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Hukuncin Kisa

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hoton hukuncin kisa

  

hukuncin kisa
manner of death (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Yana haddasa execution (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan executioner (en) Fassara


Hukuncin kisa, wanda kuma aka sani da hukuncin kisa, shine tsarin da state ta amince da shi na kashe mutum da gangan a matsayin hukunci na ainihin ko laifin da ake zato, yawanci bin tsari mai izini, tsarin mulki da kammala cewa mutumin yana da alhakin saba ka'idoji. wannan warrant ɗin ya ce hukunci. Hukuncin da ke ba da umarnin a hukunta wanda ya yi laifi irin wannan shi ne hukuncin kisa, kuma aikin aiwatar da hukuncin kisa ne. Fursunan da aka yanke wa hukuncin kisa kuma yana jiran kisa an yanke masa hukuncin kisa kuma ana kiransa da "mai hukuncin kisa".

wannan na nuna alamun hukuncin kisa kenan

Laifukan da ake yanke wa hukuncin kisa ana san su da manyan laifuffuka, ko kuma sun bambanta dangane da hukunce-hukuncen hukumci, amma yawanci sun haɗa da manyan laifuffuka a kan mutum, kamar kisan kai, kisan kai na jama'a, ƙarar laifukan fyade (sau da yawa ciki har da yara). cin zarafin jima'i), ta'addanci, fashin jiragen sama, laifuffukan yaki, laifuffukan cin zarafin bil'adama, da kisan kare dangi, tare da laifuffukan da suka shafi gwamnati kamar yunkurin kifar da gwamnati, cin amanar ƙasa, leken asiri, tayar da zaune tsaye, da satar fasaha, da dai sauransu. Har ila yau, a wasu lokuta, ayyukan sake maimaitawa, da fashi da makami, da yin garkuwa da su, baya ga fataucin muggan kwayoyi, da fataucin muggan ƙwayoyi, da mallakar muggan kwayoyi, manyan laifuka ne ko ingantawa. Duk da haka, jihohi sun kuma sanya hukuncin kisa, na ɗabi'a mai yawa, don akidar siyasa ko addini da ayyuka, don matsayi fiye da ikon mutum, ko kuma ba tare da yin amfani da wani muhimmin tsari ba. Kisan shari'a shi ne da gangan kashe wanda ba shi da laifi ta hanyar hukuncin kisa. Misali, kisa da aka yi bayan gwaje-gwajen wasan kwaikwayo a Rasha a lokacin The great purge na 1937-1938 wani kayan aikin danniya ne na siyasa.

Asalin, kalmar capital (lit. "na kai", wanda aka samo ta hanyar great capitalis na Latin daga caput, "kai") yana nufin kisa ta hanyar fille kai, [1] amma ana aiwatar da hukuncin ta hanyoyi da yawa, ciki har da rataya, harbi, allurar mutuwa, jifa, wutar lantarki, da iskar gas.

Kamar yadda na 2022, 55 ƙasashe suna riƙe da kisa, 109 kasashe sun gaba daya soke shi de jure ga dukan laifuffuka, bakwai sun soke shi saboda na yau da kullum laifuffuka (yayin da kiyaye shi ga musamman yanayi kamar laifukan yaki), da kuma 24 abolitionist a aikace. Ko da yake yawancin ƙasashe sun soke hukuncin kisa, sama da kashi 60% na al'ummar duniya suna rayuwa ne a ƙasashen da ake ci gaba da aiwatar da hukuncin kisa, kamar China, Indiya, Amurka, Singapore, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Masar, Saudiya, Iran, Japan, da Taiwan.

Hukuncin kisa na da cece-kuce a kasashe da jihohi da dama, kuma matsayi na iya bambanta tsakanin akidar siyasa ko yankin al'adu daya. Ƙungiyar kare hakkin bil'adama ta Amnesty International ta bayyana cewa hukuncin kisa ya keta hakkokin bil'adama, yana mai cewa "'yancin rayuwa da 'yancin rayuwa ba tare da azabtarwa ko rashin tausayi, rashin mutunci ko wulakanci ko hukunci ba." [2] Ana kiyaye waɗannan haƙƙoƙin ƙarƙashin Yarjejeniyar Haƙƙin Dan Adam ta Duniya, wadda Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta karbe a 1948. A cikin Tarayyar Turai (EU), Mataki na 2 na Yarjejeniya ta Muhimman Haƙƙi na Tarayyar Turai ya hana yin amfani da hukuncin kisa. Majalisar Turai, mai kasashe 46, ta nemi soke amfani da hukuncin kisa daga mambobinta kwata-kwata, ta hanyar yarjejeniya ta 13 ta Yarjejeniyar Turai kan Haƙƙin Bil Adama. Koyaya, wannan ya shafi ƙasashe membobin da suka sanya hannu kuma suka amince da shi, kuma ba su haɗa da Armeniya da Azabaijan ba. Babban taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya amince da shi, a tsawon shekaru daga 2007 zuwa 2020, [3] ƙudurori guda takwas waɗanda ba su da alaka da su da ke kira da a dakatar da aiwatar da hukuncin kisa a duniya, da nufin soke hukuncin kisa.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Anarchist Auguste Vaillant yana gab da za a yanke masa hukunci a Faransa a 1894.

