Hakkin Mallakar Kasa

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Infotaula d'esdevenimentHakkin Mallakar Kasa
Iri Haƙƙoƙi

Hakkin mallakar ƙasa ko haƙƙin mallaka (cf. mallaka ) galibi ana sanya shi a zaman haƙƙin ɗan adam ga mutane na asali game da abubuwan da suka mallaka. Tabbatar da haƙƙin mallaka na sirri an same shi da wuya kuma yawanci ana takura shi gwargwadon yadda yanayin ƙasa mallakar halattaccen doka ne (watau ƙungiyoyi) da kuma inda ake amfani da shi don samarwa maimakon amfani. [1]

Hakkin mallakar Kasa

An yarda da haƙƙin mallakar ƙasa a cikin Mataki na 17 na Sanarwar ofan Adam na Duniya, amma ba a yarda da shi a cikin Yarjejeniyar kasa ta Duniya game da Hakkokin yan Adam da Siyasa ko Yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa ta Duniya game da 'Yancin Tattalin Arziki, Zamantakewa da Al'adu . Yarjejeniyar Turai game da 'Yancin Dan Adam, a cikin ladabi na 1, labarin 1, ta yarda da haƙƙin mutane na halitta da na shari'a don "jin daɗin abin da yake da shi cikin lumana", dangane da "mahimmancin sha'awa ko don tabbatar da biyan haraji".

Ma'ana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

The right to property is one of the most controversial human rights, both in terms of its existence and interpretation. The controversy about the definition of the right meant that it was not included in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights or the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.[2] Controversy centres upon who is deemed to have property rights protected (e.g. human beings or also corporations), the type of property which is protected (property used for the purpose of consumption or production) and the reasons for which property can be restricted (for instance, for regulations, taxation or nationalisation in the public interest). In all human rights instruments, either implicit or express restrictions exist on the extent to which property is protected. Article 17 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) enshrines the right to property as follows:

(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his or her property.[3]

Abun haƙƙin mallaka kamar yadda aka saba fahimta a wannan zamanin ya ƙunshi dukiyar da aka riga aka mallaka ko aka mallaka, ko kuma wata kadara da aka samu ko kuma mutum zai mallaka ta hanyar halal. Ba a adawa ba amma akasin wannan, wasu shawarwarin kuma suna kare hakkin duniya game da kadarorin masu zaman kansu, a ma'anar 'yancin kowane mutum ya karbi wasu kadara yadda ya kamata, wanda aka kafa a da'awar albarkatun kasa ko wasu ka'idoji na adalci .

Afirka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR) protects the right to property most explicitly in Article 14,[4] stating:

The right to property shall be guaranteed. It may only be encroached upon in the interest of public need or in the general interest of the community and in accordance with the provisions of appropriate laws.[5]

mutanen da rikici ya kora

A takaice zamu iya cewa mallakar ƙasa an ƙara amincewa da shi a cikin Mataki na 13 na ACHPR, wanda ya bayyana cewa kowane ɗan ƙasa yana da haƙƙin shiga ciki Amman da yardar ransa a cikin mulkin ƙasarsa, da 'yancin samun dama daidai da aiyukan gwamnati da kuma "' yancin samun dukiyoyin jama'a da aiyuka a cikakken daidaito na kowa a gaban doka ". Mataki na ashirin da daya 21 na ACHPR ya amince da 'yancin dukkan mutane don' yardar da dukiyoyinsu da albarkatun kasa sannan kuma za a yi amfani da wannan damar don biyan bukatun mutane, wadanda ba za a taresu da wannan 'yancin ba. Mataki na ashirin da 21 ya kuma tanadi cewa "idan harbi ya tashi mutanen da aka kora suna da ikon kwato dukiyoyinsu ta hanyar da ta dace da kuma biyan su diyya yadda ya kamata".

Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

When the text of the UDHR was negotiated, other states in the Americas argued that the right to property should be limited to the protection of private property necessary for subsistence. Their suggestion was opposed, but was enshrined in the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, which was negotiated at the same time and adopted one year before the UDHR in 1948.[6] Article 23 of the declaration states:

Every Person has the right to own such private property as meets the essential needs of decent living and helps to maintain the dignity of the individual and of the home.[7]

Ma'anar haƙƙin mallaki yana da tasiri mai ƙarfi daga ra'ayoyin Yammacin duniya game da haƙƙin mallaka, amma saboda haƙƙin mallaka ya bambanta da yawa a cikin tsarin doka daban-daban bai yiwu a kafa ƙa'idodin ƙasa da ƙasa game da haƙƙin mallaka ba. tsarin kungiyoyihaƙƙin ɗan adam na yanki na Turai, Afirka da Amurka sun yarda da haƙƙin kare dukiya zuwa matakai daban-daban. The American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR) recognises the right to protection of property, including the right to "just compensation". The ACHR also prohibits usury and other exploitation, which is unique amongst human rights instruments.[6] Article 21 of the ACHR states:

(1) Everyone has the right to the use and enjoyment of his property. The law may subordinate such use and enjoyment to the interest of society.

(2) No one shall be deprived of his property except upon payment of just compensation, for reasons of public utility or social interest, and in the cases and according to the forms established by law.

(3) Usury and any other form of exploitation of man by man shall be prohibited by law.[8]

Turai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasashe masu tattalin arziki na duniya dake da albarkatu da dama

After failed attempts to include the right to protection of property in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), European states enshrined the right to protection of property in Article 1 of Protocol I to the ECHR as the "right to peaceful enjoyment of possessions",[9] where the right to protection of property is defined as such:

(1) Every natural or legal person is entitled to the peaceful enjoyment of his possessions. No one shall be deprived of his possessions except in the public interest and subject to the conditions provided for by law and by the general principles of international law. (2) The preceding provisions shall not, however, in any way impair the right of a State to enforce such laws as it deems necessary to control the use of property in accordance with the general interest or to secure the payment of taxes or other contributions or penalties.[10]

Saboda haka, dokar ta kare hakkin dan adam ta Turai ta amince da 'yancin cin moriyar dukiya cikin lumana, ta sanya sanya wasu abubuwan a karkashin wasu sharudda kuma ta yarda cewa jihohi na iya daidaita' yancin mallakar kadarorin cikin lumana da na jama'a. Kotun Turai ta 'Yancin Dan Adam ta fassara "mallaka" don haɗawa da ba kawai abubuwan da bza'a iya gani ba domin akwai abubuwan da basu ganuwa har ma da bukatun tattalin arziki, yarjejeniyoyin kwangila tare da ƙimar tattalin arziki, da'awar biyan diyya a kan ƙasa da ƙararrakin da suka shafi dokar jama'a kamar su fansho . Kotun Turai ta 'Yancin Dan-Adam ta tabbatar da cewa' yancin mallakar abu ba cikakke ba ne kuma jihohi na da cikakkiyar damar takaita 'yancin. Saboda haka, ana ɗaukar haƙƙin mallaka a matsayin haƙƙi mai sassauƙa fiye da sauran haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam. Ma'ana jihohi nada hankali ta bayyana a cikin Handyside v. United Kingdom, wacce Kotun Turai na 'Yancin Dan Adam ta saurara a 1976. Sanannun kararraki inda Kotun Turai ta 'Yancin Dan Adam ta sami haƙƙin mallakar dukiya sun haɗa da Sporrong da Lonnroth v. Sweden, da aka ji a cikin shekaru 1982, inda dokar Sweden ta adana kadarori a ƙarƙashin barazanar ƙwace ta na tsawan lokaci. Da hakan ke nuna cewa duk Wanda ya karya doka zai gamu da fushin gwamnati Mafi girman diyyar tattalin arziki bayan hukuncin da Kotun Strasbourg ta yanke a kan wannan batun an ba shi (Yuro miliyan 1,3) idan Beyeler v. Italiya .

Indiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Indiya haƙƙin mallaka (Mataki na 31) na ɗaya daga cikin haƙƙoƙin ɗan ƙasa na ɗan ƙasa har zuwa 1978, kuma ya zama haƙƙin doka ta hanyar Sauye-sauye na 44 ga Tsarin Mulki a cikin 1978. Gwamnatin Morarji Desai ce ta gabatar da kwaskwarimar a wani bangare na manufofin sake fasalin kasa. A cikin 2020, Kotun Koli ta Indiya ta bayyana cewa, duk da cewa haƙƙin mallakar ƙasa ba ya cikin haƙƙin ɗan ƙasa na ɗan ƙasa, ya kamata a ɗauka a matsayin ɗayan haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam da Tsarin Mulki ya yi alkawarinsa. Kotun Koli ta kuma yanke hukuncin cewa jihohi ba za su iya mallakar gonaki daban-daban ba sai dai idan akwai ingantaccen tsarin doka.

Taron kasa da kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hakanan an yarda da haƙƙin mallaka a Yarjejeniyar ƙasa da ƙasa ta kawar da duk nau'ikan nuna wariyar launin fata wanda ya bayyana a cikin Mataki na 5 cewa kowa yana da 'yancin daidaito a gaban doka ba tare da nuna bambancin launin fata, launin fata da asalin ƙasa ko ƙabila ba, gami da "' yancin mallakar dukiya shi kadai haka nan kuma cikin tarayya da wasu "da" 'yancin cin gado ". Yarjejeniyar kan kawar da duk wasu nau'ikan nuna wariya ga Mata ta amince da hakkin mallakar a cikin Mataki na 16, wanda ya tanadi 'yanci iri daya ga duk ma'aurata su mallaki su, mallakar su, gudanar da su, gudanar da su, jindadin su a bisa ƙa'idojin da auka dace domin bin doka da oda da kuma Mataki na 15, wanda ya tabbatar da yancin mata don kammala kwangila. hakkokin

Taron Kasa da kasa

Hakanan an sanya haƙƙin mallaka a cikin Yarjejeniyar Dangane da Matsayin 'Yan Gudun Hijira da Yarjejeniyar kan Kare Hakkokin Duk Ma'aikatan Baƙi da Man Uwalansu . Waɗannan kayan haƙƙin ɗan adam na ƙasa da ƙasa don tsiraru ba sa kafa keɓaɓɓen haƙƙin mallaka, amma suna hana nuna bambanci dangane da haƙƙin mallaka inda aka tabbatar da irin waɗannan haƙƙoƙin.

