Joseph Stalin

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Joseph Stalin
member of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (en) Fassara

13 ga Afirilu, 1951 - 5 ga Maris, 1953
deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union (en) Fassara

12 ga Yuni, 1950 - 5 ga Maris, 1953
member of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (en) Fassara

20 ga Yuni, 1947 - 12 ga Afirilu, 1951
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (en) Fassara

15 ga Maris, 1946 - 5 ga Maris, 1953 - Georgy Malenkov (en) Fassara
deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union (en) Fassara

12 ga Maris, 1946 - 11 ga Yuni, 1950
Minister of Defence (en) Fassara

19 ga Yuli, 1941 - 25 ga Faburairu, 1946
Semyon Timoshenko (en) Fassara - Nikolai Bulganin (en) Fassara
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (en) Fassara

6 Mayu 1941 - 15 ga Maris, 1946
Vyacheslav Molotov (en) Fassara
member of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (en) Fassara

15 ga Yuli, 1938 - 19 ga Yuni, 1947
member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (en) Fassara

17 ga Janairu, 1938 - unknown value
deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union (en) Fassara

12 ga Janairu, 1938 - 11 ga Maris, 1946
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (en) Fassara

3 ga Afirilu, 1922 - 16 Oktoba 1952
Vyacheslav Molotov (en) Fassara - Nikita Khrushchev (en) Fassara
Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (en) Fassara

3 ga Afirilu, 1922 - 5 ga Maris, 1953
Member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee (en) Fassara

25 ga Maris, 1919 - 5 ga Maris, 1953
Member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee (en) Fassara

29 Nuwamba, 1917 (Julian) - 25 ga Maris, 1919
Member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee (en) Fassara

10 Oktoba 1917 (Julian) - 23 Oktoba 1917 (Julian)
Member of the Russian Constituent Assembly (en) Fassara


member of the Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian SSR of the 1st convocation (en) Fassara


Premier of the Soviet Union (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Cikakken suna იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი
Haihuwa Gori (en) Fassara, 18 Disamba 1878
ƙasa Russian Empire (en) Fassara
Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (en) Fassara
Kungiyar Sobiyet
Mazauni Narym (en) Fassara
Turukhansk (en) Fassara
Solvychegodsk (en) Fassara
Novaya Uda, Irkutsk Oblast (en) Fassara
Saint-Petersburg
Baku
Moscow
Harshen uwa Georgian (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Kuntsevo Dacha (en) Fassara, 5 ga Maris, 1953
Makwanci Kremlin Wall Necropolis (en) Fassara
Lenin's Mausoleum (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (cerebral hemorrhage (en) Fassara)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Besarion Jughashvili
Mahaifiya Keke Geladze
Abokiyar zama Ekaterina Svanidze (en) Fassara  (16 ga Yuli, 1906 -  18 Disamba 1907)
Nadezhda Alliluyeva (en) Fassara  (1918 -  9 Nuwamba, 1932)
Ma'aurata Lidiya Pereprygina (en) Fassara
Yara
Ahali Joseph Davrichachvili (en) Fassara, Mikhail Jughashvili (en) Fassara da Giorgi Jughashvili (en) Fassara
Yare Stalin family (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Gori school (en) Fassara
(1888 - ga Yuni, 1894)
Tbilisi Theological Seminary (en) Fassara
(Satumba 1894 - 29 Mayu 1899)
Harsuna Georgian (en) Fassara
Rashanci
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa, revolutionary (en) Fassara, dan jarida mai ra'ayin kansa, statesperson (en) Fassara da linguist (en) Fassara
Tsayi 1.68 m da 163 cm
Wurin aiki Saint-Petersburg da Moscow
Employers organ of state (en) Fassara
Tbilisi Observatory (en) Fassara  (Disamba 1899 -  21 ga Maris, 1901)
Brdzola (en) Fassara  (Satumba 1901 -
Pravda (en) Fassara  (1912 -  1913)
Kyaututtuka
Ayyanawa daga
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Karl Marx da Vladimir Lenin
Mamba Academy of Sciences of the USSR (en) Fassara
Council of Ministers of the USSR (en) Fassara
All-Russian Central Executive Committee (en) Fassara
Council of People's Commissars (en) Fassara
Revolutionary Military Council (en) Fassara
Revolutionary Military Council (en) Fassara
Orgburo (en) Fassara
Fafutuka Marxism–Leninism (en) Fassara
Sunan mahaifi Сталин, Staline da Koba
Aikin soja
Fannin soja Red Army (en) Fassara
Digiri Marshal of the Soviet Union (en) Fassara
Generalissimus of the Soviet Union (en) Fassara
Ya faɗaci Russian Civil War (en) Fassara
Battle of Moscow (en) Fassara
Yakin Duniya na I
Yakin Duniya na II
Polish–Soviet War (en) Fassara
Eastern Front (en) Fassara
Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini mulhidanci
Jam'iyar siyasa Communist Party of the Soviet Union (en) Fassara
Mesame Dasi (en) Fassara
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (en) Fassara
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (bolshevik) (en) Fassara
IMDb nm0821672