Kusan dukkanin al'ummomi suna amfani da kisan gilla na masu laifi da 'yan adawa tun farkon wayewar duniya. Har zuwa ƙarni na sha tara, ba tare da inganta tsarin gidan yari ba, yawanci babu wata hanyar da za ta iya aiki don tabbatar da hana masu aikata laifuka. A zamanin da ake aiwatar da hukuncin kisa da kansu sau da yawa sun haɗa da azabtarwa da hanyoyi masu raɗaɗi da raɗaɗi, irin su karyewar dabaran, keelhauling, sawing, rataye, zane, da kwata, konawa a kan gungumen azaba, flaying, yankan jinkirin, tafasa mai rai, gicciye, mazzatello, busa daga bindiga, schwedentrunk, da scaphism. Sauran hanyoyin da ke bayyana a cikin almara kawai sun haɗa da mikiya na jini da bijimin jarumtaka.

Amfani da kisa na yau da kullun ya kai zuwa farkon tarihin da aka yi adana. Yawancin bayanan tarihi da al'adun gargajiya daban-daban na nuna cewa hukuncin kisa wani bangare ne na tsarin shari'arsu. Hukunce-hukuncen jama'a don aikata ba daidai ba gabaɗaya sun haɗa da diyya na kuɗin jini daga wanda ya yi kuskure, hukuncin jiki, gujewa, kora da kisa. A cikin al'ummomin kabilanci, ramuwa da ƙauracewa galibi ana ɗaukar su isa a matsayin wani nau'i na adalci. [4] Amsar laifuffukan da ƙabilu, dangi ko al'ummomi maƙwabta suka aikata sun haɗa da neman uzuri na yau da kullun, diyya, rikicin jini, da yaƙin ƙabilanci.

Rikicin jini ko vendetta yana faruwa ne lokacin da sasantawa tsakanin iyalai ko ƙabila ya kasa ko kuma tsarin sasantawa bai kasance ba. Wannan nau'i na adalci ya kasance ruwan dare kafin bayyanar tsarin sasantawa bisa tsarin addini ko tsarin addini. Yana iya haifar da laifi, jayayyar ƙasa ko ƙa'idar girmamawa. "Ayyukan ramuwar gayya suna nuna ikon haɗin gwiwar zamantakewa don kare kansu da kuma nunawa abokan gaba (da kuma abokan haɗin gwiwa) cewa rauni ga dukiya, Haƙƙoƙi, ko kuma mutum ba zai kasance ba tare da hukunci ba." [5]

A yawancin ƙasashen da ke aiwatar da hukuncin kisa, yanzu an keɓe shi don kisan kai, ta'addanci, laifuffukan yaƙi, leƙen asiri, cin amanar ƙasa, ko kuma wani ɓangare na shari'ar soja. A wasu ƙasashe laifuffukan jima'i, irin su fyaɗe, fasikanci, zina, lalata, luwaɗi, luwaɗi, da na dabba suna ɗaukar hukuncin kisa, haka kuma laifukan addini kamar Hudud, Zina, da kuma Qisas, irin su ridda (wasu ƙin bin addini na hukuma)., sabo, moharebeh, hirabah, Fasad, Mofsed-e-filarz da maita. A cikin ƙasashe da yawa waɗanda ke amfani da hukuncin kisa, fataucin muggan ƙwayoyi da galibi mallakar muggan ƙwayoyi ma babban laifi ne. A kasar Sin, ana yanke hukuncin kisa kan fataucin mutane da manyan laifuka na cin hanci da rashawa da kuma laifukan kudi. A cikin sojoji a duniya kotunan soji sun zartar da hukuncin kisa saboda laifuffuka kamar su tsoro, ja da baya, rashin biyayya, da kuma tada zaune tsaye.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Kronenwetter 2001
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Das 2022 p. 192
  3. A Record 120 Nations Adopt UN Death-Penalty Moratorium Resolution, 18 December 2018, Death Penalty Information Center
  4. So common was the practice of compensation that the word murder is derived from the French word mordre (bite) a reference to the heavy compensation one must pay for causing an unjust death.
  5. Translated from Waldmann, op.cit., p. 147.