liberalism (en) Fassara

Liberalism falsafa ce ta siyasa da ɗabi'a bisa haƙƙoƙin mutum, 'yanci, yardar masu mulki, daidaiton siyasa da daidaito a gaban doka. Masu sassaucin ra'ayi suna da ra'ayoyi daban-daban dangane da fahimtar waɗannan ka'idoji. Duk da haka, gabaɗaya suna goyon bayan kadarorin masu zaman kansu, tattalin arziƙin kasuwa, yancin ɗan adam (ciki har da hakkokin jama'a da yancin ɗan adam), dimokuradiyya mai sassaucin ra'ayi , rashin zaman lafiya, mulkin doka, 'yancin tattalin arziki da siyasa, 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki, 'yancin ɗan jarida, 'yancin yin taro, da kuma 'yancin yin addini. Ana yawan ambaton ‘yanci a matsayin babbar akidar zamani. [1] [2]

Liberalism ta zama wani yunkuri na musamman a zamanin wayewa, yana samun farin jini a tsakanin masana falsafa da tattalin arziki na yammacin Turai. Liberalism ya nemi maye gurbin ka'idojin gada, addinin kasa, cikakken tsarin sarauta, hakkin allahntaka na sarakuna da masu ra'ayin mazan jiya da dimokuradiyya mai wakilci da bin doka. Masu sassaucin ra'ayi kuma sun kawo karshen manufofin 'yan kasuwa, mulkin mallaka na sarauta da sauran shingen kasuwanci, a maimakon inganta kasuwancin 'yanci da tallace-tallace. [3] Ana la'akari da falsafa John Locke sau da yawa tare da kafa 'yanci a matsayin al'ada daban-daban bisa kwangilar zamantakewa, yana jayayya cewa kowane mutum yana da 'yancin rayuwa, 'yanci da dukiya, kuma dole ne gwamnatoci su keta wadannan hakkoki. [4] Yayin da al'adar masu sassaucin ra'ayi ta Burtaniya ta jaddada fadada dimokuradiyya, 'yancin kai na Faransa ya jaddada kin amincewa da mulkin kama karya kuma yana da alaka da gina kasa. [5]

Shugabanni a juyin juya halin daukaka na Biritaniya na 1688, juyin juya halin Amurka na 1776 da juyin juya halin Faransa na 1789 sun yi amfani da falsafar sassaucin ra'ayi don ba da hujjar hambarar da mulkin mallaka da makamai. Karni na 19 an kafa gwamnatoci masu sassaucin ra'ayi a Turai da Kudancin Amurka, kuma an kafa ta da kyau tare da 'yan Republican a Amurka. A cikin Biritaniya ta Victoria, an yi amfani da ita don sukar kafa siyasa, ta yin kira ga kimiyya da tunani a madadin mutane. [6]

A cikin karni na 19 da farkon karni na 20, 'yancin kai a Daular Ottoman da Gabas ta Tsakiya ya yi tasiri a lokutan kawo sauyi kamar Tanzimat da Al-Nahda da hawan tsarin mulkin kasa, kishin kasa da na addini. Wadannan sauye-sauye tare da wasu dalilai sun taimaka wajen haifar da rikici a cikin Musulunci, wanda ya ci gaba har zuwa yau, wanda ya haifar da farfadowa na Musulunci.

Kafin 1920, manyan masu adawa da akidar sassaucin ra'ayi sune 'yan gurguzu, conservatism da zamantakewa, amma sassaucin ra'ayi ya fuskanci manyan kalubale na akida daga farkisanci da Marxism-Leninism a matsayin sababbin abokan adawa. A cikin karni na 20, ra'ayoyin masu sassaucin ra'ayi sun kara yaduwa, musamman a yammacin Turai, yayin da dimokuradiyya masu sassaucin ra'ayi suka sami kansu a matsayin masu nasara a yakin duniya.

A Turai da Arewacin Amirka, kafa tsarin sassaucin ra'ayi na zamantakewa (wanda aka fi sani <i id="mwew">da liberalism</i> kawai a Amurka) ya zama muhimmin bangare na fadada tsarin jin dadin jama'a. A yau, jam'iyyun masu sassaucin ra'ayi suna ci gaba da yin amfani da karfi da tasiri a duk duniya. Abubuwan asali na al'ummar wannan zamani suna da tushen sassaucin ra'ayi. Farkon waves ra'ayin sassaucin ra'ayi ya haɓaka son kai na tattalin arziƙi yayin da yake faɗaɗa mulkin tsarin mulki da ikon majalisa. [3]

Masu sassaucin ra'ayi sun nemi kuma sun kafa wani tsari na tsarin mulki wanda ya ba da muhimmanci ga 'yancin ɗan adam, kamar 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki da 'yancin yin tarayya; shari'a mai zaman kanta da shari'ar jama'a ta juri; da kuma kawar da gata na aristocratic. [3] Daga baya raƙuman tunani na 'yanci na zamani da gwagwarmaya sun yi tasiri sosai da buƙatar faɗaɗa 'yancin ɗan adam. [7] Masu sassaucin ra'ayi sun ba da shawarar daidaito tsakanin jinsi da launin fata a kokarinsu na inganta yancin jama'a da yunƙurin yancin ɗan adam na duniya a ƙarni na 20 ya cimma manufofi da dama zuwa ga manufofin biyu. Sauran burin da masu sassaucin ra'ayi sau da yawa yarda da su sun hada da zabe na duniya da samun damar ilimi a duniya.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Wolfe, p. 23.
  2. Adams, p. 11.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Gould, p. 3.
  4. "All mankind ... being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions", John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
  5. Kirchner, p. 3.
  6. "All mankind ... being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions", John Locke, Second Treatise of GovernmentEmpty citation (help)
  7. Worell, p. 470.