Laifin Yaƙi

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Wikidata.svgLaifin Yaki
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na atrocity (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan war criminal (en) Fassara
Sakamakon kisan kiyashin Malmedy a 1944, lokacin da sojojin Nazi suka yiwa fursunonin yakin Amurka kisan kiyashi

  Laifin yaki wani aiki ne wanda ke haifar da mummunan keta dokokin yaƙi wanda ke haifar da ɗawainiyar aikata laifi. Misalai da laifukan sun hada da gangan ya kashe fararen hula ko fursunonin, da azabtarwa, da hallaka farar hula dukiyõyin su, da aka yi garkuwa, yin wani perfidy, raping, yin amfani da yara, pillaging, yana nuna cewa babu kwata za a ba, da kuma tsanani keta ka'idojin bambanci, proportionality, da kuma wajibcin soja .

Batun aikata laifukan yaƙi ya samo asali ne a ƙarshen karni na ashirin lokacin da aka tsara kundin dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa da suka shafi yaƙi tsakanin ƙasashe masu mulkin kansu . Irin wannan bayanin ya faru ne a matakin kasa, kamar buga littafin Lieber Code a Amurka, da kuma a matakin kasa da kasa tare da amincewa da yarjejeniyoyi a lokacin yayin taron Hague na shekarun 1899 da 1907. Bugu da ƙari, shari'o'in da aka yi a kotunan ƙasa a wannan lokacin sun ƙara bayyana doka. Bayan ƙarshen Yaƙin Duniya na II, manyan cigaba a cikin dokar sun faru. Yawancin gwaji da akayi na masu aikata laifukan yaƙi na Axis sun kafa ƙa'idodin Nuremberg, kamar ra'ayin cewa laifukan yaƙi sun zama laifuka waɗanda dokar ƙasa ta bayyana . Bugu da ƙari, Yarjejeniyar Geneva a cikin shekara ta1949 ta bayyana sabbin laifukan yaƙi kuma sun kafa cewa jihohi na iya yin ikon duniya game da waɗannan laifukan. A ƙarshen karni na 20 da farkon ƙarni na 21, bayan ƙirƙirar kotunan ƙasa da ƙasa da yawa, an bayyana ƙarin nau'ikan laifukan yaƙi da suka shafi rikice-rikicen makamai banda waɗanda ke tsakanin jihohi, kamar yaƙe-yaƙe na cikin gida .

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani rami cike da gawarwakin fararen hular Sinawa da sojojin Japan suka kashe a Suzhou, China, 1938

Misalan farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shari'ar Peter von Hagenbach da wata kotun wucin gadi ta Masarautar Roman ta Kudus ta yi a 1474 ita ce ta farko ta "laifukan yaki" ta duniya, kuma har ila yau ta alhakin daukar nauyi .[1] An yanke masa hukunci kuma an fille kansa saboda aikata laifuka da cewa "shi a matsayinsa na jarumi an dauke shi yana da hakkin hanawa", duk da cewa ya dade yanayin jayayya cewa "yana bin umarnin ne kawai".

A shekarata 1865, Henry Wirz, wani hafsan Sojan Amurka, kotun soji ta tuhume shi kuma ta rataye shi saboda mummunan yanayi a Kurkukun Andersonville, inda fursunonin Yammacin tarayyar da yawa suka mutu a lokacin yakin basasar Amurka .

Yarjejeniyar Hague[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yarjejeniyar Hague ta kasance yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa da aka tattauna a taro na Zaman Lafiya na Farko da na biyu a Hague, Netherlands a shekara ta 1899 da 1907, kuma sun kasance, tare da Yarjejeniyar Geneva, daga cikin bayanan farko na dokokin yaki da laifukan yaki a kungiyar internationalasa ta duniya wacce ba ta addini ba.