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin [lower-alpha 1] (an haife shi a Ioseb Besaronis dze Jughashvili; [lower-alpha 4] 18 December [ [1] -5 ga watan Maris shekarata alif 1953) ɗan asalin Georgia ne [lower-alpha 2] jagoran juyin juya halin Soviet kuma jagoran siyasa wanda ya jagoranci Tarayyar Soviet daga shekarata alif 1924 har zuwa mutuwarsa a shekarar alif 1953. Ya rike madafun iko a matsayin Babban Sakatare na Jam'iyyar Kwaminis ta Tarayyar Soviet (1922-1952) da Shugaban Majalisar Ministocin Tarayyar Soviet (1941-1953). Da farko yana mulkin ƙasar a matsayin wani ɓangare na jagoranci gama gari, ya ƙarfafa ikon ya zama ɗan kama-karya a shekarun 1930. A akida yana manne da fassarar Marxism na Leninist, ya tsara waɗannan ra'ayoyin a matsayin Marxism–Leninism, yayin da nasa manufofin ake kira Stalinism.[2]

Joseph Stalin, 1950

An haife shi a gidan matalauta a Gori a cikin Daular Rasha (Now Georgia), Stalin ya halarci Makarantar Ruhaniya ta Tbilisi kafin ya shiga Jam'iyyar Social Democratic Labour Party ta Marxist. Ya gyara jaridar jam'iyyar, Pravda, kuma ya tara kudade ga bangaren Bolshevik na Vladimir Lenin ta hanyar fashi, sace-sacen mutane da kuma kariya. An kama shi akai-akai, ya yi gudun hijira na cikin gida da yawa zuwa Siberiya. Bayan da Bolsheviks suka kwace mulki a juyin juya halin Oktoba kuma suka kafa kasa mai jam'iyya daya a karkashin sabuwar Jam'iyyar Kwaminisanci a 1917, Stalin ya shiga kungiyar ta Politburo. Yin hidima a yakin basasa na Rasha kafin ya jagoranci kafa Tarayyar Soviet a shekarar 1922, Stalin ya karbi jagorancin kasar bayan mutuwar Lenin a 1924 . A karkashin Stalin, socialism in one country ya zama jigon akidar jam'iyyar.[3] A sakamakon tsare-tsarensa na shekaru biyar, kasar ta samu hada-hadar noma da habaka masana'antu cikin sauri, ta samar da tsarin tattalin arziki (Centralised economy) Tsanani mai tsanani ga samar da abinci ya haifar da yunwa na 1930-33 wanda ya kashe miliyoyin. Don kawar da "maƙiyan ma'aikata" da ake zargi, Stalin ya kafa Great purge, wanda aka daure fiye da miliyan guda, mafi yawa a cikin tsarin Gulag na sansanin aikin tilastawa, kuma aƙalla 700,000 akshekarar tsakanin shekarar alif 1934 da 1939. Ya zuwa 1937, yana da cikakken iko a kan jam'iyya da gwamnati.

Stalin ya haɓaka Marxism-Leninism a ƙasashen waje ta hanyar gurguzu ta ƙasa da ƙasa kuma ya goyi bayan ƙungiyoyin anti-fascist na Turai a cikin shekarar alif 1930s, musamman a cikin Yaƙin Basasa na Spain. A cikin shekarar alif 1939, gwamnatinsa ta rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniyar rashin cin zali da Jamusanci, wanda ya haifar da mamayewar Soviet a Poland.[4] Jamus ta kawo karshen yarjejeniyar ta mamaye Tarayyar Soviet a shekara ta alif 1941. Duk da bala'o'i na farko, Rundunar Sojan Soviet Red Army ta fatattaki mamayewar Jamus tare da kwace Berlin a 1945, wanda ya kawo karshen yakin duniya na biyu a Turai. A cikin yakin, Soviets sun mamaye jihohin Baltic da Bessarabia da Arewacin Bukovina, daga bisani kuma suka kafa gwamnatocin Tarayyar Soviet a duk tsakiyar Turai da Gabashin Turai da kuma wasu sassan Gabashin Asiya. Tarayyar Soviet da Amurka sun fito a matsayin manyan kasashen duniya kuma sun shiga lokacin tashin hankali, yakin cacar baki. Stalin ya jagoranci sake gina Soviet bayan yakin basasa da haɓaka bam ɗin atomic a 1949. A cikin waɗannan shekaru, ƙasar ta sake fuskantar wani babban yunwa da yaƙin neman zaɓe wanda ya kai ga makircin likitocin. Bayan mutuwar Stalin a shekara ta 1953, a ƙarshe Nikita Khrushchev ya gaje shi, wanda daga baya ya yi tir da mulkinsa kuma ya ƙaddamar da rushewar al'ummar Soviet.