Alakarsa da wasu hakkoki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hakkin mallakar kadara ya kasance muhimmiyar bukata a farkon neman 'yanci na siyasa da daidaito da kuma adawa da mallakar dukiya. Dukiya na iya zama tushen tushen haƙƙoƙin da ke tabbatar da tabbatar da haƙƙin samun daidaituwar rayuwa kuma masu mallakar ne kawai waɗanda aka fara ba su haƙƙin ɗan ƙasa da na siyasa, kamar haƙƙin jefa ƙuri'a . Saboda ba kowa bane ya mallaki dukiya, an sanya haƙƙin yin aiki don bawa kowa damar samun ingantacciyar rayuwa. A yau, nuna bambanci a kan mallakar mallakar ƙasa ana ɗaukar shi a matsayin babban haɗari ga daidaitaccen jin daɗin haƙƙin ɗan adam ta kowane ɗayan kuma ba da nuna bambanci ba a cikin kayan haƙƙin ɗan adam na ƙasa da ƙasa galibi sun haɗa da dukiya a matsayin ƙasa bisa tushen abin da aka hana nuna bambanci ( duba haƙƙin daidaito a gaban doka ). Kariyar kadarori masu zaman kansu na iya zuwa cikin rikici da haƙƙin tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu da haƙƙin jama'a da siyasa, kamar 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki . Don rage wannan, haƙƙin mallakar ƙasa an taƙaita shi don kare maslaha ta jama'a. Yawancin jihohi kuma suna kula da tsarin mallakar jama'a da kuma gama gari. Hakkin mallakar hoto an yi la’akari da shi a matsayin hana haƙƙin ɗan adam ga kowa, ta hanyar misali bautar da amfani da wasu. Rashin rarraba dukiya ba sau da yawa yana bin layi ne na jinsi, launin fata da 'yan tsiraru, saboda haka haƙƙoƙin mallaka na iya zama wani ɓangare na matsalar, maimakon a matsayin ribar da ta cancanci kariya. Hakkokin mallaka sun kasance a tsakiyar muhawarar 'yancin ɗan adam game da sake fasalin ƙasa, dawowar kayan tarihi na al'adu da masu tarawa da wuraren adana kayan tarihi ga' yan asalin ƙasar da kuma sanannen ikon mallakar jama'a game da albarkatun ƙasa.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Turai, Dokar Roman ta ayyana dukiya a matsayin "haƙƙin amfani da cin zarafin nasa a cikin iyakar doka" - jus utendi et abutendi re suâ, guatenus juris ratio patitur. Abu na biyu, salus populi suprema lex esto, ko “amincin mutane zai kasance babbar doka,” an tsara shi tun farkon Dokar Tebur goma sha biyu . Anyi bayani game da ra'ayi na kadarori masu zaman kansu da kuma haƙƙin mallaka a cikin Renaissance[ana buƙatar hujja] kamar yadda cinikin ƙasa da ƙasa na 'yan kasuwa ya haifar da ra'ayoyin jari-hujja. A cikin Turai a ƙarni na 16, Lutheranism da Furotesta masu Gyarawa sun haɓaka haƙƙin mallaka ta amfani da kalmomin Littafi Mai Tsarki. A'idodin aikin Furotesta da ra'ayoyi game da ƙaddarar mutum ya zo ne don yin la'akari da ra'ayoyin zamantakewar al'umma a cikin ƙasashe masu tasowa na jari hujja a farkon Turai ta zamani .[ana buƙatar hujja] Hakki na mallakar keɓaɓɓu ya zama babbar neman haƙƙin ɗan adam ta hanyar ganin ƙasa a cikin ƙarni na 17 na juyin juya halin Turai, amma a ƙarni na 18 da 19 haƙƙin mallaka a matsayin haƙƙin ɗan adam ya zama mai tsananin gaske rigima.

English yakin basasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hujjojin da Matsakaitan suka gabatar yayin Yakin Basasa na Ingilishi kan mallakar ƙasa da haƙƙin jama'a da siyasa, kamar haƙƙin jefa ƙuri'a, sun ba da sanarwar muhawara ta gaba a wasu ƙasashe.[ana buƙatar hujja] Matakan matakin sun fito a matsayin motsi na siyasa a tsakiyar karni na 17th Ingila a bayan Gyarawar Furotesta. Sun yi imani da cewa dukiyar da aka aikata a matsayin da 'ya'yan daya ta aiki yake da tsarki a karkashin Littafi Mai Tsarki umarnin "ka za ka yi sata". Saboda haka, sun yi imani da cewa haƙƙin mallakar dukiya daga aikin mutum yana da tsarki. Ra'ayoyin masu matakin game da haƙƙin mallakar ƙasa da haƙƙin hana su mallaka a matsayin haƙƙin ɗan ƙasa da na siyasa an haɓaka su ta hanyar ɗan littafin rubutu Richard Overton . A cikin "Kibiya a kan dukkan Azzalumai" (1646), Overton yayi jayayya:

Ga kowane mutum a yanayi ana ba shi kadarorin mutum ta ɗabi'ar kada kowa ya mamaye shi ko kwace shi. Ga kowane mutum, kamar yadda shi kansa yake, don haka yana da cancantar kansa, in ba haka ba zai iya zama kansa ba; kuma daga wannan babu na biyu da zai iya yin almundahana ba tare da bayyana keta doka da cin fuska ga ƙa'idodin yanayin ƙa'idodin daidaito da adalci tsakanin mutum da mutum ba. Naka da naka ba za su iya zama ba, sai dai wannan. Babu wani mutum da ke da iko a kan hakkina da ‘yancina, ni kuma ba ni da wani mutum.