Yarjejeniyar Geneva[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yarjejeniyar Geneva yarjejeniyoyi ne masu alaƙa guda huɗu waɗanda aka amince da su kuma aka cigaba da haɓaka ta daga shekarata 1864 zuwa 1949 waɗanda ke wakiltar tushen doka da tsarin gudanar da yaƙi ƙarƙashin dokar ƙasa da ƙasa. Kowane ɗayan memba na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a halin yanzu ya amince da yarjejeniyar, waɗanda aka yarda da su a matsayin ƙa'idodin dokar ƙasa da ƙasa, waɗanda ke suka dace da kowane yanayin rikici a duniya. Koyayar da ladabi ga Yarjejeniyar Geneva da aka zartar a cikin 1977 wanda ke ɗauke da mafi mahimmancin, cikakke kuma cikakkiyar kariya ta dokar agaji ta ƙasa da ƙasa ga mutane da abubuwa a cikin yaƙin zamani har yanzu ba a tabbatar da su ta hanyar Jihohi da yawa da ke ci gaba da faɗawa cikin rikice-rikicen yaƙi, wato Amurka, Isra’ila, Indiya, Pakistan, Iraki, Iran, da sauransu. Dangane da haka, jihohi suna riƙe lambobi daban-daban da dabi'u game da halayen lokacin yaƙi. Wasu masu sanya hannu sun saba ka'idojin Yarjejeniyar Geneva ta yadda ko dai ta amfani da sahihan doka ko kuma jan ra'ayin siyasa don kaucewa ka'idoji da dokokin.

An sake inganta manyan taruka uku tare da faɗaɗa na huɗu wanda aka ƙara a shekarar 1949:

  • Yarjejeniyar Geneva ta Farko don Inganta Yanayin Wadanda Sukaji rauni da Marasa Lafiya a Sojojin Kasa (Taro na Amelioration na Yanayin Raunuka da Marasa Lafiya a Sojojin a Field an karbe shi a 1864, an yi kwaskwarima sosai kuma an maye gurbinsa da Tsarin 1906, sigar 1929, daga baya kuma yarjejeniyar Geneva ta Farko a 1949 ).
  • Yarjejeniyar Geneva ta Biyu don Inganta Yanayin raunuka, Marasa lafiya da Jirgin Ruwa a Tekun (Taro na Amelioration na Yanayin raunuka, Marasa lafiya da Jirgin Ruwa da Ruwa a cikin Tekun an karɓi a 1906, muhimmanci bita da maye gurbinsu da Yarjejeniyar Geneva ta Biyu ta 1949).
  • Taron Geneva na Uku dangane da Kula da Fursunonin Yaki ( Yarjejeniyar <i id="mwdA">dangane da Kula da Fursunonin Yaki</i> an zartar da ita a shekarar 1929, an yi kwaskwarima sosai tare da maye gurbin ta Taron Geneva na Uku na 1949).
    HRW ta rubuta cewa sa-hannun da Saudiyya ta jagoranta a Yaman wanda ya fara a ranar 26 ga Maris, 2015, ya shafi kai hare-hare ta sama a bayyane take da dokokin yaki.
  • Yarjejeniyar Geneva ta Hudu dangane da Kariyar Jama'a a Lokacin Yaƙin (wanda aka fara amfani da shi a 1949, ya dogara da ɓangarorin Yarjejeniyar Hague ta 1907).

An karɓi ƙarin ladabi biyu a cikin 1977 tare da na uku wanda aka ƙara a 2005, kammalawa da sabunta Yarjejeniyar Geneva:

  • Yarjejeniyar I (1977) dangane da Kariyar Waɗanda Rikicin Makamai na Internationalasashe ya shafa.
  • Yarjejeniyar II (1977) dangane da Kariyar waɗanda ke fama da Rikicin Nonasashen Duniya ba.
  • Yarjejeniyar III (2005) dangane da Tallafin Distarin Alamar Musamman.

Leipzig Gwajin Laifin Yaki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An yi wa wasu tsirarun ma'aikatan sojan Jamusawa na Yaƙin Duniya na daya hukunci a cikin 1921 da Kotun Germanoli ta Jamhuriyar ta tuhumar su da aikata laifukan yaƙi.

Yarjejeniyar London / Gwaji Nuremberg 1945[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An inganta tunanin zamani game da aikata laifukan yaƙi a ƙarƙashin ƙararrakin Nuremberg bisa ma'anar cikin Yarjejeniyar London da aka buga a ranar 8 ga Agusta, 1945. (Hakanan duba ka'idodin Nuremberg). Tare da laifukan yaki, kundin tsarin mulkin ya kuma bayyana laifuffukan da suka shafi zaman lafiya da laifukan cin zarafin bil'adama, wadanda galibi ake aikata su yayin yake-yake kuma a hada kai da laifukan yaki.

