Ƴancin Jama'a

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search

'Yancin jama'a garanti ne da 'yancin na gwamnatoci suka yi ba za su warware ba, ko dai ta tsarin mulki, doka, ko fassarar shari'a, ba tare da bin ka'ida ba . Ko da yake iyakar kalmar ta bambanta tsakanin ƙasashe, 'yancin ɗan adam na iya haɗawa da 'yancin sanin yakamata, 'yancin ɗan jarida, 'yancin yin addini, 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki, 'yancin yin taro, 'yancin tsaro da 'yanci, 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki, ' yancin yin sirri, 'yancin samun daidaito a karkashin doka da tsarin da ya dace, ' yancin yin shari'a na gaskiya, da hakkin rayuwa . Sauran 'yancin ɗan adam sun haɗa da ' yancin mallakar dukiya, ' yancin kare kai, da 'yancin mutuncin jiki . A cikin bambance-bambance tsakanin 'yancin ɗan adam da sauran nau'ikan' yanci, bambance-bambance sun kasance tsakanin ingantacciyar 'yanci / haƙƙi masu kyau da 'yanci mara kyau / haƙƙin mara kyau.

Bayanin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rushe 'Yanci: Gidan Tarihi na Tarihi na Istanbul

Yawancin al'ummomin wannan zamani suna da kundin tsarin mulki, daftarin haƙƙin ɗan adam ko makamantan takaddun tsarin mulkin waɗanda ke ƙididdigewa da neman tabbatar da 'yancin ɗan adam. Sauran ƙasashe sun kafa irin waɗannan dokoki ta hanyoyi daban-daban na doka, ciki har da sanya hannu da amincewa ko kuma ba da tasiri ga muhimman yarjejeniyoyin kamar Yarjejeniyar Turai kan yancin ɗan adam da yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa kan 'yancin ɗan adam da siyasa . Kasancewar wasu da'awar 'yancin jama'a lamari ne na sabani, kamar yadda yawancin haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam suke . Misalai masu jayayya sun haɗa da haƙƙin mallaka, haƙƙin haifuwa, da kuma auren ɗan adam . A cikin gwamnatocin kama-karya da ke nuna gazawar gwamnati a kan ’yancin da ake gani, wasu masu fafutukar kare hakkin jama’a suna jayayya da amfani da kayan aikin da ba a bayyana sunansu ba don ba da damar fadin albarkacin baki, sirri, da sakaya suna. Matsayin da dimokraɗiyya suka tsunduma kansu a ciki yana buƙatar ɗaukar tasirin ta'addanci. Ko wanzuwar laifuffukan da ba a zalunta ba sun keta 'yancin jama'a lamari ne na jayayya. Wani al'amari na muhawara shi ne dakatarwa ko sauya wasu 'yancin walwala a lokutan yaki ko dokar ta-baci, gami da ko kuma gwargwadon yadda hakan ya kamata ya faru Ko abinda ya dace ace anyi.

Ainihin ra'ayi na 'yancin ɗan adam sau da yawa yana komawa zuwa Magna Carta, wata yarjejeniyar doka ta Ingilishi da aka amince da ita a 1215 wanda kuma ya dogara ne akan ta shekarata kardun da aka rigaya, wato Yarjejeniya ta 'Yanci .

Asiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

China[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kundin tsarin mulkin Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin (wanda ya shafi babban yankin kasar Sin kawai, ba ga Hong Kong, Macau, da Taiwan ba) musamman ma muhimman hakkokinsa da ayyukan 'yan kasa, yana da'awar kare 'yancin walwala da dama. Taiwan wacce ta rabu da kasar Sin, tana da nata kundin tsarin mulkin da take amfani da Shi.

Ko da yake kundin tsarin mulkin kasar na shekarata 1982 ya ba da yancin walwala, gwamnatin kasar Sin ta kan yi amfani da " saukar da ikon kasa " da "kare sirrin kasa " a cikin tsarin dokokinsu wajen daure wadanda suka soki jam'iyyar Kwaminis ta kasar Sin (CCP) da kuma jihar. shugabanni .

Indiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Haƙƙin Haƙƙin Mahimmanci—wanda ke kunshe a cikin Sashe na III na kundin tsarin mulki — yana ba da garantin ƴancin da duk Indiyawan za su iya gudanar da rayuwarsu cikin kwanciyar hankali a matsayinsu na ƴan ƙasar Indiya. Hakkoki shida na asali sune hakkin daidaito, yancin walwala, haƙƙin cin zarafi, yancin yin addini, yancin al'adu da ilimi da yancin yin gyaran tsarin mulki. [1]

Gagarumin gangami irin wannan a Kolkata ya zama ruwan dare gama gari a Indiya .

Waɗannan sun haɗa da haƙƙoƙin ɗaiɗai na gama-gari ga mafi yawan dimokuradiyya masu sassaucin ra'ayi, waɗanda aka haɗa su cikin ainihin dokar ƙasar kuma ana aiwatar da su a cikin kotun shari'a. Cin zarafin waɗannan haƙƙoƙin yana haifar da hukunci kamar yadda aka tsara a cikin kundin hukunta manyan laifuka na Indiya, bisa ga ra'ayin shari'a . Waɗannan haƙƙoƙi ba su cika cikakku ba kuma ba su da kariya daga gyare-gyaren tsarin mulki. An yi su ne don kawar da rashin daidaiton ayyukan zamantakewa kafin samun yancin kai. Musamman, sun haifar da kawar da rashin taɓawa da kuma haramta wariya kan dalilan addini, launin fata, jinsi, jima'i, ko wurin haihuwa. Sun hana fataucin mutane da aikin da ba a kyauta ba . Suna kare haƙƙin al'adu da ilimi na ƙabilanci da addini ta hanyar ba su damar adana harsunansu da gudanar da nasu cibiyoyin ilimi a yankin.

Duk mutane, ba tare da la'akari da kabila, addini, kabila ko jinsi ba, suna da hakkin tunkarar manyan kotuna ko Kotun Koli don tauye hakkinsu na asali. Ba lallai ba ne a ce jam’iyyar da aka yi zagon kasa ita ce ta yi hakan. Don amfanin jama'a, kowa na iya gabatar da kara a kotu a madadinsa. Wannan ana kiransa da " sha'anin ra'ayin jama'a ". Alkalan Kotun Koli da Kotun Koli kuma za su iya yin aiki da kansu bisa rahotannin kafafen yada labarai fa ake saurare.

Muhimman Haƙƙin na jaddada daidaito ta hanyar ba wa kowane ɗan ƙasa dama da amfani da cibiyoyi da kariyar jama'a, ba tare da la'akari da asalinsu ba. Haƙƙin rayuwa da 'yancin kai sun shafi mutanen kowace ƙasa, yayin da wasu, kamar 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki da faɗar albarkacin baki suna aiki ga 'yan ƙasar Indiya kawai (ciki har da waɗanda ba mazauna Indiya ba). [2] Ba za a iya ba da haƙƙin daidaito a cikin lamuran aikin jama'a ga 'yan ƙasashen waje na Indiya ba.