Joseph Stalin, Babban Sakataren Jam'iyyar Kwaminis ta Tarayyar Soviet.

An yi la'akari da shi a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin manyan ƙididdiga na karni na 20, Stalin ya kasance batu na ɗabi'a mai zurfi a cikin ƙungiyoyin Marxist-Leninist na duniya, wanda ya girmama shi a matsayin zakara na ajin aiki da zamantakewa. Tun bayan rugujewar Tarayyar Soviet a shekarar 1991, Stalin ya ci gaba da samun karbuwa a Rasha da Jojiya a matsayin wanda ya yi nasara a lokacin yakin wanda ya tabbatar da matsayin Tarayyar Soviet a matsayin mai jagorancin duniya. Akasin haka, an kwatanta gwamnatinsa a matsayin mai mulkin kama -karya, kuma an yi Allah wadai da shi saboda sa ido kan zalunci, kawar da kabilanci, korar mutane da yawa, kisa da dubban daruruwan mutane, da yunwa da ta kashe miliyoyin mutane.

Ƙuruciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

1878–1899: Childhood to young adulthood[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Joseph Stalin, Franklin D Roosevelt da Winston Churchill, a Tehran, 1943,

 

Stalin an haife shi a garin Gori na Jojiya, sannan wani yanki na Tiflis Governorate na Daular Rasha kuma ɗan gida ga gamayyar al'ummomin Georgian, Azeri, Armeniya, Rashanci, da Yahudawa. [5] An haife shi a ranar 18 December  [lower-alpha 3] kuma an yi masa baftisma a ranar 29 ga watan Disamba. [5] Sunansa na haihuwarsa Ioseb Besaronis dze Jughashvili, [lower-alpha 4] kuma ana masa laƙabi da "Soso", ɗan taƙaitaccen " Ioseb". Iyayensa sune Besarion Jughashvili da Ekaterine Geladze. Shi ne ɗansu tilo da ya rayu a baya suna ƙanana.

Besarion ma’aikacin sana’a ne wanda aka yi masa aiki a wani taron bita mallakar wani mutum; Da farko nasara ce ta kuɗi amma daga baya ta faɗi cikin raguwa, kuma dangi sun sami kansu suna rayuwa cikin talauci. Besarion ya zama mashayi ya bugu da matarsa da dansa. Ekaterine da Stalin sun bar gida a shekara ta 1883 kuma suka fara rayuwa mai yawo, suna tafiya cikin dakuna daban-daban guda tara a cikin shekaru goma masu zuwa. A cikin shekarar 1886, sun ƙaura zuwa gidan wani abokin dangi, Uba Christopher Charkviani. Ekaterine ta yi aiki a matsayin mai tsabtace gida da wanki kuma ta kuduri aniyar tura danta makaranta. [7] A cikin watan Satumba 1888, Stalin ya yi rajista a Makarantar Cocin Orthodox Gori, [8] wurin da Charkviani ya tsare. Ko da yake ya shiga fadace-fadace da yawa, Stalin ya yi fice a fannin ilimi, ya nuna hazaka a fannin zane-zane da azuzuwan wasan kwaikwayo, [7] ya rubuta wakarsa, [7] da rera waka a matsayin mawaka. Stalin ya fuskanci matsalolin lafiya da yawa: Cutar sankarau ta 1884 ta bar shi da tabo a fuska; kuma yana da shekaru 12 ya ji rauni mai tsanani lokacin da wani phaeton ya buge shi, mai yiwuwa dalilin rashin lafiyar rayuwa a hannun hagunsa.

