Mao Zedong

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Mao Zedong
member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (en) Fassara

28 Satumba 1956 - 9 Satumba 1976
1. President of the People's Republic of China (en) Fassara

27 Satumba 1954 - 27 ga Afirilu, 1959
← no value - Liu Shaoqi (en) Fassara
Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (en) Fassara

21 Satumba 1949 - 27 Satumba 1954
← no value - Zhou Enlai (en) Fassara
Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Chinese Communist Party (en) Fassara

23 ga Augusta, 1945 - 9 Satumba 1976
← no value - Hua Guofeng (en) Fassara
Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party (en) Fassara

19 ga Yuni, 1945 - 9 Satumba 1976
← no value - Hua Guofeng (en) Fassara
member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (en) Fassara

17 ga Janairu, 1935 - 19 ga Yuni, 1945
member of the National Political Council (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Cikakken suna 毛澤東
Haihuwa Shaoshan (en) Fassara, 26 Disamba 1893
ƙasa Sin
Qing dynasty (en) Fassara
Republic of China (en) Fassara
Chinese Soviet Republic (en) Fassara
Mazauni Zhongnanhai (en) Fassara
Mao Zedong's Former Residence (en) Fassara
Former residence of Mao Zedong during his first stay in Beijing (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Sinanci
Mutuwa Zhongnanhai (en) Fassara, 9 Satumba 1976
Makwanci Mausoleum of Mao Zedong (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (Ciwon zuciya)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Maricon Shingon
Mahaifiya Wen Qimei
Abokiyar zama Luo Yixiu (en) Fassara  (1908 -  11 ga Faburairu, 1910)
Yang Kaihui (en) Fassara  (1920 -  1930)
He Zizhen (en) Fassara  (1928 -  1938)
Jiang Qing (en) Fassara  (20 Nuwamba, 1938 -  9 Satumba 1976)
Yara
Ahali Mao Zemin (en) Fassara da Mao Zetan (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Dongshan Senior High School (en) Fassara
(1910 - 1911)
Xiangxiang First Senior High School (en) Fassara
(1911 - 1911)
The First High School of Changsha, Hunan (en) Fassara
(1912 - 1912)
Hunan First Normal University (en) Fassara
(1913 - ga Yuni, 1918)
Harsuna Mandarin Chinese
Xiang Chinese (en) Fassara
Malamai Li Yuanfu (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa, maiwaƙe, marubuci, mai falsafa, Malami, librarian (en) Fassara, strategist (en) Fassara, political theorist (en) Fassara, revolutionary (en) Fassara da calligrapher (en) Fassara
Tsayi 180 cm
Employers Peking University Library (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung (en) Fassara
Selected works of Mao Zedong (en) Fassara
Poetry of Mao Zedong (en) Fassara
calligraphy of Mao Zedong (en) Fassara
On the People's Democratic Dictatorship (en) Fassara
Three Old Articles (en) Fassara
On Coalition Government (en) Fassara
Bombard the Headquarters (en) Fassara
Statement by comrade Mao Zedong, chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, in support of the Afro-American struggle against violent repression (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Fafutuka Marxism–Leninism–Maoism (en) Fassara
Aikin soja
Fannin soja People’s Liberation Army (en) Fassara
Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (en) Fassara
New Army (en) Fassara
Ya faɗaci Chinese Civil War (en) Fassara
Second Sino-Japanese War (en) Fassara
Korean War (en) Fassara
Sino-Soviet border conflict (en) Fassara
Vietnam War (en) Fassara
Sino-Indian War (en) Fassara
Northern Expeditions (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini mulhidanci
Jam'iyar siyasa Chinese Communist Party (en) Fassara
Kuomintang (en) Fassara
IMDb nm0544552
Mao Zedong da Li Zongren
Mao Zedong a gonar shinkafa

Mao Zedong [lower-alpha 1] (26 Disamba 1893-9 Satumba 1976), wanda kuma aka fi sani da shugaba Mao, ɗanjuyin juya halin gurguzu na kasar Sin ne wanda ya kafa jamhuriyar jama'ar kasar Sin (PRC), wadda ya jagoranci a matsayin shugaban jam'iyyar kwaminis ta kasar Sin. Jam'iyyar Kwaminisanci ta kasar Sin daga kafa PRC a shekarar 1949 har zuwa rasuwarsa a shekarar 1976. A akidar Marxist-Leninist, ra'ayoyinsa, dabarun soja, da manufofin siyasa gabaɗaya an san su da Maoism.