Kotun Soja ta Duniya don Gabas ta Gabas 1946[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Har ila yau, ana kiranta da Titin Tokyo, Kotun Laifin Laifukan Yakin Tokyo ko kuma kawai a matsayin Kotu, an yi taronta a ranar 3 ga Mayu, 1946, don gwada shugabannin Daular Japan game da laifuka iri uku: "Ajin A" (laifuka kan zaman lafiya ), "Ajin B" (laifukan yaki), da "Ajin C" (laifukan cin zarafin bil'adama), da aka aikata a lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na II .

Kotun Laifuka ta Duniya 2002[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gawarwakin wasu ɗaruruwan villaan ƙabilar Vietnam waɗanda sojojin Amurka suka kashe a lokacin kisan kiyashin My Lai

A ranar 1 ga Yuli, 2002, Kotun Laifuka ta Duniya, wata kotun da ke da hedikwata a Hague, ta kasance don gabatar da hukunce-hukuncen laifukan yaƙi da aka aikata a ko bayan wannan ranar. Kasashe da dama, musamman Amurka, China, Rasha, da Isra’ila, sun soki kotun. Har yanzu Amurka na cikin masu kallo. Mataki na goma sha biyu 12 na Dokar Roma ya ba da iko kan 'yan ƙasa da jihohin da ba sa kwangila idan an zarge su da aikata laifi a yankin ɗayan ɓangarorin jihar.

An bayyana laifuffukan yaƙi a cikin ƙa'idar da ta kafa Kotun hukunta manyan laifuka ta duniya, wanda ya haɗa da:

  1. Kashe kaburbura na Yarjejeniyar Geneva, kamar su:
    1. Kisan ganganci, ko haddasa babbar wahala ko rauni mai tsanani ga jiki ko lafiya
    2. Azabtarwa ko cutar da mutum
    3. Rushewar doka ba bisa doka ba ko satar dukiya
    4. Tilasta fursunan yaƙi ya yi aiki a cikin rundunar maƙiya
    5. Haramta fursunonin yaƙi na hukuncin adalci
    6. Korar jama'a ba bisa doka ba, tsarewa ko canja wuri
    7. Yin garkuwa da mutane
    8. Daidaita kai hare-hare kan fararen hula
      Kisan Bodo League yayin yakin Koriya a shekarar 1950
    9. Daidaita kai hare-hare kan ma'aikatan jin kai ko kuma sojojin kiyaye zaman lafiya na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya
    10. Kashe mayaƙan da aka sallama
    11. Amfani da tutar sulhu
    12. Yankin yankin da aka mamaye
    13. Korar mazaunan yankin da suka mamaye
    14. Yin amfani da makamai masu guba
    15. Amfani da fararen hula a matsayin garkuwa
    16. Yin amfani da yara sojoji
    17. Yin harbi a kan Magungunan Yaki tare da bayyananniyar alama.
  2. Abubuwan da ke gudana a matsayin ɓangare na rikice-rikice ba na duniya ba:
    1. Kisan kai, zalunci ko wulakanta mutane da azabtarwa
    2. Daidaita kai hare-hare kan fararen hula, ma'aikatan jin kai ko kuma sojojin kiyaye zaman lafiya na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya
  3. Abubuwan da ke faruwa a matsayin ɓangare na rikicin duniya:
    Fararen hula da aka kashe a luguden wuta a gabashin Ukraine . A cewar rahoton na HRW, "Yin amfani da rokoki ba tare da nuna bambanci ba a yankunan da mutane ke ciki ya sabawa dokokin jin kai na kasa da kasa, ko dokokin yaki, kuma na iya zama laifukan yaki."
    1. Yin garkuwa da mutane
    2. Takaitawar aiwatarwa
    3. Ganima
    4. Fyade, bautar jima'i, tilasta karuwanci ko tilasta ciki

Koyaya kotu tana da iko ne kawai akan wadannan laifuka inda suke "bangare ne na wani tsari ko manufa ko kuma wani bangare na babban kwamiti na irin wadannan laifuka".

