Hakkin rai

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Masu zanga-zangar Venezuela a 2014 tare da alamar da ke cewa "Zaman lafiya; 'Yanci; Adalci; Hakkin rayuwa" a Turanci

Hakkin rai shine imani cewa mutum yana da ikon rayuwa kuma, musamman, bai kamata a kashe shi ta wata ƙungiya ciki har da gwamnati ba. Manufar 'yancin rayuwa ta taso ne a cikin muhawara kan batutuwan hukuncin kisa, yaki, zubar da ciki, euthanasia, cin zarafin' yan sanda, kisan kai mai adalci, da kuma hakkin dabbobi. Mutane da yawa na iya yin sabani kan waɗanne fannoni wannan ƙa'idar ta shafi, gami da irin waɗannan batutuwa da aka ambata a baya.

Zubar da ciki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zubar da ciki

Ana amfani da kalmar "haƙƙin rai" a cikin mahawarar zubar da ciki daga waɗanda suke son kawo ƙarshen al'adar zubar da ciki, ko aƙalla rage yawan aikin,[1] kuma a cikin yanayin ciki, Paparoma Pius XII ne ya gabatar da kalmar zuwa rayuwa yayin wani papal na 1951:

Kowane ɗan adam, ko da ɗan cikin da yake ciki, yana da 'yancin rayuwa kai tsaye daga Allah ba daga iyayensa ba, ba daga wata al'umma ko hukuma ba. Saboda haka, babu wani mutum, babu al'umma, babu ikon ɗan adam, babu kimiyya, babu "nuni" kwata-kwata ko likita, eugenic, zamantakewa, tattalin arziki, ko ɗabi'a wanda zai iya bayarwa ko bayar da take mai inganci don yanke hukunci da gangan kai tsaye na rayuwar mutum mara laifi… --- Paparoma Pius XII, Adireshi ga ungozoma game da yanayin sana'arsu Papal Encyclical, Oktoba 29, 1951.[2]

A shekarar 1966 taron kasa na Bishop Bishop din Katolika (NCCB) ya tambayi Fr. James T. McHugh don fara lura da yanayin sauye-sauyen zubar da ciki a Amurka.[3] An kafa kungiyar ‘Yancin Rayuwa ta Kasa (NRLC) a shekarar 1967 a matsayin Kungiyar‘ Yancin Rayuwa don daidaita kamfen din ta na jihohi a karkashin kungiyar National Bishops ta Katolika.[4][5] Don yin kira ga wani yanki mai tushe, ƙungiyar mara motsi, manyan shugabannin Minnesota sun gabatar da samfurin tsari wanda zai raba NRLC daga sa ido kai tsaye na Taron ofasa na Bishop Bishop din Katolika da farkon 1973 NRLC Director Fr. James T. McHugh da babban mai taimaka masa, Michael Taylor, sun gabatar da wani shiri na daban, saukakawa NRLC zuwa ga samun ‘yancinta daga Cocin Roman Katolika.

Da'a da hakkin rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Peter Singer a Taron Crawford 2017

Wasu masu bin ka'idoji masu amfani suna da'awar cewa "'yancin rayuwa", inda ya wanzu, ya dogara ne da yanayi ban da kasancewa cikin jinsin mutane. Falsafa Peter Singer sanannen mashahuri ne na wannan jayayya. Ga Singer, haƙƙin rayuwa yana cikin ikon tsarawa da kuma tunanin makomar mutum. Wannan ya fadada batun ga dabbobin da ba mutane ba, kamar sauran birrai, amma tunda wadanda ba a haifa ba, jarirai da nakasassun mutane ba su da wannan, ya bayyana cewa zubar da ciki, kashe jarirai mara zafi da kuma euthanasia na iya zama '' barata '' (amma ba farilla ba) a wasu yanayi na musamman, misali a batun jariri nakasasshe wanda rayuwarsa zata kasance cikin wahala,[6] ko kuma idan iyayensa ba sa so su goya shi kuma ba wanda yake son ɗauke shi.

Masanan ilimin halayyar dan adam masu alaƙa da haƙƙin nakasa da al'ummomin nazarin nakasa sun yi jayayya cewa ilimin ilimin Singer ya dogara ne da fahimtar iyawar nakasa.[7]

Hukuncin kisa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Paris Die-in a kan Yuli 2, 2008

Ka'idodin Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam na Kasa da Kasa na Doka ya kirkiro da tsarin da za a gane cewa dokar kare hakkin dan adam ta kasa da kasa ta rataya a kan dukkan masu fada a ji na jihohi, kuma ya ce dole ne masu wasan kwaikwayo na jihohi su sani kuma su kasance masu iya aiwatar da mizanan kasa da kasa na 'yancin dan adam.[8] Hakkin rayuwa shine mafi yawanci haƙƙin karewa ne wanda aka baiwa kowane ɗan adam a doron ƙasa, duk da haka, akwai wasu yanayi waɗanda ake buƙatar 'yan wasan kwaikwayo na ƙasa da su ɗauki tsauraran matakai, wanda ka iya haifar da kisan fararen hula da jami'an tsaro suka yi.

