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Conservatism

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Conservatism
social philosophy (en) Fassara da political philosophy (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na political ideology (en) Fassara
Facet of (en) Fassara Siyasa ta dama
Named by (en) Fassara François-Auguste-René de Chateaubriand (en) Fassara
Mai ganowa ko mai ƙirƙira Edmund Burke (en) Fassara
Hannun riga da Liberalism

Conservatism falsafa ce ta al'adu, zamantakewa, da siyasa wacce ke neman haɓakawa da adana cibiyoyi, ayyuka, da dabi'u na gargajiya. Babban rukunan mazan jiya na iya bambanta dangane da al'adu da wayewar da ta bayyana. A cikin al'adun Yammacin Turai, masu ra'ayin mazan jiya suna neman adana cibiyoyi iri-iri kamar tsarin addini, gwamnatin majalisa, da haƙƙin mallaka. [1] Masu ra'ayin mazan jiya suna son fifita cibiyoyi da ayyuka waɗanda ke ba da tabbacin kwanciyar hankali da haɓakawa a hankali. Mabiya ra'ayin mazan jiya sau da yawa suna adawa da zamani kuma suna neman komawa ga al'adun gargajiya, kodayake ƙungiyoyi daban-daban na masu ra'ayin mazan jiya na iya zaɓar al'adun gargajiya daban-daban don kiyayewa.

Masana Conservatism

Farkon amfani da kalmar a cikin mahallin siyasa ya samo asali ne a cikin shekarar 1818 tare da François-René de Chateaubriand a lokacin Bourbon Restoration wanda ya nemi mayar da manufofin juyin juya halin Faransa. Tarihi yana da alaƙa da siyasar left-wing, tun daga lokacin an yi amfani da kalmar don bayyana ra'ayoyi da yawa.

Babu wani tsari guda ɗaya da ake ɗauka a matsayin masu ra'ayin mazan jiya domin ma'anar ra'ayin mazan jiya ta dogara da abin da ake ɗauka na gargajiya a wani wuri da lokaci. Tunanin masu ra'ayin mazan jiya ya bambanta sosai domin ya dace da al'adu da al'adun ƙasa. [1] Alal misali, wasu masu ra'ayin mazan jiya suna ba da shawara ga babban tsoma bakin tattalin arziki, [2] yayin da wasu ke ba da shawara ga tsarin tattalin arziki na kyauta na laissez. [2] Don haka, masu ra'ayin mazan jiya daga sassa daban-daban na duniya-kowannensu yana kiyaye al'adunsa-na iya yin sabani kan batutuwa da dama. Edmund Burke, ɗan siyasa na karni na 18 wanda ya yi adawa da juyin juya halin Faransa amma ya goyi bayan juyin juya halin Amurka, ana lasafta shi a matsayin daya daga cikin manyan masu ra'ayin mazan jiya a cikin shekarar 1790s.

Jigogi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wasu masana kimiyyar siyasa irin su Samuel P. Huntington, suna ganin ra'ayin mazan jiya a matsayin yanayi. A karkashin wannan ma'anar, ana ganin masu ra'ayin mazan jiya suna kare cibiyoyin da aka kafa na zamaninsu. [3] A cewar Quintin Hogg, shugaban jam'iyyar Conservative ta Birtaniya a 1959: "Conservatism ba falsafanci ba ne a matsayin hali, karfi na yau da kullum, yin aiki maras lokaci a cikin ci gaban al'umma mai 'yanci, kuma ya dace da zurfi da dindindin. abin da ake bukata na dabi'ar dan Adam ita kanta". Ana amfani da Conservatism sau da yawa azaman kalma gama gari don bayyana "ra'ayi na dama-dama wanda ke mamaye yanayin siyasa tsakanin 'yanci da farkisanci". Duk da rashin ma'anar duniya, ana iya gane wasu jigogi a matsayin gamayya a cikin tunanin mazan jiya.

Al'ada[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cewar Michael Oakeshott, "Don zama masu ra'ayin mazan jiya... shine fifita sabawa ga wanda ba a sani ba, don fifita ƙoƙarin da ba a gwada ba, gaskiya ga asiri, ainihin abin da zai yiwu, iyakance ga marasa iyaka, kusa da nesa., wanda ya isa ga maɗaukaki, mai dacewa ga cikakke, ba da dariya ga ni'ima na utopian." Irin wannan al'ada na iya zama alamar dogara ga hanyoyin da aka gwada lokaci na ƙungiyoyin zamantakewa, ba da 'kuri'u ga matattu'. [4] [4]

Matsayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ya bambanta da ma'anar tushen al'ada na ra'ayin mazan jiya, wasu masu ra'ayin siyasa irin su Corey Robin suna bayyana ra'ayin mazan jiya da farko dangane da kare gaba ɗaya na rashin daidaiton zamantakewa da tattalin arziki. Ta haka siyasar dama-dama tana goyan bayan ra'ayin cewa wasu umarni na zamantakewa da matsayi ba makawa ne, na halitta, na al'ada, ko kyawawa, yawanci suna goyan bayan wannan matsayi bisa ka'idar dabi'a, tattalin arziki, ko al'ada. Daga wannan hangen nesa, ra'ayin mazan jiya shine ƙarancin ƙoƙari na riƙe tsoffin cibiyoyi da ƙarin "bimbini a kan-da kuma fassarar ka'idar-ƙwarewar da aka ji na samun iko, ganin yana barazana, da ƙoƙarin samun nasara a baya". [5] Sabanin haka, wasu masu ra'ayin mazan jiya na iya jayayya cewa suna neman ƙasa don kare ikon kansu fiye da yadda suke neman kare "haƙƙin da ba za a iya tauyewa ba" da haɓaka ƙa'idodi da ƙa'idodi waɗanda suka yi imanin ya kamata su tsaya maras lokaci kuma har abada, suna aiki ga kowane ɗan ƙasa.

Hakikanin gaskiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

aikace-aikacen Conservatism

An kira Conservatism da "falsafa na ajizanci na ɗan adam" ta Noël O'Sullivan, yana nunawa a tsakanin mabiyansa ra'ayi mara kyau game da yanayin ɗan adam da rashin tausayi na yiwuwar inganta shi ta hanyar makircin 'utopian'. [4] "Uban basira na gaskiya na gaskiya", Thomas Hobbes, yayi jayayya cewa yanayin yanayi ga 'yan adam "talakawa ne, maras kyau, mara hankali, kuma gajere", yana buƙatar ikon tsakiya.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Heywood 2012.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Vincent 2009.
  3. Winthrop and Lovell, pp. 163–166
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Heywood 2017.
  5. Henning Finseraas, "What if Robin Hood is a social conservative? How the political response to increasing inequality depends on party polarization." Socio-Economic Review 8.2 (2010): 283-306.