Ra'ayoyin masu matakin, wadanda suka ji daɗin tallafi tsakanin ƙananan masu mallakar ƙasa da masu sana'a, duk ɓangarorin juyin juya halin Yakin Basasar Ingilishi bai raba su ba. A taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na 1647, Oliver Cromwell da Henry Ireton sun yi jayayya game da daidaita hakkin rai da haƙƙin mallakar ƙasa. Sun yi jayayya cewa yin hakan zai tabbatar da 'yancin daukar duk abin da mutum ke so, ba tare da la'akari da hakkin wasu ba. Leveler Thomas Rainborough ya amsa, yana dogaro da hujjojin Overton, cewa masu matakin sun buƙaci girmama haƙƙin wasu na wasu. Ma'anar dukiya da kuma ko an same ta a matsayin 'yar aikin mutum kuma a matsayin irin wannan' yancin na dabi'a ya gamu da mahawara mai karfi saboda 'yancin kada kuri'a ya dogara ne da mallakar dukiya. 'Yancin siyasa a lokacin yana da alaƙa da mallakar ƙasa da kuma' yancin kai na mutum. Cromwell da Ireton sun tabbatar da cewa mallakar ƙasa kawai a cikin ƙasa mai 'yanci ko haƙƙin kasuwanci da aka ba ɗan adam damar yin zaɓe. Sun yi jayayya cewa wannan nau'in mallakar mallakar ya zama "gungumen azaba a cikin al'umma", wanda ke baiwa maza damar samun ikon siyasa. Akasin haka, Levellers sun yi jayayya cewa duk maza waɗanda ba bayi ba, masu karɓar sadaka ko mabarata ya kamata a ɗauka a matsayin masu mallaka kuma a ba su haƙƙin jefa ƙuri'a. Sun yi imani cewa 'yanci ne kawai za su iya tabbatar da' yanci na siyasa, kamar masu sana'a, shiga cikin harkokin tattalin arziki mai zaman kansa.

Masu kula da matakin sun fi damuwa da haƙƙin ɗan ƙasa da siyasa na ƙananan masu mallakar ƙasa da ma'aikata, yayin da 'yan Diggers, ƙaramin rukuni na juyin juya hali karkashin jagorancin Gerard Winstanley, suka mai da hankali kan haƙƙin matalautan karkara waɗanda ke aiki a kan mallakar ƙasa . 'Yan Diggers din sun yi ikirarin cewa kadarorin masu zaman kansu ba su dace da adalci ba kuma ya kamata a mayar da filin da aka kwace daga masarauta da Coci zuwa filayen da talaka zai noma shi. Dangane da 'Yan Diggers, ya kamata a ba kowa damar yin zabe kuma kowa na da ' yancin samun ingantaccen yanayin rayuwa . Tare da Maido da masarautar Ingilishi a cikin 1660, duk ƙasar da aka ƙwace ta koma ga Masarauta da Coci. Wasu haƙƙoƙin mallaka sun kasance sanannu kuma an iyakance haƙƙoƙin jefa ƙuri'a. Tunanin masu matakin game da mallakar ƙasa da haƙƙin ɗan ƙasa da siyasa ya kasance mai tasiri kuma an sami ci gaba a cikin juyin juya halin nan mai zuwa na 1688, amma ƙuntatawa kan haƙƙin jefa ƙuri'a bisa mallakar ƙasa yana nufin cewa ƙananan 'yan Biritaniya ne kawai ke da zaben. A cikin 1780 kawai mazajen da suka mallaki kadarori 214,000 ne kawai ke da damar yin zaɓe a Ingila da Wales, ƙasa da kashi 3 cikin ɗari na yawan mutane miliyan 8. Dokar garambawul ta 1832 ta taƙaita haƙƙin jefa ƙuri'a ga mazajen da suka mallaki kadara wanda darajar su ta shekara £ 10 a kowace shekara, yana ba kusan kashi 4 cikin ɗari na manya maza 'yancin zaɓe. Sauye-sauyen na 1867 ya ba da damar jefa kuri'a zuwa kusan kashi 8. Ajin aiki (wanda ya karu sosai tare da Juyin Juya Halin Masana'antu) da masana'antun masana'antu sun kasance an cire su sosai daga tsarin siyasa.