1961 Mao Zedong yana karanta jaridar Daily People a Hangzhou

Mao ɗan ƙauye ne mai wadata a Shaoshan, Hunan. Ya goyi bayan kishin kasar Sin, kuma yana da ra'ayin adawa da mulkin mallaka a farkon rayuwarsa, kuma musamman abubuwan da suka faru a juyin juya halin Xinhai na 1911 da na May Fourth Movement na 1919 sun yi tasiri sosai. Daga baya ya karbi Marxism-Leninism a lokacin da yake aiki a jami'ar Peking a matsayin ma'aikacin laburare kuma ya zama memba na jam'iyyar kwaminisanci ta kasar Sin (CCP), wanda ya jagoranci yunkurin girbi na kaka a 1927. A lokacin yakin basasar kasar Sin tsakanin Kuomintang (KMT) da jam'iyyar CCP, Mao ya taimaka wajen kafa rundunar sojojin kasar Sin da ma'aikatanta da na manoma, ya jagoranci manufofin gyare-gyaren filaye na Soviet Jiangxi, kuma daga karshe ya zama shugaban CCP a cikin dogon lokaci. Maris Ko da yake jam'iyyar CCP na dan lokaci ta yi kawance da KMT karkashin jam'iyyar hadin gwiwa ta biyu a lokacin yakin kasar Sin da Japan na biyu (1937-1945), yakin basasar kasar Sin ya sake komawa bayan mika wuyan kasar Japan, kuma sojojin Mao sun fatattaki gwamnatin 'yan kishin kasa, wadda ta koma Taiwan a shekarar 1949.

A ranar 1 ga watan Oktoba, 1949, Mao ya shelanta kafuwar PRC, jam'iyyar Marxist-Leninist wacce CCP ke sarrafawa. A cikin shekarun da suka biyo baya, ya karfafa ikonsa ta hanyar yin gyare-gyaren filaye na kasar Sin a kan masu mallakar gidaje, da yakin neman murkushe masu adawa da juyin juya hali, da "Kamfen na yaki da yaki da cin hanci da rashawa na uku da biyar", da kuma nasarar da aka samu ta hanyar tunani a yakin Koriya, wanda ya yi sanadin mutuwar baki daya. na Sinawa miliyan da dama. Daga shekarar 1953 zuwa 1958, Mao ya taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen tabbatar da tattalin arzikin da aka tsara a kasar Sin, da gina kundin tsarin mulkin kasar Sin na farko, da kaddamar da shirin raya masana'antu, da kaddamar da ayyukan soji kamar aikin "Bomb Biyu, Tauraron Dan Adam" daya, da aikin 523. Manufofinsa na ketare a wannan lokacin sun mamaye rarrabuwar kawuna tsakanin kasar Sin da Tarayyar Soviet wanda ya haifar da dambarwa tsakanin Sin da Tarayyar Soviet. A shekarar 1955, Mao ya kaddamar da kungiyar Sufan, kuma a shekarar 1957 ya kaddamar da yakin yaki da 'yan rajin kare hakkin bil adama, inda aka tsananta wa a kalla mutane 550,000 wadanda akasari masu ilimi da 'yan adawa. A shekara ta 1958, ya kaddamar da babban shirin ci gaba da nufin sauya tattalin arzikin kasar Sin cikin sauri daga noma zuwa masana'antu, wanda ya haddasa yunwa mafi muni a tarihi da kuma mutuwar mutane miliyan 15-55 tsakanin shekarar 1958 zuwa 1962. A shekara ta 1963, Mao ya kaddamar da yunkurin koyar da ilimin gurguzu, kuma a shekarar 1966 ya kaddamar da juyin juya halin al'adu, shirin kawar da abubuwa masu "maganin juyin juya hali" a cikin al'ummar kasar Sin wanda ya shafe shekaru 10 ana gwagwarmayar fadace-fadace, da lalata kayayyakin tarihi. da kuma daukakar ɗabi'ar ɗabi'ar Mao da ba a taɓa yin irinsa ba. An tsananta wa dubun dubatar mutane a lokacin juyin juya halin Musulunci, yayin da aka kiyasta adadin wadanda suka mutu ya kai daga dubunnan daruruwan zuwa miliyoyi. Bayan shekaru na rashin lafiya, Mao ya sha fama da ciwon zuciya a cikin 1976 kuma ya mutu yana da shekaru 82. A zamanin Mao, yawan jama'ar kasar Sin ya karu daga kusan miliyan 550 zuwa sama da miliyan 900 yayin da gwamnati ba ta aiwatar da manufofinta na kayyade iyali ba.