Babban zauren Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya zartar, a cikin 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014, da 2016[9] kudurori marasa kan gado da ke neman a dakatar da zartar da hukuncin kisa a duniya, da nufin sokewa daga karshe.[10]

Kashe jami’an tsaro[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ka'idodin 'Yancin Dan Adam na Doka sun tsara lokutan da suka dace na kisan kai ta hanyar tilasta doka. Duk wani mataki na kisa da jami'an tsaro suka dauka dole ne a bi shi bayan wasu ka'idoji da aka shimfida a cikin 'Amfani da Karfi' na littafin Aljihu kan 'Yancin Dan Adam ga Yan Sanda.[8] Babban mahimmancin Littafin Aljihu[8] da ke tattare da amfani da ƙarfi mai kisa shi ne cewa duk sauran hanyoyin da ba na tashin hankali ba ya kamata a fara aiki da farko, sannan a yi amfani da ƙarfi daidai gwargwado. Yin amfani da karfi daidai gwargwado zai iya, kuma a wasu yanayi, ya koma ga na kisa idan jami'in tilasta doka ya yi imani da gaske cewa ƙare rayuwar farar hula ɗaya zai haifar da kiyaye ransa, ko rayukan 'yan uwansa farar hula, kamar yadda aka bayyana a cikin 'halalta yanayi na amfani da bindigogi' na littafin Aljihu.[8] Littafin Aljihu[8] Har ila yau, ya bayyana a cikin 'Bayani game da amfani da karfi da bindigogi' cewa akwai tsauraran matakai na lissafin kudi a wurin don kiyaye mutunci tsakanin hukumomin tilasta bin doka game da 'yancinsu na amfani da karfi.

Cibiyoyin kasa da kasa sun fayyace lokacin da inda jami'an tilasta yin doka zasu samu karfin iko a hannunsu. Knungiyar shugabannin 'yan sanda ta Duniya suna da' Manufofin wanda ya haɗa da wasu bayanai daga manyan kafofin.[11] Daya daga cikin waɗannan manufofin ƙirar suna faɗin cewa jami'an tilasta yin doka za su yi aiki da ƙarfin da ya dace don kawo kyakkyawan yanayin zuwa ƙarshe, ba da takamaiman tunani ga lafiyar kansu da sauran fararen hula. An ba wa jami'an tilasta bin doka da oda shiga cikin hanyoyin da aka amince da sashe don kawo karshen lamarin cikin aminci sannan kuma an ba su ikon amfani da kayan aikin da aka bayar don magance matsaloli a yanayin da ake bukatar su kare kansu ko wasu daga lalacewa, kawo mutane masu juriya cikin iko, ko don gama abubuwan da suka saba wa doka. Babu ambaton abin da "ya cancanta" ya kamata a fassara shi da ma'ana, amma akwai isharar da aka yi wa mutum mai hankali hanyar tantance yadda ya kamata mutum ya kusanci yanayi.[12] Koyaya, an ba da haske ta hanyar abubuwan da suka faru kamar kisan Michael Brown da Darren Wilson ya yi a Ferguson, Missouri,[13] wanda ya haifar da tashin hankalin jama'a, cewa akwai rudani da muhawara game da amfani da bindigogi da ƙarfi mai kisa. 'Hanyar amfani da bindigogi' ta samar da tsari ta yadda dole jami'an tsaro su ci gaba yayin amfani da bindigogi. Ya bayyana cewa dole ne su bayyana kansu a matsayin jami'in tilasta bin doka, su ba da gargadi bayyananne, kuma su ba da isasshen lokaci don amsawa (bayar da cewa lokacin ba zai haifar da cutar da wakili ko wasu farar hula ba) kafin karfi mai iko amfani dashi a cikin iyakokin dokokin duniya.

