Kwaminisanci

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Wikidata.svgKwaminisanci
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Guduma da sikila, alamar kwaminisanci da ikon ma'aikata

Kwaminisanci na nufin zamantakewa - tattalin arziki siyasa da cigaba. Manufarta ita ce ta kafa tsarin zamantakewar jama'a inda masana'antu da gonaki ke raba mutane, kuma ba za su sami masu mulki ko kuɗi ba . [1] [2]

Bayanin Kwaminisanci

A cewar marubutan kwaminisanci da masu tunani, manufar kwaminisanci ita ce samar da al’umma marassa ƙasa, mara aji kuma kawo ƙarshen jari hujja . Masu tunanin kwaminisanci sun yi imanin cewa hakan na iya faruwa idan mutane suka karɓi ikon masu iko (rukunin masu mulki, waɗanda ke da masana'antu da gonaki) tare da kafa ikon ma'aikaci na hanyoyin samarwa (masana'antu da gonaki).

Kwaminisanci ba ya ƙin son kai. Koyaya, ya kuma ce yanke shawara ya kamata ya zama mai kyau ga yawan jama'a gaba ɗaya, maimakon kawai ya kasance mai kyau ga ƙalilan mutane a cikin ƙasar.

Tun daga shekara ta 1992, akwai sauran ƙasashe guda biyar da suka rage bisa mulki bisa aƙidar gurguzu. Huɗu daga cikin waɗannan suna bin nau'ikan salon shugabanci daban-daban - Vietnam, China, Cuba da Laos . Na biyar, Koriya ta Arewa, yanzu a hukumance yana bin Juche, wanda ke iƙirarin zama mafi kyawun sigar Markisanci-Leniyanci. Koriya ta Arewa ta kira kanta Marxist-Leninist kafin 1991. Yawancin al'ummomi da yawa sun watsar da Markisanci a wancan lokacin saboda yawancin mutane suna tsammanin ya gaza. A lokuta da dama akidar Karl Marx gwamnatocin fadi zuwa mulkin, salla talauci, tattalin arziki auka da kuma tashin hankali, kamar yadda shi ne yanayin da Tarayyar Soviet da kuma {asar Yugoslavia, misali.

Wasu sanannun mutane waɗanda suka kasance masu mahimmanci ga ci gaban kwaminisanci sun haɗa da Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Joseph Stalin, Mao Zedong, Vladimir Lenin, da Leon Trotsky .

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Karl Marx, wanda ya ƙirƙiro kwaminisanci

A cikin 1848, Karl H. Marx da Friedrich Engels ya rubuta Manifesto na Kwaminisanci . Ya kasance gajeren littafi ne mai mahimman ra'ayoyin kwaminisanci. Yawancin yawancin 'yan gurguzu da' yan gurguzu a yau suna amfani da wannan littafin don taimaka musu fahimtar siyasa da tattalin arziki. Yawancin wadanda ba 'yan kwaminis ba suna karanta shi, koda kuwa ba su yarda da duk abin da ke ciki ba.

Karl Marx ya ce idan har al'umma za ta canza zuwa tsarin rayuwar kwaminisanci, dole ne a samu wani lokaci na canji. A wannan lokacin, maaikatan zasu mulki al'umma. Marx ya kasance mai matukar sha'awar gogewar taron Paris na 1870, lokacin da ma'aikatan Paris suka mamaye garin biyo bayan fatattakar Sojojin Faransa da Sojojin Prussia . Ya zaci cewa wannan m gwaninta ya fi muhimmanci fiye da msar tambayar ra'ayoyi na daban-daban m kungiyoyin.

Ƙungiyoyi da mutane da yawa suna son ra'ayin Marx. A farkon ƙarni na ashirin, akwai wata kungiyar gurguzu a duniya da ake kira Social Democracy . Ra'ayoyinsa ne suka rinjayi shi. Sun ce ma’aikata a ƙasashe daban-daban suna da kusanci da juna fiye da yadda ma’aikatan suke tare da shugabannin da ke cikin kasashensu. A cikin 1917, Vladimir Lenin da Leon Trotsky sun jagoranci wata ƙungiyar Rasha da ake kira Bolsheviks a cikin juyin juya halin Oktoba . Sun kawar da gwamnatin wucin gadi ta Rasha, wacce aka kafa bayan Juyin Juya Hali na Fabrairu akan Tsar ( Sarki ). Sun kafa Tarayyar Soviet Socialist Republics, wanda ake kira Taraiyar Sobiyat ko USSR.

Friedrich Engels

Tarayyar Sobiyat ita ce ƙasa ta farko da ke da'awar kafa ƙasar ma'aikata. A zahiri, ƙasar bata taɓa zama kwaminisanci ba kamar yadda Marx da Engels suka bayyana.

