Vladimir Lenin

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Vladimir Lenin
Murya
president of the Council of Labour and Defence of the USSR (en) Fassara

17 ga Yuli, 1923 - 21 ga Janairu, 1924 - Lev Kamenev (en) Fassara
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (en) Fassara

6 ga Yuli, 1923 - 21 ga Janairu, 1924 - Alexei Rykov (en) Fassara
Member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee (en) Fassara

25 ga Maris, 1919 - 21 ga Janairu, 1924
Member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee (en) Fassara

29 Nuwamba, 1917 (Julian) - 25 ga Maris, 1919
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR (en) Fassara

27 Oktoba 1917 (Julian) - 21 ga Janairu, 1924 - Alexei Rykov (en) Fassara
Member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee (en) Fassara

10 Oktoba 1917 (Julian) - 23 Oktoba 1917 (Julian)
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Владимир Ильич Ульянов
Haihuwa Ulyanovsk, 22 ga Afirilu, 1870
ƙasa Kungiyar Sobiyet
Russian Empire (en) Fassara
Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (en) Fassara
Mazauni Podolsk (en) Fassara
Saint-Petersburg
Moscow
Shushenskoye (en) Fassara
Schwabing (en) Fassara
Landan
Harshen uwa Rashanci
Mutuwa Bolshiye Gorki (en) Fassara, 21 ga Janairu, 1924
Makwanci Lenin's Mausoleum (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (cerebral hemorrhage (en) Fassara)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Ilya Ulyanov
Mahaifiya Maria Ulyanova
Abokiyar zama Nadezhda Krupskaya (en) Fassara  (1898 -  21 ga Janairu, 1924)
Ahali Maria Ulyanova (en) Fassara, Olga Ulyanova (en) Fassara, Aleksandr Ulyanov (en) Fassara, Dmitry Ulyanov (en) Fassara da Anna Ulyanova (en) Fassara
Yare Blank family (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Simbirsk Classical Gymnasium (en) Fassara
Kazan Imperial University (en) Fassara 1888) : jurisprudence (en) Fassara
Faculty of Law, Saint Petersburg State University (en) Fassara
(1890 - law degree (en) Fassara : jurisprudence (en) Fassara
Harsuna Rashanci
Faransanci
Turanci
Jamusanci
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa, revolutionary (en) Fassara, marubuci, Mai tattala arziki, Lauya, ɗan jarida, mai falsafa da political theorist (en) Fassara
Tsayi 165 cm
Wurin aiki Saint-Petersburg da Moscow
Employers Saint Petersburg State University (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels (en) Fassara, Georgi Plekhanov (en) Fassara, Alexander Ivanovich Herzen (en) Fassara, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (en) Fassara, Karl Kautsky (en) Fassara, Joseph Dietzgen (en) Fassara da John Atkinson Hobson (en) Fassara
Fafutuka anti-imperialism (en) Fassara
anti-capitalism (en) Fassara
Marxism (en) Fassara
class struggle (en) Fassara
Sunan mahaifi Ленин, Ильин, Н. Ленин, Старик, К. Тулин da Lenin
Aikin soja
Ya faɗaci Russian Revolution (en) Fassara
October Revolution (en) Fassara
Russian Civil War (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini mulhidanci
Eastern Orthodoxy (en) Fassara
Jam'iyar siyasa Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (en) Fassara
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (bolshevik) (en) Fassara
Communist Party of the Soviet Union (en) Fassara
IMDb nm0501924

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov [lower-alpha 1] (22 April 1870 - 21 Janairu 1924), wanda aka fi sani da Vladimir Lenin, [lower-alpha 2] ɗan juyin juya halin Rasha ne, ɗan siyasa, kuma masanin siyasa. Ya yi aiki a matsayin shugaban farko kuma ya kafa gwamnatin Soviet Rasha daga 1917 zuwa 1924 da na Tarayyar Soviet daga 1922 zuwa 1924. A karkashin gwamnatinsa, Rasha, daga baya kuma Tarayyar Soviet, ta zama kasa mai ra'ayin gurguzu mai jam'iyya daya da ke karkashin jam'iyyar gurguzu. A akidar Markisanci, ci gabansa ga akidar ana kiransa Leninism.