John Locke da juyin juya halin Amurka da Faransa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

John Locke ' Yarjejeniyoyi biyu na Gwamnatin 1689 wanda Locke ya kira "rayuka,' yanci da yankuna" "dukiyar" mutane

Masanin falsafar Ingilishi John Locke (1632-1704) ya haɓaka ra'ayoyin mallakar ƙasa, haƙƙin jama'a da siyasa. A cikin Takaddararsa ta biyu akan Gwamnatin Farar Hula (1689), Locke ya yi shelar cewa "kowane mutum yana da kadara a cikin kansa; wannan babu wanda ke da haƙƙin kansa sai kansa. Aikin jikinsa da aikin hannunsa, muna iya cewa, nasa ne daidai ”. [11] Ya bayar da hujjar cewa mallakar kadarori ya samo asali ne daga aikin mutum, kodayake wadanda ba su mallaki dukiya ba kuma kawai suna da aikin da za su sayar bai kamata a ba su karfin siyasa irin na wadanda suka mallaki kadara ba. Ma'aikata, masu ƙananan kadarori da manyan masu mallakar ƙasa ya kamata su sami haƙƙin ɗan ƙasa da siyasa daidai da dukiyar da suka mallaka. A cewar Locke, haƙƙin mallakar ƙasa da haƙƙin rayuwa haƙƙoƙi ne da ba za a iya cirewa ba kuma ya zama wajibi jihar ta tabbatar da waɗannan haƙƙoƙin na mutane. Locke ya ce kare hakkin dan adam, kamar hakkin mallakar abu, tare da rabe-raben iko da sauran lamuni da ma'auni, zai taimaka wajen takaita cin zarafin siyasa da jihar ke yi.

Ka'idar aiki na Locke game da kadarori da rarrabuwar kawuna sun yi tasiri sosai game da Juyin Juya Halin Amurka da juyin juya halin Faransa . Hakkin mallakar jama'a da na siyasa, kamar 'yancin kada kuri'a, ya kasance yana da alaka da batun kadarori a duk juyin-juya halin biyu. Masu neman sauyi a Amurka, kamar su Benjamin Franklin da Thomas Jefferson, sun yi adawa da kada kuri’ar baki daya, suna bayar da shawarar kuri’u ne kawai ga wadanda suke da “gungumen azaba” a cikin al’umma. James Madison ya yi jayayya cewa tsawaita 'yancin jefa kuri'a ga kowa na iya haifar da' yancin mallakar dukiya da adalci "wanda galibi ba tare da dukiya ba ''. Duk da yake an ba da shawarar farko  don kafa 'yancin yin zaɓe ga dukkan maza, a ƙarshe an ba da damar yin zaɓe a cikin Amurka mai tasowa zuwa ga fararen fata waɗanda suka mallaki takamaiman adadin ƙasa da kadarorin mutane.