A cikin 1894 Stalin ya fara karatunsa a Makarantar Ruhaniya ta Tiflis (wanda aka kwatanta a cikin 1870s).
Stalin 1902-1

A cikin watan Agusta 1894, Stalin ya shiga cikin Makarantar Ruhaniya ta Orthodox a Tiflis, wanda ya ba shi damar yin karatu a cikin ragi. Ya shiga cikin limamai masu horarwa 600 waɗanda suka hau can, [7] kuma ya sami manyan maki. Ya ci gaba da rubuta wakoki; biyar daga cikin waƙoƙinsa, a kan jigogi kamar yanayi, ƙasa da kishin ƙasa, an buga su a ƙarƙashin sunan "Soselo" a cikin jaridar Ilia Chavchavadze ta Iveria (Jojiya). A cewar masanin tarihin Stalin Simon Sebag Montefiore, sun zama "ƙananan ƙwararrun Georgian" [7] kuma an haɗa su a cikin tarihin waƙoƙin Jojiyanci a cikin shekaru masu zuwa. [7] Yayin da yake girma, Stalin ya rasa sha'awar karatun firist, makinsa ya ragu, kuma an tsare shi akai-akai a cikin cell saboda halinsa na tawaye. Mujallar makarantar hauza ta lura cewa ya ayyana kansa a matsayin wanda bai yarda da Allah ba, ya zage damtse daga addu’a kuma ya ki yafa hularsa ga sufaye. [7]

Joseph Stalin, 1893

Stalin ya shiga ƙungiyar littattafai da aka haramta a makarantar; Musamman ma littafin Nikolay Chernyshevsky na 1863 mai fafutukar neman sauyi ya rinjaye shi Me Za a Yi? [7] Wani rubutu mai tasiri shine Alexander Kazbegi 's The Patricide, tare da Stalin yana karɓar laƙabi "Koba" daga na jarumin ɗan fashin littafin. Sunan na iya zama abin girmamawa ga hamshakin attajirinsa, Yakobi "Koba" Egnatashvili, wanda ya biya kuɗin karatunsa a makarantar hauza ta Tiflis. ("Koba" shine ɗan ƙaramin Georgian na Yakobi, ko Yakubu, kuma Stalin daga baya ya sanya wa ɗansa na fari a cikin girmamawar Egnatashvili.) Ya kuma karanta Das Kapital, littafin 1867 na masanin ilimin zamantakewa na Jamus Karl Marx. Stalin ya sadaukar da kansa ga ka'idar zamantakewa da siyasa ta Marx, Marxism, [7] wanda a lokacin yana karuwa a Jojiya, daya daga cikin nau'o'in gurguzu iri-iri masu adawa da hukumomin tsarin mulkin daular. Da dare, ya halarci taron sirri na ma'aikata [7] kuma an gabatar da shi ga Silibistro "Silva" Jibladze, wanda ya kafa Marxist Mesame Dasi ("Rukuni na uku"), ƙungiyar gurguzu ta Georgian. Stalin ya bar makarantar hauza a Afrilu 1899 kuma bai dawo ba.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Stalin was Georgian, but during his revolutionary campaigns, adopted the Soviet Nationality law and also changed his Georgian name to a Russian Name. This fact does not means that his Georgian ancestry and his mother, which was Gori, is not there.
  2. Although there is inconsistency among published sources about Stalin's exact date of birth, Ioseb Jughashvili is found in the records of the Uspensky Church in Gori, Georgia as born on 18 December (Old Style: 6 December) 1878. This birth date is maintained in his school leaving certificate, his extensive Okhrana file, a police arrest record from 18 April 1902 which gave his age as 23 years, and all other surviving pre-Revolution documents. As late as 1921, Stalin himself listed his birthday as 18 December 1878 in a curriculum vitae in his own handwriting. After coming to power in 1922, Stalin gave his birth date as 21 December 1879 (Old Style date 9 December 1879). That became the day his birthday was celebrated in the Soviet Union.[6]
  1. Kotkin 2014.
  2. Kotkin 2014, p. 742, note 25. Starting in about 1920, Stalin gave a birth date of 21 December [ O.S. 9] 1879 despite being born on 18 December [ O.S. 6] 1878.
  3. Conquest 1991, p. 11; Service 2004, p. 16; Montefiore 2007 , p. 23; Kotkin 2014 , p. 17.
  4. Conquest 1991, pp. 1–2; Volkogonov 1991, p. 5; Service 2004 , p. 14; Montefiore 2007, p. 19; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 11; Deutscher 1966 , p. 26.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Service 2004.
  6. Montefiore 2007, p. 23.
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 Montefiore 2007.
  8. Dović & Helgason 2019.