Ƴancin siyasa

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'Yancin siyasa (wanda kuma aka sani da ikon cin gashin kansa na siyasa ko hukumar siyasa ) muhimmin ra'ayi ne a tarihi da tunanin siyasa kuma daya daga cikin muhimman abubuwa na cikin al'ummomin dimokuradiyya . [1] An bayyana 'yancin siyasa a matsayin 'yanci daga zalunci [2] ko tilastawa, [3] rashin yanayin nakasa ga mutum da kuma cika sharuddan ba da damar, [4] ko rashin yanayin rayuwa na tilastawa, Kamar misali tilascin tattalin arziki, sannan a cikin al'umma. [5] Kodayake 'yancin siyasa ana yawan fassara su da kyau a matsayin' yanci daga haramtattun halaka na waje akan aiki, [6] Hakanan yana iya batun aikin motsa jiki mai kyau, da damar da kuma damar da za su iya aiki da kai. [7] Har ila yau, ra'ayin na iya haɗawa da 'yanci daga ƙuntatawa na ciki kan aikin siyasa ko magana (misali daidaituwar zamantakewa, daidaito, ko kuma halayen da ba su dace ba). [8] Manufar 'yancin siyasa tana da alaƙa da ra'ayoyin 'yancin ɗan adam da 'yancin ɗan adam, waɗanda a cikin al'ummomin dimokuradiyya galibi ana ba da kariya ta doka daga ƙasa .

Ra'ayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyoyi daban-daban tare da bakan siyasa suna da ra'ayoyi daban-daban game da abin da suka yi imani ya ƙunshi 'yancin yin siyasa.

Falsafar siyasa ta hagu gabaɗaya tana haɗa ra'ayin 'yanci tare da kyakkyawar 'yanci ko baiwa ƙungiya ko wani mutum damar tantance rayuwarsu ko fahimtar iyawarsu. Kuma A wannan ma'anar, 'yanci na iya haɗawa da 'yanci daga talauci, yunwa, sannan kuma cututtuka da za a iya magance su, da zalunci da kuma 'yanci daga karfi da tilastawa, daga duk wanda za su iya.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Ma'anar 'yanci na gurguzu ("'yanci") kamar yadda masanin falsafa neoliberal kuma masanin tattalin arziki na Nobel Memorial Prize Friedrich Hayek ya gani shine "amfani da 'yanci' don bayyana ikon 'yancin yin abin da nake so', kuma ikon biyan bukatunmu., ko kuma iyakar zaɓin zaɓin da aka buɗe mana ... an inganta shi da gangan a matsayin wani ɓangare na muhawarar gurguzu ... an maye gurbin ra'ayi na ikon gama kai a kan yanayi da na 'yancin kai." [9]

Masu adawa da zaman jama'a suna ganin 'yanci mara kyau da tabbatacce a matsayin abubuwan da suka dace na 'yanci. Kuma Irin wannan ra'ayi game da haƙƙoƙin na iya buƙatar ciniki mai amfani, kamar sadaukar da haƙƙin samfurin aikin mutum ko 'yancin yin tarayya don ƙarancin wariyar launin fata ko ƙarin tallafin gidaje. Masu adawa da zamantakewar al'umma sun bayyana mummunan ra'ayi na 'yanci wanda tsarin jari-hujja ya amince da shi a matsayin "'yancin son kai". [10]

Anarcho-yan jari-hujja suna ganin haƙƙin mara kyau a matsayin tsarin da ya dace. Ayn Rand ya bayyana shi a matsayin "ka'idar ɗabi'a da ke bayyanawa da kuma ba da izini ga 'yancin yin aiki na mutum a cikin yanayin zamantakewa". Sannan Kuma Ga irin wannan sassaucin 'yan sassa,' yanci mai kyau yana da sabani tun lokacin da ake kira 'yancin halayyar wanda ta hanyar ma'anar maƙarƙashiyar wasu la'akari. Duk da wani haƙƙin da ake zargi wanda ke buƙatar sakamako na ƙarshe (misali gidaje, ilimi, sabis na kiwon lafiya da sauransu) waɗanda mutane suka samar a zahiri haƙƙi ne na bautar wasu.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Masanin falsafar siyasa Alasdair MacIntyre ya yi hasashen 'yanci dangane da dogaron mu na zamantakewa da sauran mutane. [11]

Masanin tattalin arziki na tunawa da Nobel Milton Friedman, ya yi jayayya a cikin littafinsa Capitalism and Freedom cewa akwai 'yanci iri biyu, wato 'yancin siyasa da 'yancin tattalin arziki, kuma idan ba tare da 'yancin tattalin arziki ba ba za a iya samun 'yancin siyasa ba.

A cikin kasidarsa mai taken "Me yasa Kasuwar ke Sauka Dimokuradiyya", Robin Hahnel ya yi tsokaci game da ra'ayin Friedman na 'yancin tattalin arziki, yana mai cewa za a samu tauye 'yancin wasu a duk lokacin da wani ya yi amfani da 'yancinsa na tattalin arziki. Kuma Ya yi jayayya cewa irin wannan cin zarafi yana haifar da rikice-rikicen da aka warware ta hanyar tsarin haƙƙin mallaka, sabili da haka yana da mahimmanci a yanke shawarar abin da ya fi kyau ko mafi muni tsarin haƙƙin mallaka, sannan kuma duk da haka Friedman kawai yana ɗaukan haƙƙin mallaka na yanzu kuma baya tambayar su.