Masu neman sauyi na Faransa sun amince da haƙƙin mallaka a cikin Mataki na 17 na Bayanin haƙƙin ɗan Adam da na enan ƙasa (1791), wanda ya bayyana cewa babu wani "da za a hana shi haƙƙin mallaka sai dai in wata doka ta jama'a ta buƙaci hakan kuma bisa sharadin mai adalci. da kuma rashi na baya ". Mataki na 3 da na 6 sun bayyana cewa "duk 'yan ƙasa suna da haƙƙin ba da gudummawa da kansu ko ta hanyar wakilansu" a cikin tsarin siyasa kuma cewa "duk' yan ƙasa suna daidai a gaban [doka], ana yarda da su daidai ga dukkan ofisoshin gwamnati, mukamai da aiki bisa ga capacityarfinsu, kuma ba tare da wani bambanci ba fiye da na kyawawan halaye da baiwa ". Koyaya, a aikace 'yan juyin juya halin Faransa ba su ba da haƙƙin jama'a da na siyasa ga kowa ba, kodayake cancantar mallakar da ake buƙata don waɗannan haƙƙoƙin ya yi ƙasa da na waɗanda juyin juya halin Amurka ya kafa.

A cewar Abbe Sieyès mai son kawo sauyi a Faransa, "duk mazaunan wata ƙasa ya kamata su ji daɗin haƙƙin ɗan ƙasa mara son aiki ... amma waɗanda su kaɗai ke ba da gudummawa ga kafuwar jama'a kamar masu hannun jari na gaskiya ne a cikin babbar harkar zamantakewar jama'a. Su kadai ne 'yan ƙasa na gaske masu aiki, membobin ƙungiyar na gaskiya ". Watanni uku bayan da aka zartar da sanarwar, an bayyana bayin gida, mata da waɗanda ba sa biyan haraji kwatankwacin aikin kwana uku an ayyana su a matsayin 'yan ƙasa marasa ƙarfi Sieyes ya so ya ga saurin faɗaɗa ayyukan kasuwanci kuma ya fi son tara dukiya ba tare da iyakancewa ba. Akasin haka, Maximilien Robespierre ya yi gargadin cewa ya kamata a iyakance tarin dukiya a kyauta kuma bai kamata a ba da damar mallakar dukiya ta keta haƙƙin wasu ba, musamman matalauta 'yan ƙasa, gami da matalauta masu aiki da talakawa. Daga ƙarshe an cire ra'ayoyin Robespierre daga Tsarin Mulkin Faransa na 1793 kuma an kiyaye cancantar mallakar haƙƙin ɗan ƙasa da siyasa.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Dokar ƙasar Ingila
  • Ka'idar cancanta
  • Dokar Kadarorin Matan Aure 1882
  • Dokar dukiya
  • Hakkin mallaka (tattalin arziki)
  • Kasuwancin ƙasa
  • Ci gaban ƙasa
  • Real kumfa

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • AA Berle da GC Yana nufin, Kamfanin Zamani da Kayan Gida (New York, Macmillan 1932) oclc 1411248
  • AA Berle, 'Kadarori, Kirkiro da Juyin Juya Hali' (1965) 65 Kogin Doka na Columbia 1

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. See generally AA Berle, 'Property, Production and Revolution' (1965) 65 Columbia Law Review 1
  2. Doebbler, Curtis (2006). Introduction to International Human Rights Law. CD Publishing. pp. 141–142. ISBN 978-0-9743570-2-7.
  3. "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations. pp. Article 17.
  4. Alfredsson, Gudmundur; Eide, Asbjorn (1999). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: a common standard of achievement. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 372. ISBN 978-90-411-1168-5.
  5. "African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights". Organisation of African Unity. pp. Article 14.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Alfredsson, Gudmundur; Eide, Asbjorn (1999). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: a common standard of achievement. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 370. ISBN 978-90-411-1168-5.
  7. "American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man". Ninth International Conference of American States. pp. Article 23.
  8. "American Convention on Human Rights". Organization of American States. pp. Article 21.
  9. Alfredsson, Gudmundur; Eide, Asbjorn (1999). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: a common standard of achievement. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 366. ISBN 978-90-411-1168-5.
  10. "Protocol I to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms". Council of Europe. pp. Protocol 1 Article 1.
  11. Second Treatise of Civil Government, § 27