Yayinda Littafin Aljihu kan 'Yancin Dan Adam ga' Yan sanda ya bayyana yanayin ilimin da jami'an tsaro za su iya amfani da karfi na kisa, al'amuran zahiri da aka yi kisan 'yan sanda su ma sun dace. Rosenfeld[14] ya faɗi cewa akwai manyan littattafai waɗanda ke ba da dalili don yarda cewa yanayin zamantakewar suna da rawar da za su taka a yadda za a iya aiwatar da kashe doka. Rosenfeld ya ce akwai karatun da yawa da aka gudanar wanda ya danganta yadda jami'an tsaro ke amfani da karfin tuwo zuwa yawan aikata laifuka na yanki, girman yawan mutanen da ba 'yan asalin ba da kuma yanayin zamantakewar tattalin arzikin al'ummar da abin ya shafa.[15] Aiwatar da bayanin bargo na yadda kisan 'yan sanda zai iya faruwa a duk fadin lamarin yana da wahala saboda lamuran da suka shafi zamantakewar al'umma daga jiha zuwa jiha.

George Floyd mural Mauerpark Berlin, Mayu 2020

Perry, Hall da Hall[16] sun tattauna abubuwan da suka faru a duk fadin Amurka wanda ya zama wanda ake zargi sosai kuma aka yada shi sosai a ƙarshen 2014, yana magana ne akan amfani da ƙarfi daga jami'an 'yan sanda farar fata akan fararen farar farar hula maza marasa makami.[17] Babu wata doka wacce ta ba jami'an tsaro damar yin amfani da karfi ta hanyar kisan mutum dangane da jinsin mutumin da suke mu'amala da shi, kawai akwai wata doka da za ta tilasta yin amfani da karfi idan har akwai tsoron da ya dace da rayuwarka ko rayuwar wasu. Koyaya, nazarin Propublica na bayanan tarayya game da harbe-harben policean sanda mai kisa tsakanin 2010 da 2012, ya nuna cewa samari baƙar fata fararen hula sun fi yuwuwar kashe toan sanda sau 21 fiye da fararen samari fararen hula.[18] Amfani da karfi mai kisa daga jami'an tilasta yin doka a Amurka ya haifar da jin dadi tsakanin 'yan Amurka cewa' yan sanda ba su kariya. Tsarin shari'ar galibi ya gano cewa wadannan wakilai sun yi aiki a cikin iyakokin doka saboda abubuwan da mutanen da aka harba suka yanke hukunci ya isa a tuhume su da halayyar dan sanda don tsoron rayukansu ko na wasu. Coppolo[19] ya binciki dokar Connecticut kuma ya ba da rahoton cewa yin amfani da ƙarfi mai ƙarfi dole ne a bi shi da rahoto wanda ke tabbatar ko ƙarfin kashe wakilin na doka ya kasance daidai gwargwadon hali. Coppolo ya kuma bayyana cewa dole ne a mayar da martani mai ma'ana yayin da akwai kyakkyawan imani cewa hujjojin da aka gabatar muku da su na iya haifar da haɗarin mutuwa ko cutarwa ta jiki.

A cikin Graham v. Connor,[20] wani mai ciwon sukari da ke fama da cutar sikari-jini ya kama wani jami'in da ya ga yanayin da ya sa shi shakkar Graham, tsarewar Graham ya haifar da raunuka da dama ga Graham, wanda daga nan ya ci gaba da kai karar ’yan sanda don amfani da karfi fiye da kima. Kotun Koli ta Amurka ba ta sami labarin ciwon sukari a cikin kanta wanda zai iya zama barazana ga wakilin tilasta yin doka. Kotun Koli ta gano cewa dole ne a yi la’akari da cikakken yanayi a lokacin da abin ya faru yayin yanke hukunci ga jami’in maimakon yin la’akari da abin da ya faru tare da yin la’akari da hankali, wanda a game da batun Graham an yanke shawarar cewa halayyar da ke haifar da ciwon sikari a fuskarta za a iya ɗauka a matsayin barazana ga jami'in tilasta doka ko wasu farar hula. Wannan yana da wahala ga gano abin da ya dace da kwatankwacin kyakkyawan yanayin wanda wakilin doka zai iya amfani da ƙarfi. A cikin Tennessee v. Garner[21] jami’i Elton Hymon ya amsa kiran sata; lokacin da ya shiga bayan gida a cikin abin da ake magana, Hymon ya ga wani yana gudu kuma ya umarci wanda ake zargin, wanda daga baya aka gano shi yaro ne dan shekara 15 mai suna Edward Garner, da ya tsaya. Garner ya fara hawa shinge, kuma Hymon ya ci gaba da harbe shi har lahira a bayan kansa. Kotun kolin ta ce bisa ga abin da aka yi wa kwaskwarima na huɗu, jami'in tilasta bin doka da ke bin wani ba zai iya amfani da ƙarfi ba don kammala abin sai dai idan jami'in ya yi imanin da gaske cewa mutumin na da babbar barazanar cutarwa ga jami'in ko wasu . A Amurka inda Kundin Tsarin Mulki na biyu ya ba farar hula 'yancin ɗaukar makamai,[22] duk wani mutum na iya yin barazana ga rayuwar dan sanda ko wasu farar hula, kamar yadda mai yiwuwa ne, duk wani mutum na iya boye bindiga.