Masanin falsafar siyasa Nikolas Kompridis ya bayyana cewa neman 'yanci a wannan zamani za a iya raba shi gabaɗaya zuwa manufofi guda biyu masu zaburarwa, wato kuma 'yanci a matsayin 'yancin kai ko 'yancin kai da 'yanci a matsayin ikon haɗa kai tare da sabon mafari. [12]

An kuma yi la'akari da 'yancin siyasa a cikin adawa da kuma yanayin dangantakar iko, ko ikon aiki akan ayyuka, ta Michel Foucault . [13] Hakanan an gano shi tare da wasu nau'ikan ayyukan fasaha da al'adu ta Cornelius Castoriadis, Antonio Gramsci, Herbert Marcuse, Jacques Rancière da Theodor Adorno .

Masana muhalli sukan yi jayayya cewa 'yancin siyasa ya kamata ya haɗa da wasu ƙuntatawa akan amfani da yanayin . Suna tabbatar da cewa babu wani abu, alal misali, 'yancin yin gurɓatacce ko ƴancin sare dazuzzuka idan aka yi la'akari da cewa irin waɗannan ayyukan suna haifar da mummunan yanayi, wanda ke keta 'yancin sauran ƙungiyoyi na kada a fallasa su ga gurɓata. Sannan An yi amfani da shaharar SUVs, golf da balaguron birni a matsayin shaida cewa wasu ra'ayoyin 'yanci da kiyaye muhalli na iya yin karo da juna. Wannan yana haifar da a wasu lokuta zuwa ga mummuna fashe-fashe da rikice-rikice na dabi'u da ke nunawa a yakin talla, misali na PETA game da Jawo .[ana buƙatar hujja]

John Dalberg-Acton ya ce: "Mafi tabbatacciyar jarrabawa da muke yanke hukunci kan ko da gaske kasa tana da 'yanci shi ne adadin tsaron da 'yan tsiraru ke samu."

Gerald C. MacCallum Jr. ya yi magana game da sasantawa tsakanin 'yanci mai kyau da mara kyau, kuma yana mai cewa dole ne wakili ya sami cikakken 'yancin kai a kan kansa. Yana da triadic dangane da juna domin kusan abubuwa uku ne, wato wakili, takurawar da suke buƙatar 'yantar da su da kuma manufar da suke fata.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hannah Arendt ta bibiyi tushen ra'ayi na 'yanci zuwa tsohuwar siyasar Girka . [1] A cewar bincikenta, manufar 'yanci a tarihi ba ta rabu da ayyukan siyasa. Siyasa ba sai wanda ya ‘yantar da kansa daga bukatu na rayuwa domin su shiga cikin harkokin siyasa. SannanA cewar Arendt, ra'ayin 'yanci ya kasance yana da alaƙa da ra'ayin Kirista na 'yancin son rai, ko 'yanci na ciki, a kusan karni na 5 AZ kuma tun daga lokacin an yi watsi da 'yanci a matsayin wani nau'i na aikin siyasa ko da yake, kamar yadda ta ce, 'yanci. shi ne "rayon d'être na siyasa". [14]

Arendt ya ce 'yancin siyasa a tarihi yana adawa da ikon mallaka ko ikon son rai tun a zamanin d Girka da Roma ra'ayin 'yanci ba ya rabuwa da aiki kuma bai taso ba a matsayin rikici tsakanin so da kai. Hakazalika, ra'ayin 'yanci a matsayin 'yanci daga siyasa ra'ayi ne da ya samo asali a zamanin yau. Wannan ya saba wa ra'ayin 'yanci a matsayin ikon "fara sabon abu", wanda Arendt yana gani a matsayin mai daidaitawa ga yanayin ɗan adam na halitta, ko kuma yanayin mu a matsayin "sabon farko kuma saboda haka mafari".

A ra'ayin Arendt, aikin siyasa shine katsewar tsari na atomatik, na halitta ko na tarihi. 'Yancin da za a fara sabon abu, don haka fadada ne na "'yancin kiran wani abu a cikin halitta wanda ba a da, sannan wanda ba a ba da shi ba, ba ma a matsayin wani abu na fahimta ko tunani ba, wanda saboda haka, a zahiri, ba za a iya saninsa ba. ". [15]

Duba wasu abubuwana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Hannah Arendt, "What is Freedom?", Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought, (New York: Penguin, 1993).
  2. Iris Marion Young, "Five Faces of Oppression", Justice and the Politics of Difference" (Princeton University press, 1990), 39–65.
  3. Michael Sandel, Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do? (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010).
  4. Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (Anchor Books, 2000).
  5. Karl Marx, "Alienated Labour" in Early Writings.
  6. Isaiah Berlin, Liberty (Oxford 2004).
  7. Charles Taylor, "What's Wrong With Negative Liberty?", Philosophy and the Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers (Cambridge, 1985), 211–229.
  8. Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Self-Reliance"; Nikolas Kompridis, "Struggling Over the Meaning of Recognition: A Matter of Identity, Justice or Freedom?" in European Journal of Political Theory July 2007 vol. 6 no. 3 pp. 277–289.
  9. Friedrich August von Hayek, "Freedom and Coercion" in David Miller (ed), Liberty (1991) pp. 80, 85–86.
  10. "Anarchism FAQ".
  11. Alasdair MacIntyre, "The Virtues of Acknowledged Dependence", Rational Dependent Animals: Why Humans Need the Virtues (Open Court, 2001).
  12. Nikolas Kompridis, "The Idea of a New Beginning: A Romantic Source of Normativity and Freedom" in Philosophical Romanticism (New York: Routledge, 2007), 32–59.
  13. Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" in Paul Rabinow and Nikolas S. Rose, eds., The Essential Foucault.
  14. Hannah Arendt, "What is Freedom?", Between Past and Future: Eight exercises in political thought (New York: Penguin, 1993).
  15. Hannah Arendt, "What is Freedom?", p. 151.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]