Hakkoki na asali da farko suna kare daidaikun mutane daga duk wani mataki na gwamnati na sabani, amma ana aiwatar da wasu haƙƙoƙin akan mutane masu zaman kansu kuma. Misali, tsarin mulki ya kawar da rashin tabawa kuma ya haramta begar . Waɗannan tanade-tanaden suna aiki ne a matsayin bincike kan ayyukan Jiha da ayyukan mutane masu zaman kansu. Hakkoki na asali ba cikakke ba ne kuma suna ƙarƙashin ƙuntatawa masu dacewa kamar yadda ya cancanta don kare muradun ƙasa. A cikin <i id="mwdQ">shari'ar Kesavananda Bharati vs. jihar Kerala</i>, Kotun Koli ta yanke hukuncin cewa za a iya gyara duk tanade-tanaden kundin tsarin mulki, gami da Hakkoki na Musamman. [3] Duk da haka, Majalisa ba za ta iya canza ainihin tsarin tsarin mulki kamar mulkin mallaka, dimokuradiyya, tarayya, raba iko ba. Sau da yawa ana kiranta "Tasirin koyarwar tsarin", ana ɗaukar wannan shawarar a matsayin muhimmin sashi na tarihin Indiya. A cikin shekarata 1978 Maneka Gandhi v. Ƙungiyar Ƙungiyar Indiya, Kotun Koli ta tsawaita mahimmancin koyaswar a matsayin mafi girma fiye da kowace dokar majalisa. A cewar hukuncin, babu wani aikin majalisar da za a iya daukarsa a matsayin doka idan ya saba wa tsarin mulkin kasar. Wannan alamar garanti na Muhimman Haƙƙoƙin an ɗauki shi azaman misali na musamman na 'yancin kai na shari'a wajen kiyaye tsarkakan Haƙƙoƙi. Za a iya canza Muhimman Haƙƙoƙin ne kawai ta hanyar gyara tsarin mulki, don haka shigar da su abin dubawa ne ba kawai ga ɓangaren zartarwa ba, har ma da Majalisar Dokoki da Majalisun Jiha. [4] Sanya dokar ta-baci na iya haifar da dakatar da haƙƙin da doka ta 19 ta bayar na ɗan lokaci (da suka haɗa da yancin faɗar albarkacin baki, taro da motsi da sauransu) don kiyaye tsaron ƙasa da zaman lafiyar jama'a. Shugaban kasa na iya, da oda, dakatar da rubutattun magunguna da tsarin mulki ya yi Wanda ake amfani da Shi.

Japan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun shekarata 1947, Japan, ƙasa da tsarin mulkin sarauta kuma sananne ga zamantakewa "al'umma masu ra'ayin mazan jiya inda sauyi a hankali," yana da kundin tsarin mulki tare da alama mai karfi na haƙƙin haƙƙin haƙƙinsa ( Babi na III. Hakkoki da Ayyukan Jama'a ). Ta hanyoyi da yawa, ya yi kama da Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Amurka kafin Dokar 'Yancin Bil'adama ta 1964, kuma hakan ya faru ne saboda ya fara rayuwa a lokacin mamayar Japan . Wataƙila wannan tsarin mulkin ya ji kamar wani takunkumi na waje ga jiga-jigan gwamnati, amma ba ga talakawan “waɗanda ba su da bangaskiya ga shugabanninsu da aka ci mutuncinsu kuma suka goyi bayan canji mai ma’ana.” A cikin taƙaitaccen bayani, kundin tsarin mulki ya yi ƙoƙari don tabbatar da 'yanci da haƙƙoƙin daidaikun mutane, waɗanda aka yi bayani dalla-dalla a cikin magana ta 10 zuwa 40. Mafi mahimmancin labarin mutunta ɗan adam shine labari na 25, sashe na 1, wanda ke ba da tabbacin cewa duk "mutane za su sami 'yancin kiyaye mafi ƙarancin ƙa'idodin rayuwa mai kyau da al'ada."

Duk da amincewa da wannan tsarin mulki na sassaucin ra'ayi, wanda galibi ana kiransa "Tsarin Mulki na Bayan Yamma" (戦後憲法, Sengo-Kenpō) ko "Tsarin Zaman Lafiya" (平和憲法, Heiwa-Kenpō), jiga-jigan gwamnatin Jafananci sun yi kokawa don shigar da tsarin hada-hadar kudi., budewa da jama'a jama'a . Ko bayan karshen yakin duniya na biyu da ficewar gwamnatin kawance ta mamayewa a shekarar 1952, Japan ta kasance makasudin sukar kasa da kasa saboda gazawa wajen shigar da laifukan yaki, nuna wariya na addini da kuma ci gaba da samun 'yancin 'yan jaridu, da yadda ake kula da su. na yara, tsiraru, baƙi, da mata, tsarinta na hukunta masu laifi, da kuma kwanan nan, tsattsauran ra'ayi ga mutanen LGBT .