Manyan fitattu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shugabannin jihohi da na gwamnati[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shugaban Sudan Omar al-Bashir, wanda kotun ICC ke nema saboda laifukan yaki da cin zarafin bil adama

Zuwa yau, na yanzu da tsoffin shugabannin kasa da shugabannin gwamnatocin da ake tuhuma da aikata laifukan yaki sun hada da:

  • Großadmiral na Jamus da Shugaba Karl Dönitz da Firayim Ministocin Japan da Janar-Janar Hideki Tōjō da Kuniaki Koiso a bayan yakin duniya na II.
  • An gabatar da tsohon shugaban kasar Serbia , Slobodan Miloševi to a gaban kotu, inda ake tuhumarsa da, kisan kare dangi, cin zarafin bil adama, da laifukan yaki a jamhuriyoyi uku. The tribunal found the prosecution had according to its rules and procedures; enough evidence was tailored, before the defense presentation, that, "a reasonable trier of fact, could conclude, the accused was responsible for the crimes charged." Wannan ya shafi babban nauyi na tuhumar Bosnia da Croatia, da kuma alhakin kowane mutum na tuhumar Kosovo. Babu wani hukunci da aka yanke, duk da haka, tunda ya mutu a tsare a cikin 2006, kafin a kammala shari'ar.
  • Shi ma tsohon shugaban Laberiya Charles G. Taylor an kawo shi a Hague ana tuhumarsa da laifukan yaki; shari'arsa ta faro ne daga 2007 zuwa Maris 2011. An yanke masa hukunci a cikin Afrilu na 2012 na taimakawa da tallafawa laifukan cin zarafin bil'adama.
  • An kama tsohon Shugaban Sabiyawan Bosniya Radovan Karadžić a Belgrade a ranar 18 ga Yulin 2008 kuma aka gabatar da shi a gaban Kotun Laifukan Yakin Yakin na Belgrade kwanaki kadan bayan haka. An mika shi zuwa Netherlands, kuma a yanzu haka yana Hague, a hannun kotun hukunta manyan laifuka ta kasa da kasa ta tsohuwar Yugoslavia . An fara shari'ar a cikin 2010. A ranar 24 ga Maris, 2016, an same shi da laifin kisan kare dangi a Srebrenica, laifukan yaki da cin zarafin bil adama, 10 cikin tuhume-tuhume 11 gaba daya, an yanke masa hukuncin daurin shekaru 40. An yanke masa hukuncin ɗaurin rai da rai a kan roko.
  • Omar al-Bashir, tsohon shugaban kasar Sudan, ana tuhumarsa da aikata laifuka uku na kisan kare dangi, cin zarafin bil adama da sauran laifukan yaki dangane da yakin 2003– a yankin Darfur na Sudan. Shugaban kasa na farko da kotun hukunta manyan laifuka ta kasa da kasa ke tuhuma da kisan kare dangi tare da samin sammacin kama mutane a Darfur .
    Zanga-zangar shekarar 2013 ta Shahbag ta bukaci a zartar da hukuncin kisa ga masu aikata laifukan yaki na yakin ‘yanci na Bangladesh na 1971
  • An gurfanar da tsohon shugaban Libya Muammar Gaddafi bisa zargin bada umarnin kisan masu zanga-zanga da fararen hula da Laifukan cin zarafin bil adama, a lokacin yakin basasar Libya na 2011, amma, an kashe shi kafin ya iya fuskantar shari'a a watan Oktoban 2011.