A cikin karni na 20, mutane da yawa sun yi ƙoƙarin kafa jihohin ma'aikata. A ƙarshen 1940s, China ma ta sami juyin juya hali kuma ta ƙirƙiri sabuwar gwamnati tare da Mao Zedong a matsayin shugaba. A cikin 1959, tsibirin Cuba ya sami juyin juya hali kuma ya ƙirƙiri sabuwar gwamnati tare da Fidel Castro a matsayin shugabanta. A wani lokaci, akwai irin waɗannan ƙasashe da yawa, kuma ya zama kamar kwaminisanci zai ci nasara. Amma gwamnatocin jam'iyyun kwaminisanci ba su yi amfani da dimokiradiyya a cikin gwamnatocinsu ba, wani muhimmin bangare ne na gurguzu da kwaminisanci. Saboda wannan, gwamnatoci suka rabu da mutane, ya sa kwaminisanci yake da wahala. Wannan kuma ya haifar da rashin jituwa da rabuwar kai tsakanin ƙasashe.

Ya zuwa shekarun 1960, kashi ɗaya bisa uku na duniya sun tumɓuke jari hujja kuma suna ƙoƙarin gina kwaminisanci. Yawancin waɗannan ƙasashen sun bi samfurin Tarayyar Sobiyat. Wasu sun bi samfurin China. Sauran kashi biyu cikin uku na duniya har yanzu suna rayuwa cikin tsarin jari-hujja, kuma wannan ya haifar da rarrabuwa a duniya tsakanin ƙasashe masu jari-hujja da ƙasashen kwaminisanci. Ana kiran wannan " Yaƙin Cacar Baki " saboda ba a yi yaƙi da makami ko sojoji ba, amma ra'ayoyi masu gasa. Koyaya, wannan na iya juyawa zuwa babban yaƙi. A lokacin 1980s, Amurka da Tarayyar Sobiyat suna fafatawa don samun babbar runduna kuma suna da makamai masu haɗari. Wannan ana kiransa "Tseren Makamai". Shugaba Ronald Reagan ya kira ƙasashen kwaminisanci kamar Taraiyar Sobiyat da " Muguwar Daular " saboda bai yarda da ra'ayin kwaminisanci ba.

Tun daga 1989, lokacin da katangar Berlin ta ruguje, yawancin kasashen da suka kasance masu ra'ayin gurguzu sun koma tsarin jari hujja. Kwaminisanci yanzu yana da ƙasa da tasiri a duniya. A 1991, Tarayyar Soviet ta balle . Koyaya, kusan kashi ɗaya cikin biyar na mutanen duniya har yanzu suna zaune a cikin jihohin da ƙungiyar kwaminisanci ke iko da su. Yawancin waɗannan mutanen suna cikin Sin. Sauran ƙasashen sun haɗa da Cuba, Vietnam, Laos, da Koriya ta Arewa . Hakanan akwai ƙungiyoyin kwaminisanci a Latin Amurka da Afirka ta Kudu .

Rigima[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutane da yawa sun rubuta ra'ayoyinsu game da kwaminisanci. Vladimir Lenin na Rasha ya yi tunanin cewa dole ne a sami ƙungiyar masu neman sauyi (wanda ake kira vanguard ) don jagorantar juyin juya halin gurguzu a duk duniya da ƙirƙirar zamantakewar kwaminisanci a ko'ina. Leon Trotsky, shi ma daga Rasha ya yi iƙirarin cewa gurguzancin dole ne ya zama na duniya, kuma ba shi da mahimmanci a fara faruwarsa a Rasha. Hakanan baya son Joseph Stalin, wanda ya zama shugaban USSR bayan mutuwar Lenin a 1924. An sanya Trotsky ya bar Soviet Union ta Stalin a 1928, sannan a kashe shi a 1940 . Wannan ya tsoratar da mutane da yawa, kuma yawancin kwaminisanci sunyi jayayya game da ko wannan yayi daidai kuma wanda za'a bi ra'ayin sa.

Mao Zedong na China ya yi tunanin cewa sauran azuzuwan za su kasance masu mahimmanci ga juyin juya halin China da sauran ƙasashe masu tasowa saboda azuzuwan aiki a waɗannan ƙasashen ba su da yawa. Mao ra'ayin Mao game da gurguzu galibi ana kiransa Maoism ko Tunanin Mao Zedong. Bayan mutuwar Stalin a 1953, Mao ya ga kansa a matsayin shugaban kwaminisanci na duniya har sai da ya mutu a 1976. A yau gwamnatin China tana karkashin Jam'iyyar Kwaminis ne, amma a zahiri suna da abin da ake kira cakuda tattalin arziki. Sun ari abubuwa da yawa daga jari-hujja . Gwamnati a China yau ba ta bin Maoism. Koyaya, kaɗan yan juyin juya hali a wasu ƙasashe kamar Indiya da Nepal har yanzu suna son ra'ayinsa kuma suna ƙoƙarin amfani da su a cikin ƙasashensu.