Ƙoƙari na farko na Jafanawa na yin lissafin haƙƙin ya kasance a cikin tsarin mulkin Meiji na ƙarni na 19 (1890), wanda ya ɗauki duka tsarin mulkin Prussian a shekarata (1850) da na Biritaniya a matsayin samfura na asali. [5] Duk da haka, yana da tasiri kaɗan a cikin aiwatar da doka da kuma a cikin rayuwar yau da kullum na mutane. Don haka, ɗan gajeren tarihin sannu-sannu na gwagwarmayar neman haƙƙin mutum da kariya daga takunkumin gwamnati/al'umma har yanzu bai canza Japan ta zama zakaran ƴancin duniya da na ɗaiɗaikun mutane ba. [6] [7] A cewar masanin tsarin mulki, Shigenori Matsui ,

Duk da bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin al'adun zamantakewar jama'a na Japan da Tsarin Tsarin Mulki masu sassaucin ra'ayi da take tunanin an amince da shi, kasar ta matsa wajen rufe gibin da ke tsakanin ra'ayi da aiwatar da doka. Yanayin ya fi bayyana a cikin dogon lokaci. Daga cikin misalan da yawa, Diet (majalisar dokoki ta biyu) ta amince da Dokar Haƙƙin Bil Adama ta Duniya a 1979 sannan ta zartar da Dokar Daidaita Dama a Samar da Aikin yi ga Maza da Mata a shekarata 1985, matakan da aka bayyana a matsayin manyan matakai zuwa ga dimokiradiyya da zamantakewar al'umma. . A cikin shekarar 2015, haka kuma, ta cimma yarjejeniya da Koriya don rama cin zarafi da suka shafi abin da ake kira " mata na ta'aziyya " da aka yi a lokacin mamayar da Japan ta yi a tsibirin . Sai dai kungiyar kare hakkin bil'adama, Hakan tasa da iyalan wadanda suka tsira sun yi tir da yarjejeniyar da cewa ta kasance mai goyon baya da cin fuska.

A shafinta na hukuma, gwamnatin Japan ta gano matsalolin kare hakkin bil'adama daban-daban. Daga cikin wadannan akwai cin zarafin yara (misali, cin zarafi, hukuncin jiki, cin zarafin yara, karuwancin yara, da batsa na yara ), yawan sakaci da wulakanta tsofaffi da nakasassu, da'awar Dowa (wariya ga Burakumin ), mutanen Ainu. ('yan asali a Japan), 'yan kasashen waje, masu dauke da kwayar cutar HIV/AIDS, masu cutar Hansen, mutanen da aka saki daga kurkuku bayan sun yi aiki a kurkuku, wadanda ke fama da laifuka, mutanen da aka keta haƙƙin ɗan adam ta amfani da Intanet, marasa gida, mutanen da ke fama da rikice-rikice na jinsi, da mata . Hakanan, gwamnati ta lissafta matsaloli masu tsari tare da nuna bambanci tsakanin jinsi da ma'auni na zaɓin jima'i don ayyuka da sauran ayyuka a cikin al'umma.

Kungiyoyin kare hakkin bil’adama na kasa da na kasashen waje, sun fadada jerin sunayen wadanda ake zargi da cin zarafin bil’adama da suka shafi manufofin gwamnati, kamar yadda ya shafi tsarin daiyo kangoku (madaidaicin gidan yari) da kuma hanyoyin yin tambayoyi ga wadanda ake zargi da aikata laifuka. [8] Kokarin da wadannan hukumomi da talakawan ke yi ya yi kamar zai biya. A cikin shekarata 2016, Ma'aikatar Harkokin Wajen Amurka ta fitar da wani rahoto da ke nuna cewa yanayin hakkin dan Adam na Japan yana nuna alamun ci gaba.