Mutumin da ke da cece-kuce a ciki da wajen kasar Sin, har yanzu ana daukar Mao a matsayin daya daga cikin manyan mutane a karni na ashirin. Bayan siyasa, ana kuma san Mao a matsayin masanin ra'ayi, mai dabarun soja, kuma mawaƙi. A lokacin Mao, kasar Sin ta shiga tsakani sosai da sauran rikice-rikicen gurguzu na kudu maso gabashin Asiya kamar yakin Koriya, yakin Vietnam, da yakin basasar Cambodia, wanda ya kawo Khmer Rouge kan mulki. Gwamnati a lokacin mulkin Mao ita ce ke da alhakin mutuwar mutane da yawa tare da kiyasin daga mutane miliyan 40 zuwa 80 da aka kashe ta hanyar yunwa, tsanantawa, aikin kurkuku, da kisa. [2] [3] [4] An yaba wa Mao bisa yadda ya mayar da kasar Sin daga mulkin mallaka zuwa kan gaba a duniya, inda ta samu ci gaba sosai a fannin ilmin karance-karance, da kare hakkin mata, da kula da lafiya, da ilimin firamare da kuma tsawon rai. [5]

English romanisation of name[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mao Zedong 1924

A lokacin rayuwar Mao, kafofin watsa labaru na Ingilishi a duk duniya sun mayar da sunansa Mao Tse-tung, ta yin amfani da tsarin Wade-Giles na fassarar Sinanci na Standard Sinanci ko da yake tare da lafazin dawafi a cikin harafin Tsê ya ragu. Saboda fahimtarsa, an yi amfani da rubutun sosai, har ma da ma'aikatar harkokin waje ta PRC bayan Hanyu Pinyin ya zama tsarin romanization na PRC na Sinanci na Mandarin a 1958; sanannen ɗan littafin maganganun siyasa na Mao, The Little Red Book, an ba shi suna a hukumance Quotations daga shugaba Mao Tse-tung a cikin fassarorin Ingilishi. Yayin da rubutun Mao Zedong da aka samo daga pinyin ya zama ruwan dare gama gari, ana ci gaba da amfani da rubutun Mao Tse-tung wanda aka samo daga Wade-Giles a cikin littattafan zamani har zuwa wani lokaci.

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Matasa da juyin juya halin Xinhai: 1893-1911[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mao Zedong sanye da hula
Mao Zedong 1913

An haifi Mao Zedong a ranar 26 ga Disamba 1893, a kauyen Shaoshan, Hunan. Mahaifinsa, Mao Yichang, tsohon talaka ne wanda ya zama ɗaya daga cikin manoma mafi arziki a Shaoshan. Da yake girma a cikin karkarar Hunan, Mao ya bayyana mahaifinsa a matsayin mai horo mai tsauri, wanda zai doke shi da ’yan uwansa uku, maza Zemin da Zetan, da kuma wata yarinya da aka yi reno, Zejian.[6] Mahaifiyar Mao, Wen Qimei, 'yar addinin Budda ce mai kishin addinin Buddah wadda ta yi ƙoƙari ta fusata halin mijinta. [7] Mao shima ya zama dan addinin Buddha, amma ya yi watsi da wannan bangaskiya a tsakiyar shekarunsa na samari. [7] Yana da shekaru 8, an aika Mao zuwa Makarantar Firamare ta Shaoshan. Koyon tsarin darajar Confucianism, daga baya ya yarda cewa bai ji daɗin rubutun Sinanci na gargajiya da ke wa'azin ɗabi'a na Confucian ba, maimakon haka yana fifita litattafai na gargajiya kamar Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Water Margin. [8] Sa'ad da yake ɗan shekara 13, Mao ya gama karatun firamare, kuma mahaifinsa ya haɗa shi a cikin shirin aure da Luo Yixiu ɗan shekara 17, ta haka ya haɗa danginsu masu mallakar ƙasa. Mao ya ƙi amincewa da ita a matsayin matarsa, ya zama mai sukar aure kuma ya ƙaura na ɗan lokaci. Luo ya kunyata a cikin gida kuma ya mutu a cikin 1910, yana da shekaru 21 kacal. [9]

Gidan Mao Zedong na yara a Shaoshan, a cikin 2010, wanda a lokacin ya zama wurin yawon bude ido.