Vladimir Lenin

An haife shi ga dangin upper-middle-class a Simbirsk, Lenin ya rungumi siyasar gurguzu na juyin juya hali bayan kisan dan uwansa a shekarar 1887. An kore shi daga Jami'ar Imperial ta Kazan saboda halartar zanga-zangar adawa da gwamnatin Tsarist na Daular Rasha, ya sadaukar da shekaru masu zuwa zuwa digiri na shari'a. Ya koma Saint Petersburg a shekara ta 1893 kuma ya zama babban dan gwagwarmayar Markisanci. A 1897, an kama shi don tayar da hankali kuma an kai shi gudun hijira zuwa Shushenskoye a Siberiya na tsawon shekaru uku, inda ya auri Nadezhda Krupskaya. Bayan gudun hijira, ya ƙaura zuwa Yammacin Turai, inda ya zama fitaccen masanin ka'ida a Jam'iyyar Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP). A cikin shekarar 1903, ya ɗauki muhimmiyar rawa a cikin rarrabuwar ra'ayi na RSDLP, wanda ya jagoranci ƙungiyar Bolshevik don adawa da Julius Martov 's Mensheviks. Bayan juyin juya halin Rasha na 1905 da bai yi nasara ba, ya yi yakin neman rikidewar yakin duniya na farko zuwa juyin juya hali a Turai baki daya, wanda a matsayinsa na Markisanci ya yi imani zai haifar da rushe tsarin jari-hujja da maye gurbinsa da gurguzu. Bayan juyin juya halin watan Fabrairu na 1917 ya kori Tsar tare da kafa gwamnatin wucin gadi, ya koma Rasha don taka rawa a juyin juya halin Oktoba inda Bolshevik suka hambarar da sabon tsarin mulki.

Tun farko gwamnatin Lenin Bolshevik ta raba madafun iko tare da 'yan gurguzu zaɓaɓɓun Soviets, da Majalisar Majalisun jam'iyyu da yawa, ko da yake a shekara ta 1918 ta sami madafan iko a sabuwar Jam'iyyar Kwaminisanci. Gwamnatin Lenin ta sake rarraba filaye a tsakanin manoma da bankuna da kuma manyan masana'antu. Ta fice daga yakin duniya na farko ta hanyar rattaba hannu kan wata yerjejeniya da ta ba da ikon mallakar yankin tsakiya, da kuma inganta juyin juya halin duniya ta hanyar gurguzu ta kasa da kasa. An murkushe abokan adawar a cikin Red Terror, yakin neman zabe da jami'an tsaro na jihar ke gudanarwa; an kashe dubun-dubatar ko kuma aka saka su a sansanonin fursuna. Gwamnatinsa ta ci nasara da sojojin anti-Bolshevik na dama da hagu a yakin basasar Rasha daga 1917 zuwa 1922 kuma ya jagoranci yakin Poland-Soviet na 1919-1921. Da yake mayar da martani ga barnar lokacin yaƙi, yunwa, da tashe-tashen hankula, a cikin shekarar 1921 Lenin ya ƙarfafa haɓakar tattalin arziki ta hanyar Sabuwar Manufofin Tattalin Arziƙi. Kasashe da dama wadanda ba na Rasha ba sun sami 'yancin kai daga Daular Rasha bayan 1917, amma uku sun sake hadewa cikin sabuwar Tarayyar Soviet a 1922. Rashin lafiyarsa, Lenin ya mutu a Gorki, tare da Joseph Stalin ya gaje shi a matsayin babban mutum a gwamnatin Soviet.

Masanin harkar siyasa

An yi la'akari da daya daga cikin manyan mutane masu tasiri da kuma tasiri na karni na 20, Lenin ya kasance batun da ya shafi al'adun gargajiya a cikin Tarayyar Soviet har zuwa rushewa a cikin shekarar 1991. Ya zama jigo a akida a bayan Marxism-Leninism kuma babban tasiri kan yunkurin gurguzu na kasa da kasa. Mutumin da ke da cece-kuce kuma mai cike da rarrabuwar kawuna, magoya bayansa suna kallon Lenin a matsayin gwarzon gurguzu da kuma masu aiki. A halin da ake ciki, masu sukar Lenin suna zarginsa da kafa mulkin kama-karya wanda ke kula da kashe-kashen jama'a da kuma danniya na siyasa.

Ƙuruciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yarinta: 1870-1887[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gidan yara Lenin a Simbirsk

Komawa ga kakanninsa, Rashanci, Jamusanci, Yaren mutanen Sweden, Bayahude, da yiwuwar tasirin Kalmyk ana iya gano su. [2] Mahaifinsa Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov ya fito ne daga dangin tsohon serfs; Kabilar mahaifin Ilya har yanzu ba a sani ba, [lower-alpha 3] yayin da mahaifiyar Ilya, Anna Alexeyevna Smirnova, ta kasance rabin Kalmyk kuma rabin Rasha. Duk da ƙananan matsayi, Ilya ya tashi zuwa matsayi na tsakiya, yana nazarin ilimin kimiyyar lissafi da lissafi a Jami'ar Kazan kafin koyarwa a Cibiyar Penza Nobility. Ilya ya auri Maria Alexandrovna Blank a tsakiyar 1863. Tana da ilimi sosai, 'yar Bajamushe ce mai arziki-mahaifiyar Lutheran Sweden, kuma mahaifin Bayahude na Rasha wanda ya koma Kiristanci kuma ya yi aiki a matsayin likita. A cewar masanin tarihi Petrovsky-Shtern, mai yiwuwa Lenin bai san zuriyar mahaifiyarsa rabin-Yahudawa ba, wanda 'yar uwarsa Anna kawai ta gano bayan mutuwarsa. [3] A cewar wani sigar, mahaifin Maria ya fito ne daga dangin Jamus masu mulkin mallaka da Catherine Babbar ta gayyace su zuwa Rasha. [4]