Ostiraliya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duk da yake Ostiraliya ba ta da ƙayyadaddun Dokar Haƙƙin ko makamancin haka, ana ɗaukar 'yancin ɗan adam a matsayin kariya ta jerin ƙa'idodi da ƙa'idodi. Ostiraliya tana da sa hannun farko a ciki kuma ta kasance mabuɗin mai rattaba hannu kan Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan Haƙƙin Dan Adam shekarata (1948)

Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Ostiraliya (1900) yana ba da kariya mai iyaka ga haƙƙoƙin:

  • 'yancin yin addini da;
  • 'yancin samun 'yanci daga nuna wariya dangane da zama ba-a-jihar (na nuna son kai na tarihi dangane da zama a cikin wata jiha da ke shafar magani a cikin wata)

Wasu fassarori na Kotun Koli na Kundin Tsarin Mulki sun ba da izinin kafa haƙƙin haƙƙoƙi kamar 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki da 'yancin jefa ƙuri'a, amma har yanzu ba a gano wasu kamar 'yancin yin taro da 'yancin yin tarayya ba.

Batun 'yan gudun hijira

A cikin shekaru goma da suka gabata Ostiraliya ta sami ƙarin cece-kuce game da yadda take kula da waɗanda ke neman mafaka. Ko da yake Ostiraliya ta kasance mai rattaba hannu kan Yarjejeniyar 'Yan Gudun Hijira ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a shekarata (1951), gwamnatocin da suka biyo baya sun nuna karuwar tsaurara kan iyakoki; musamman a kan masu neman hanyar wucewa ta kananan tasoshin ruwa.

Gwamnatin Abbott (2013) kamar magabatanta (Gwamnatin Gillard da Howard) ta fuskanci wahala ta musamman wajen dakile masu neman mafaka ta hanyar teku, wanda aka fi sani da "shige da fice ba bisa ka'ida ba". Shigar da sojojin ruwan Australiya a baya-bayan nan a ayyukan ceto 'yan gudun hijira ya sanya kungiyoyin kare hakkin bil'adama da dama irin su Amnesty International suka damu da "sojoji" da ake yi wa 'yan gudun hijira da kuma batun 'yancinsu na dan Adam a Australia . Manufar "juya baya" a halin yanzu tana da rarrabuwar kawuna, domin ta shafi sanya 'yan gudun hijira a cikin kwale-kwalen ceton gwamnati da kuma karkatar da su zuwa Indonesia. Sai dai duk da adawar da gwamnatin Abbott ta bayar, ya zuwa yanzu an samu raguwar adadin 'yan gudun hijirar da ke gudanar da tsatsauran ra'ayi mai hatsarin gaske zuwa Ostireliya, wanda gwamnati ke ikirarin cewa wata manuniya ce ga nasarar manufofinta.

Turai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yarjejeniyar Turai kan Haƙƙin Dan Adam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yarjejeniyar Turai game da 'yancin ɗan adam, wanda kusan dukkanin ƙasashen Turai ke ciki (ban da Belarushiyanci ), yana ƙididdige yawan 'yancin ɗan adam kuma yana da ƙarfin tsarin mulki daban-daban a cikin jihohin Turai daban-daban.

Jamhuriyar Czech[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan juyin juya halin Velvet, an gudanar da gyaran tsarin mulki a Czechoslovakia . A cikin 1991, an amince da Yarjejeniya ta Mahimman Hakki da 'Yanci na asali, suna da matsayin doka iri ɗaya kamar Kundin Tsarin Mulki . Jamhuriyar Czech ta kiyaye Yarjejeniya ta gaba daya bayan rushewar Czechoslovakia a matsayin doka mai lamba ta 2/1993 Coll. (Tsarin mulkin kasa mai lamba 1).