Yayin da yake aiki a gonar mahaifinsa, Mao ya yi karatu sosai [10] kuma ya haɓaka "hankalin siyasa" daga ɗan littafin Zheng Guanying wanda ya koka da tabarbarewar ikon Sinawa kuma ya yi jayayya game da ɗaukar tsarin dimokraɗiyya na wakilai. [11] Mai sha'awar tarihi, Mao ya sami wahayi daga bajintar soja da kishin ƙasa na George Washington da Napoleon Bonaparte. [12] Zanga-zangar da Gelaohui ya jagoranta ce ta haifar da ra'ayinsa na siyasa wanda ya barke bayan yunwa a Changsha, babban birnin Hunan; Mao ya goyi bayan bukatun masu zanga-zangar, amma sojojin sun murkushe masu adawa tare da kashe shugabanninsu. [13] Yunwa ta bazu zuwa Shaoshan, inda manoma masu fama da yunwa suka kwace hatsin mahaifinsa. Ya ki amincewa da ayyukansu a matsayin kuskuren ɗabi'a, amma ya yi iƙirarin tausayawa halin da suke ciki. [14] Yana da shekaru 16, Mao ya ƙaura zuwa babbar makarantar firamare a Dongshan kusa da, [15] inda aka zalunce shi saboda asalin sa na ƙauye. [16]

A 1911, Mao ya fara makarantar sakandare a Changsha. [17] Tunanin juyin juya hali ya yi karfi a cikin birnin, inda aka yi ta kiyayya ga cikakkiyar masarauta ta Sarkin sarakuna Puyi kuma da yawa suna ba da ra'ayin jamhuriya. Jigon 'yan jamhuriyar shine Sun Yat-sen, Kirista mai ilimin Amurka wanda ya jagoranci al'ummar Tongmenghui.[18] A Changsha, jaridar Sun ta rinjayi Mao, The People's Independence (Minli bao), [19] kuma ya yi kira ga Sun ya zama shugaban kasa a cikin rubutun makaranta. [20] A matsayin alamar tawaye ga sarkin Manchu, Mao da abokinsa sun yanke aladun layinsu, alamar biyayya ga sarki.[21]

Mao Zedong

Da kwarin guiwar jamhuriyar Sun, sojojin sun tashi a kudancin kasar Sin, wanda ya haifar da juyin juya halin Xinhai. Gwamnan Changsha ya gudu, ya bar birnin a karkashin ikon jamhuriyar. [22] Da yake goyan bayan juyin juya hali, Mao ya shiga sojojin 'yan tawaye a matsayin soja mai zaman kansa, amma bai shiga cikin fada ba. Lardunan arewa sun kasance masu biyayya ga sarki, kuma suna fatan gujewa yakin basasa, Sun wanda magoya bayansa suka kira "shugaban rikon kwarya" ya yi sulhu da Janar Yuan Shikai. An kawar da daular, ta haifar da Jamhuriyar Sin, amma Yuan ya zama shugaban kasa. Bayan juyin juya hali, Mao ya yi murabus daga aikin soja a shekara ta 1912, bayan watanni shida a matsayin soja. [23] A wannan lokacin, Mao ya gano gurguzu daga labarin jarida; Da yake ci gaba da karanta ƙasidu daga Jiang Kanghu, ɗalibi wanda ya kafa jam'iyyar gurguzu ta Sin, Mao ya kasance mai sha'awar duk da haka bai gamsu da ra'ayin ba. [24]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Definition of Mao Tse-tung". Dictionary.com (in Turanci). Retrieved 17 November 2021.
  2. "Definition of Mao Tse-tung" . Dictionary.com . Retrieved 17 November 2021.Empty citation (help)
  3. MacFarquhar, Roderick (13 January 1997). The Politics of China: The Eras of Mao and Deng . Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-58863-8 Empty citation (help)
  4. Johnson, Ian (5 February 2018). "Who Killed More: Hitler, Stalin, or Mao?" . The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2020.Empty citation (help)
  5. . etal. Invalid |url-status=39–56 (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. Schram 1966; Terrill 1980; Feigon 2002; Pantsov & Levine 2012.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Schram 1966; Terrill 1980; Pantsov & Levine 2012.
  8. Schram 1966; Terrill 1980; Pantsov & Levine 2012
  9. Terrill 1980; Feigon 2002, Pantsov & Levine 2012
  10. Feigon 2002 Terrill 1980
  11. Schram 1966; Terrill 1980; Pantsov & Levine 2012
  12. Schram 1966; Terrill 1980; Pantsov & Levine 2012
  13. Schram 1966; Terrill 1980; Pantsov & Levine 2012
  14. Terrill 1980; Pantsov & Levine 2012
  15. Schram 1966; Feigon 2002; Terrill 1980; Pantsov & Levine 2012
  16. Schram 1966; Terrill 1980; Pantsov & Levine 2012
  17. Schram 1966; Terrill 1980; Pantsov & Levine 2012
  18. Pantsov & Levine 2012
  19. Schram 1966;Terrill 1980; Pantsov & Levine 2012
  20. Schram 1966; Terrill 1980; Pantsov & Levine 2012
  21. Schram 1966; Terrill 1980; Pantsov & Levine 2012
  22. Schram 1966; Pantsov & Levine 2012
  23. Schram 1966; Pantsov & Levine 2012
  24. Schram 1966; Terrill 1980


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