A cikin New Zealand, Rahoton Gudanar da Yan Sanda na shekara-shekara[23] ya gano cewa sama da shekaru goma 'yan sanda sun harbe har lahira mutane bakwai, daya daga cikinsu ba shi da laifi kuma dukkanin shari'un da aka gano' yan sanda suna aiki a kan hakkinsu na doka. New Zealand tana da tsayayyar tsari ta yadda duk wani dan kasa da yake son amfani da makami ta hanyar doka dole ne ya bi ta; wannan yana haifar da yanayi wanda ta yadda farar hula ba zai iya zama wata barazana ga rayukan jami'an tsaro ko na wasu ba.

Matsayin da dokar kasa da kasa ke fata jihohi suyi aiki iri daya ne a duk fadin hukumar, dole ne sai jami'an tsaro sun yi amfani da karfi na kisa lokacin da ake fuskantar barazanar cutarwa ga wadancan jami'an tsaro ko sauran farar hula. Gaskiyar ita ce, kowace jiha ta kasance ta musamman a cikin abin da ya dace da halin da ya dace ga jami'an tilasta yin doka don mayar da martani da ƙarfi saboda jihohin da ke duk duniya suna da nasu mahalli na musamman, doka, al'adu da yawan jama'a.

Euthanasia[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Euthanasia inji (Ostiraliya)

Waɗanda suka yi imani da mutum ya kamata su iya yanke shawarar kashe rayuwarsu ta hanyar euthanasia suna amfani da hujjar cewa mutane suna da 'yancin zaɓa,[24] yayin da waɗanda ke adawa da halatta euthanasia ke jayayya saboda dalilan cewa duka mutane na da haƙƙin rayuwa. Ana kiransu da yawa azaman masu ɗaukar hoto.[25]

Bayanin shari'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • A cikin 1444, Dokar Poljica ta ayyana haƙƙin rayuwa "-ba komai ya wanzu har abada".[26]
  • A shekarar 1776, Sanarwar Samun 'Yancin kai ta Amurka ta bayyana cewa "dukkan mutane an halicce su daidai, cewa mahaliccinsu ya basu wasu hakkoki da ba za a iya kwacewa ba, daga cikinsu akwai Rayuwa, 'Yanci da kuma neman Farin Ciki".
  • A cikin 1948, Sanarwar Duniya game da 'Yancin Dan Adam, wanda Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da shi ya bayyana a cikin labarin na uku:


Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

  • A cikin 1950, Majalisar Turai ta amince da Yarjejeniyar Turai kan 'Yancin Dan Adam, tana mai bayyana kare hakkin dan Adam na rayuwa a Mataki na 2. Akwai keɓaɓɓu don zartar da hukuncin kisa da kare kai, kame wanda ake zargi da gudu, da murƙushe tarzoma da tawaye. Tun daga wannan yarjejeniya ta 6 na Yarjejeniyar ta yi kira ga ƙasashe da su haramta hukuncin kisa sai dai lokacin yaƙi ko gaggawa ta ƙasa, kuma a halin yanzu wannan ya shafi duk ƙasashe na Majalisar. Yarjejeniya ta 13 ta ba da cikakken soke hukuncin kisa, kuma an aiwatar da shi a yawancin ƙasashe membobin Majalisar.
  • A shekarar 1966, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'Yancin Dan Adam da Siyasa.

Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.

— Article 6.1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
  • A shekara ta 1969, ƙasashe da yawa a Yammacin Hemisphere suka amince da Yarjejeniyar Amincewa da 'Yancin Adam a San José, Costa Rica. Yana aiki cikin ƙasashe 23.


Every person has the right to have his life respected. This right shall be protected by law and, in general, from the moment of conception. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.

— Article 4.1 of the American Convention on Human Rights
  • A cikin 1982, Yarjejeniyar 'Yanci da' Yanci ta Kanada ta sanya hakan


Kowane mutum na da hakkin rayuwa, da zamantowa cikin yanci da samun a kiyaye halittarsa ​​kuma ya kasance yana da hakkin a ba shi kariya gwargwadon yadda ya kamata.