Faransa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sanarwar Faransa ta shekarar 1789 game da Haƙƙin Dan Adam da na Jama'a ya lissafa 'yancin ɗan adam da yawa kuma yana da ƙarfin tsarin mulki.

Jamus[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kundin tsarin mulkin Jamus, "Grundgesetz" (lit. "Dokar Tushen"), ta fara da cikakken lissafin 'yancin ɗan adam da jihohi a cikin dakika. 1 “Mutuncin mutum ba ya da iyaka. Don mutuntawa da kuma kiyaye shi ya zama wajibi ga dukkan hukumomin gwamnati." Bayan " Tsarin Austriya ", mutane na da damar daukaka kara zuwa Kotun Tsarin Mulki ta Tarayya ("Bundesverfassungsgericht") idan sun ji ana tauye hakkinsu na farar hula. Wannan hanya ta tsara dokokin Jamus sosai tsawon shekaru.

Ƙasar Ingila[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yancin jama'a a cikin United Kingdom sun samo asali ne daga Magna Carta a cikin 1215 da 17th karni na gama gari da dokokin doka, irin su 1628 Petition of Right, Habeas Corpus Act 1679 da Bill of Rights 1689 . Sassan waɗannan dokokin sun kasance cikin ƙa'ida a yau kuma ana ƙara su da wasu dokoki da yarjejeniyoyin da suka samar da Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Burtaniya gaba ɗaya . Bugu da kari, kasar Burtaniya ta kasance mai rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniyar kare hakkin bil'adama ta Turai wacce ta shafi hakkokin bil'adama da 'yancin walwala. Dokar 'Yancin Dan Adam ta 1998 ta ƙunshi mafi yawan haƙƙoƙin Yarjejeniya kai tsaye cikin dokar Burtaniya.

A cikin watan Yunin shekarata 2008 sakataren harkokin cikin gida na inuwar David Davis ya yi murabus daga kujerarsa ta majalisar saboda abin da ya bayyana a matsayin "lalata 'yancin jama'a" da gwamnatin jam'iyyar Labour ta wancan lokacin ta yi, kuma aka sake zabe shi a wani dandalin 'yancin walwala (ko da yake bai yi adawa da 'yan takara ba. na sauran manyan jam'iyyu). Wannan ya kasance dangane da dokokin yaki da ta'addanci musamman tsawaita tsare-tsare kafin shari'a, wanda mutane da yawa ke ganin cin zarafi ne na habeas corpus da aka kafa a Magna Carta.

Rasha[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kundin tsarin mulki na Tarayyar Rasha ya ba da tabbacin a ka'idar da yawa daga cikin haƙƙoƙi iri ɗaya da 'yancin ɗan adam kamar Amurka sai dai ɗaukar makamai, watau: 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki, 'yancin yin addini, ƴancin ƙungiyoyi da taro, 'yancin zaɓar harshe, don bin tsari. zuwa shari'a ta gaskiya, sirri, 'yancin yin zabe, 'yancin neman ilimi, da dai sauransu. Sai dai kungiyoyin kare hakkin bil'adama kamar Amnesty International sun yi gargadin cewa Vladimir Putin ya yi matukar tauye 'yancin fadin albarkacin baki, 'yancin yin taro da kuma 'yancin yin tarayya a tsakanin 'yan mulkin kama karya . [9]

Amirka ta Arewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kanada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kundin Tsarin Mulkin Kanada ya haɗa da Yarjejeniya ta Kanada ta Haƙƙoƙi da 'Yanci wanda ke ba da tabbacin yawancin haƙƙoƙi iri ɗaya da tsarin mulkin Amurka. Yarjejeniya ta bar duk wani ambaton, ko kariya ga, dukiya.

Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kundin Tsarin Mulkin Amurka, musamman ma Dokar Haƙƙin sa, yana kare 'yancin ɗan adam. Ƙaddamar da Kwaskwarimar ta goma sha huɗu ta ƙara kare ƴancin jama'a ta hanyar gabatar da Jigo na Gata ko Kariya, Sashe na Tsari, da Jigon Kariya daidai . Ana kiran haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam a cikin Amurka sau da yawa 'yancin ɗan adam, waɗanda su ne haƙƙoƙin, gata da kariya da duk mutane ke da su, ban da 'yancin siyasa, waɗanda haƙƙoƙin da ke cikin waɗanda suka cancanci shiga zaɓe, a matsayin 'yan takara ko masu jefa kuri'a. [10] Kafin zaben gama-gari, wannan bambance-bambancen yana da mahimmanci, tun da yake mutane da yawa ba su cancanci yin zabe ba amma har yanzu ana la'akari da cewa suna da 'yanci na asali da aka samo daga 'yancin rayuwa, 'yanci da kuma neman farin ciki. Wannan bambance-bambance ba shi da mahimmanci a yanzu yayin da Amurkawa ke jin daɗin zaɓe na duniya, kuma an ɗauki 'yancin ɗan adam don haɗa 'yancin siyasa na jefa ƙuri'a da shiga zaɓe. Saboda gwamnatocin ƙabilun Amirkawa na ƴan asalin Amirka suna riƙe da ikon mallakar 'yan kabilar, Majalisar Dokokin Amirka a shekara ta 1968 ta kafa wata doka da ta shafi mafi yawan kariyar Dokar Hakki ga 'yan kabilar, wanda kotunan kabilanci za ta tilasta su. [11]

Shugaba Ronald Reagan ya sanya hannu kan Dokar 'Yancin Jama'a ta 1988 a ranar 10 ga Agusta, shekarata 1988. Majalisa ta zartar da dokar don ba da uzuri ga jama'a ga mutanen kakannin Japan waɗanda suka yi hasarar dukiyoyinsu da ƴancinsu saboda ayyukan nuna wariya da gwamnatin Amurka ta yi a lokacin aikin . Wannan doka ta kuma samar da wasu fa'idodi masu yawa a cikin sassa daban-daban na gwamnati. A cikin baitul mali ta kafa asusun yancin jama'a. Ta umurci babban mai shari'a da ya gano tare da gano duk mutumin da wannan doka ta shafa tare da biyan su $20,000 daga asusun yancin jama'a na jama'a. Haka kuma ta kafa kwamitin gudanarwa wanda ke da alhakin samar da kudade daga wannan asusu. A ƙarshe, ta buƙaci duk takardu da bayanan da hukumar ta ƙirƙira ko ta karɓa ta hannun Ma'aikacin Archivist na Amurka .

Sauran abunuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanan kula da nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Constitution of India-Part III Fundamental Rights.
  2. Tayal, B.B. & Jacob, A. (2005), Indian History, World Developments and Civics, p. A-25
  3. Kesavananda Bharati vs. state of Kerala; AIR 1973 S.C. 1461, (1973) 4 SCC 225 – In what became famously known as the "Fundamental Rights case", the Supreme Court decided that the basic structure of the constitution was unamendable.
  4. Tayal, B.B. & Jacob, A. (2005), Indian History, World Developments and Civics, p. A-24
  5. Kazuhiro Takii and David Noble, The Meiji Constitution: The Japanese Experience of the West and the Shaping of the Modern State (Tokyo, Japan: International House of Japan, 2007), 181.
  6. Andrew Gordon, Postwar Japan As History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993, p. 91.
  7. Ugo Dessì, Japanese Religions and Globalization. London: Routledge, 2013, p. 64.
  8. Jeffrey Flynn, Reframing the Intercultural Dialogue on Human Rights: A Philosophical Approach (London: Routledge, 2014), 114.
  9. Putin rolling back civil rights, warns Amnesty | World news | The Guardian
  10. America's Constitution: A Biography by Akhil Reed Amar
  11. Robert J. McCarthy, Civil Rights in Tribal Courts; The Indian Bill of Rights at 30 Years, 34 IDAHO LAW REVIEW 465 (1998).

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]