Ba da daɗewa ba bayan bikin aurensu, Ilya ya sami aiki a Nizhny Novgorod, ya tashi ya zama Daraktan Makarantun Firamare a gundumar Simbirsk bayan shekaru shida. Bayan shekaru biyar, sai aka kara masa girma zuwa Darakta na Makarantun Gwamnati na lardin, inda yake kula da kafa sama da makarantu 450 a wani bangare na tsare-tsaren gwamnati na zamani. A cikin Janairu 1882, sadaukar da kai ga ilimi ya ba shi Order of Saint Vladimir, wanda ya ba shi matsayi na gadon sarauta.

Hoton Lenin (hagu) yana da shekaru uku

An haifi Lenin a Streletskaya Ulitsa, Simbirsk, yanzu Ulyanovsk, ranar 22 ga watan Afrilu 1870, kuma ya yi masa baftisma bayan kwanaki shida; [5] tun yana yaro, an san shi da Volodya, ɗan ƙaramin Vladimir. Shi ne na uku na yara takwas, yana da ƴan'uwa maza biyu, Anna (an haife shi 1864) da Alexander (an haife shi 1866). Su kuma wasu yara uku, Olga (an haife shi a shekara ta 1871), Dmitry (an haife shi a shekara ta 1874), da kuma Maria (an haifi 1878). ’Yan’uwa biyu daga baya sun mutu suna ƙanana. Ilya ya kasance memba na Cocin Orthodox na Rasha kuma ya yi wa 'ya'yansa baftisma a cikinta, kodayake Maria, ɗan Lutheran ta hanyar renon yara, ba ta da halin ko-in-kula ga Kiristanci, ra'ayin da ya rinjayi 'ya'yanta.

Dukansu iyayensa sun kasance masu mulkin mallaka da masu ra'ayin sassaucin ra'ayi, suna jajircewa wajen sake fasalin 'yanci na 1861 wanda mai neman sauyi Tsar Alexander II ya gabatar; sun guje wa masu ra'ayin siyasa kuma babu wata shaida da ta nuna cewa 'yan sanda sun sanya su a cikin sa ido don tunanin zagi. A duk lokacin rani suna hutu a wani gidan kauye a Kokushkino. A cikin 'yan uwansa, Lenin ya kasance mafi kusa da 'yar uwarsa Olga, wanda yakan yi wa jagoranci; yana da yanayin gasa sosai kuma yana iya zama ɓarna, amma yawanci yakan yarda da rashin halayensa. Mai sha'awar wasan motsa jiki, ya shafe yawancin lokacinsa na kyauta a waje ko wasa dara, kuma ya yi fice a makaranta, ladabtarwa da ra'ayin mazan jiya Simbirsk Classical Gymnasium.

A cikin watan Janairu 1886, lokacin da Lenin yana da shekaru 15, mahaifinsa ya mutu sakamakon zubar jini na kwakwalwa. Bayan haka, halinsa ya zama marar kuskure da rigima kuma ya yi watsi da imaninsa da Allah. A lokacin, ɗan'uwan Lenin Alexander, wanda ya san shi da ƙauna kamar Sasha, yana karatu a Jami'ar Saint Petersburg. Ya shiga cikin tashin hankali na siyasa a kan cikakkiyar mulkin mallaka na Tsar Alexander III, Alexander yayi nazarin rubuce-rubucen da aka haramta wa masu hagu da kuma shirya zanga-zangar adawa da gwamnati. Ya shiga cikin rukunin juyin juya hali da ke da niyyar kashe Tsar kuma aka zabe shi ya gina bam. Kafin a kai harin, an kama wadanda suka hada baki aka yi musu shari’a, kuma an kashe Alexander ta hanyar rataya a watan Mayu. Duk da ɓacin rai na mutuwar mahaifinsa da ɗan'uwansa, Lenin ya ci gaba da karatu, ya kammala karatunsa a makaranta a saman ajinsa tare da lambar zinare don kyakkyawan aiki, kuma ya yanke shawarar yin karatun doka a Jami'ar Kazan.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Lenin ya rinjayi ayyukan Karl Marx.
  1. Russian: Владимир Ильич Ульянов, tr. Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, IPA: [vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr ɨˈlʲjitɕ ʊˈlʲjanəf].
  2. English: /ˈlɛnɪn/;[1] Russian: Ленин, IPA: [ˈlʲenʲɪn].
  3. There have been suggestions that he was of Russian, Chuvash, Mordvin, or Kalmyk ancestry.Template:Sfnm
  1. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. Read 2005: "Going back to his great-grandparents, Russian, Jewish, Swedish, German and possibly Kalmyk influences can be discovered"
  3. Petrovsky-Shtern 2010.
  4. Payne 1967.
  5. Sebestyen 2017.