--Sashe na 7 na Yarjejeniyar 'Yanci da' Yanci ta Kanada

  • A cikin 1989, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da Yarjejeniyar kan 'yancin yara (CRC).
  • Dokar Asali ga Tarayyar Jamus tana riƙe da ƙa'idar ƙimar ɗan adam a gaba, har ma sama da haƙƙin rai.
  • Cocin Katolika ta fitar da Yarjejeniya ta Hakkokin Iyali[27] inda a ciki ta bayyana cewa haƙƙin rayuwa kai tsaye yana nuna darajar mutum.
  • Mataki na 21 na Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Indiya, 1950, ya ba da tabbaci game da haƙƙin rai ga dukkan mutane a cikin yankin Indiya kuma ya ce: "Ba za a hana wani mutum 'yancinsa na rayuwa da' yanci na kansa ba sai yadda doka ta tanada." Mataki na 21 ya ba kowane mutum hakki na asali na rayuwa da 'yancin kansa wanda ya zama tushen sauran haƙƙoƙin da ba za a iya karewa ba.[28]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

* Dokar zubar da ciki

* Al'adar rayuwa * Kwamitin Hakkin Rai na Kasa

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Solomon, Martha. "The Rhetoric of Right to Life: Beyond the Court's Decision" Archived 2009-07-24 at the Wayback Machine Paper presented at the Southern Speech Communication Association (Atlanta, Georgia, April 4–7, 1978)
  2. "Address to Midwives on the Nature of Their Profession", 29 October 1951. Pope Pius XII.
  3. "Gale - Product Login". galeapps.galegroup.com. Retrieved 2019-07-18.
  4. http://www.christianlifeandliberty.net/RTL.bmp K.M. Cassidy. "Right to Life." In Dictionary of Christianity in America, Coordinating Editor, Daniel G. Reid. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1990. pp. 1017,1018.
  5. "God's Own Party The Making of the Religious Right", pp. 113-116. 08033994793.ABA. Daniel K. Williams. Oxford University Press. 2010.
  6. Singer, Peter. Practical ethics Cambridge University Press (1993), 2nd revised ed., 08033994793.ABA
  7. Singer, Peter. "An Interview". Writings on an Ethical Life. pp. 319–329. ISBN 978-1841155500.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 "International Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-28.
  9. "117 countries vote for a global moratorium on executions". World Coalition Against the Death Penalty. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
  10. "moratorium on the death penalty". United Nations. 15 November 2007. Archived from the original on 27 January 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
  11. "IACP Law Enforcement Policy Center". www.theiacp.org. Archived from the original on 2017-09-11. Retrieved 2017-09-11.
  12. Alpert & Smith. "How Reasonable Is the Reasonable Man: Police and Excessive Force". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 85 (2): 487.
  13. "Michael Brown's Shooting and Its Immediate Aftermath in Ferguson". N.Y. TIMES. August 25, 2014. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  14. Richard Rosenfeld, Founders Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Missouri-St. Louis.
  15. Rosenfeld, Richard. "Ferguson and Police Use of Deadly Force". Missouri Law Review: 1087.
  16. Alison V. Hall, University of Texas-Arlington, Erika V. Hall, Emory University, Jamie L. Perry, Cornell University.
  17. Hall, Hall & Perry (2016). "Black and Blue: Exploring Racial Bias and Law Enforcement Killings of Unarmed Black Male Civilians". American Psychologist. 71 (3, 2016): 175–186. doi:10.1037/a0040109. hdl:1813/71445. PMID 27042881.
  18. Gabrielson, Sagara & Jones (October 10, 2014). "Deadly Force in Black and White: A ProPublica analysis of killings by police shows outsize risk for young black males". ProPublica. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  19. Attorney George Coppolo, Chief Attorney for the Connecticut General Assembly's Office of Legislative Research.
  20. Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).
  21. Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1985).
  22. Strasser, Mr. Ryan (2008-07-01). "Second Amendment". LII / Legal Information Institute (in Turanci). Archived from the original on 2017-09-11. Retrieved 2017-09-11.
  23. Independent Police Conduct Authority Annual Report, 2011-2012, New Zealand.
  24. 1999, Jennifer M. Scherer, Rita James Simon, Euthanasia and the Right to Die: A Comparative View, Page 27
  25. 1998, Roswitha Fischer, Lexical Change in Present-day English, page 126
  26. Marušić, Juraj (1992). Sumpetarski kartular i poljička seljačka republika (1st ed.). Split, Croatia: Književni Krug Split. p. 129. ISBN 978-86-7397-076-9.
  27. Pontifical Council for the Family. The Family and Human Rights Archived 2008-03-19 at the Wayback Machine Vatican website. Retrieved 2011-07-09.
  28. Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India AIR 1978 SC 597