Amfani da lokaci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmar "kwaminisanci" ba takamaiman ƙungiiyoyin siyasa bane. Yawancin jam'iyyun siyasa da ke kiran kansu "kwaminisanci" na iya zama a zahiri sun fi masu kawo sauyi (masu goyon bayan sauye-sauye da jinkirin canji maimakon juyi) fiye da yadda wasu jam'iyyun ke kiran kansu "masu ra'ayin gurguzu". Yawancin jam'iyyun kwaminisanci a Latin Amurka sun rasa membobi da yawa saboda waɗannan jam'iyyun suna yin abubuwa daban-daban fiye da abin da suka yi alkawari da zarar sun hau mulki. A cikin Chile, tsakanin 1970-1973, a ƙarƙashin haɗin gwiwar hagu (ƙungiyoyin jam'iyyun) na ƙungiyar Haɗin Kai , ƙarƙashin jagorancin Salvador Allende, Kwaminisancin Kwaminisancin na Chile yana hannun dama na Socialungiyar Socialist ta Chile. Wannan yana nufin ta fi jam'iyyar masu ra'ayin gurguzu gyara.

Yawancin jam'iyyun kwaminisanci za su yi amfani da dabarun kawo canji . Sun ce mutane masu ajin aiki ba su da tsari sosai don yin canje-canje ga al'ummominsu. Sun gabatar da ‘yan takarar da za a zaba ta hanyar dimokiradiyya. Da zaran an zaɓi 'yan gurguzu a majalisa ko majalisar dattijai, to za su yi fada don ajin ma'aikata. Wannan zai ba mutane masu aiki damar canza tsarin jari hujjarsu zuwa tsarin gurguzu.

Alamu da al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jaridar gurguzu a Haiti daga 1940s tare da guduma da lauje

Launin ja alama ce ta gurguzu a duniya. Jan tauraruwa guda biyar a wani lokacin shima yana wakiltar kwaminisanci. Guduma da sikila sanannen alama ce ta kwaminisanci. Ya kasance akan tutocin ƙasashe masu ra'ayin gurguzu, kamar Tarayyar Soviet (duba saman labarin). Wasu 'yan gurguzu kuma suna son amfani da hotunan shahararrun kwaminisanci daga tarihi, irin su Marx, Lenin, da Mao Zedong, a matsayin alamomin dukkanin falsafar gurguzu.

Waƙa da ake kira Internationale ita ce waƙar kwaminisanci ta duniya. Tana da kiɗa iri ɗaya a ko'ina, amma ana fassara kalmomin zuwa waƙar zuwa cikin harsuna da yawa. Harshen Rashanci shine taken ƙasa na Tarayyar Soviet daga 1922 har zuwa 1944.

Launi a cikin tutar Tarayyar Sobiyat ya nuna gwagwarmayar manoma-manoma. Guduma a tuta wakiltar gwagwarmaya ga ma'aikata. Dukkansu tsallakawa suna nuna goyon bayansu ga junan su.

Hakanan akwai nau'in fasaha da gine-gine na musamman da aka samo su a yawancin kwaminisanci da tsoffin ƙasashe masu ra'ayin gurguzu. Ana yin zane-zanen da aka yi da salon mulkin gurguzu na zahiri don farfaganda don nuna cikakkiyar sigar mutanen ƙasa da jagoran siyasa. Fasaha da aka yi cikin salon gurguzu na zahiri, kamar wasan kwaikwayo, fina-finai, littattafai, da zane-zane suna nuna aiki tuƙuru, da farin ciki, da ƙoshin ma'aikata da masana'antar masana'antu. Fina-finai, wasan kwaikwayo da litattafai a cikin wannan salon galibi suna ba da labarai ne game da ma'aikata ko sojoji waɗanda suka sadaukar da kansu don amfanin ƙasarsu. Zane-zane sukan nuna hotunan jaruntaka na shugaba, ko shimfidar wurare da ke nuna manyan filayen alkama . Tsarin gine-ginen Stalin yakamata ya wakilci ƙarfi da ɗaukakar jihar da jagoran siyasa. Wasu da ba 'yan kwaminisanci ba ma suna jin daɗin wannan fasahar.

Mutane sanannu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Fidel Castro
  • Nicolae Ceauşescu
  • Mikhail Gorbachev
  • Che Guevara
  • Erich Honecker
  • Vladimir Lenin
  • Karl Marx
  • Friedrich Engels
  • Joseph Stalin
  • Ho Chi Minh
  • Mao Tse-Tung
  • Leon Trotsky
  • Josip Broz Tito
  • Kim Jong Un
  • Deng Xiaoping

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sauran yanar gizo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  1. Principles of Communism, Frederick Engels, 1847, Section 18. "Finally, when all capital, all production, all exchange have been brought together in the hands of the nation, private property will disappear of its own accord, money will become superfluous, and production will so expand and man so change that society will be able to slough off whatever of its old economic habits may remain."
  2. The ABC of Communism, Nikoli Bukharin, 1920, Section 20