Sauran fitattun masu gabatar da kara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Yoshijirō Umezu, janar a cikin Sojojin Japan na Sarki
  • Seishirō Itagaki, Ministan Yaki na Daular Japan
  • Hermann Göring, Kwamandan Babban Luftwaffe .
  • Ernst Kaltenbrunner da Adolf Eichmann, manyan membobin SS .
  • Wilhelm Keitel, Janarfeldmarschall, shugaban kungiyar Oberkommando der Wehrmacht .
  • Erich Raeder, Großadmiral, Babban Kwamandan Babban Kriegsmarine .
  • Albert Speer, Ministan Makamai da Samar da Yaƙe-yaƙe a cikin Nazi Jamus 1942–45.
  • William Calley, tsohon hafsan sojan Amurka an same shi da laifin kisan kai saboda rawar da ya taka a kisan kiyashin My Lai
  • Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, wanda aka fi sani da laƙabi da "Chemical Ali", wanda bayan Ba'athist Iraq ya zartar da hukuncin kisan gilla a ƙauyukan Kurdawa a lokacin yakin Iran da Iraki; sannan kuma gwamnan Kuwait da ya mamaye ba bisa ƙa'ida ba a lokacin Yaƙin Fasha na Farko
  • Ratko Mladić, wanda aka gurfanar da kisan kare dangi a tsakanin sauran take hakkin bil'adama a lokacin yakin Bosnia ; an kama shi a Serbia a watan Mayu na 2011 kuma an mika shi don fuskantar shari'a a Hague, inda aka same shi da laifi kuma aka yanke masa hukuncin ɗaurin rai da rai.
  • Joseph Kony, shugaban kungiyar 'yan tawaye ta Lord Resistance Army, kungiyar' yan daba da ke aiki a Uganda.

Ma'ana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A hoto dauka da Polish Karkashin kasa na Nazi asirin 'yan sanda Ƙididdigar up Polish kawo dukkan at Palmiry kusa Warsaw a 1940 domin taro kisa ( AB-Aktion )

Laifukan yaƙi babban keta ƙa'idoji ne na dokokin al'adu da yarjejeniya game da dokar ɗan adam ta ƙasa da ƙasa da aka yarda da ita  a matsayin laifukan aikata laifi wanda akwai alhakin mutum ɗaya. Ma'anar hada-hada ta aikata laifukan yaki sun hada da keta ka'idojin kariya na dokokin yaki, amma kuma ya hada da gazawa wajen bin ka'idojin aiki da ka'idojin yaki, kamar kai hari ga wadanda ke nuna tutar lumana ta sulhu, ko amfani da waccan tutar a matsayin dabara don hawa hari kan sojojin abokan gaba. A amfani da sinadaran da nazarin halittu makamai a yaƙi suna kuma haramta ta da yawa sinadaran makamai iko da yarjejeniyar da kuma Halittu Makamai Yarjejeniyar . Sanye da makiya kayan ko fararen kaya zuwa infiltrate maƙiyi Lines ga leken asirin ko ɓarna da gangan manufa ne istinbadi magajinsa na yaki, ko yãƙi a fama ko kisan gilla mutane bayan maƙiyi Lines yayin da haka ya ɓadda ba, kamar yadda ya ƙunshi m perfidy. Kai wa sojojin abokan gaba hari yayin da ake tura su ta hanyar hanyar leken asiri ba laifin yaki ba ne. Koyaya, Protocol I, Mataki na 42 na Yarjejeniyar Geneva a bayyane ya hana kai hari ga masu lalatattun fastocin da suke fatarar jirgin nakasassu da masu ba da izinin sauƙaƙe da zarar sun sauka. Mataki na 30 na Yarjejeniyar Hague ta 1907 ta IV - Dokoki da Kwastam na Yaƙi a expasa a bayyane ya hana mayaƙan horo don azabtar da iesan leƙen asirin ba tare da shari'ar da ta gabata ba.

Dokar yaƙi, wanda aka fi sani da Dokar Rikicin Makamai, yana ba da izinin mahauta su shiga faɗa. Laifin yaƙi yana faruwa yayin da aka yi wa maƙiyi rauni ko azabar da ba dole ba.

Laifukan yaƙi sun haɗa da irin waɗannan abubuwa kamar cutar da fursunonin yaƙi ko fararen hula . Laifukan yaki wani lokacin wani bangare ne na lokuta na kisan gilla da kisan kare dangi duk da cewa wadannan laifuffuka an fi rufe su sosai a karkashin dokar agaji ta duniya da aka bayyana a matsayin laifukan cin zarafin bil'adama . A shekara ta 2008, Kwamitin Tsaro na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya zartar da kuduri mai lamba 1820, wanda ya nuna cewa "fyade da sauran nau'o'in cin zarafin mata na iya zama laifukan yaki, laifukan cin zarafin bil'adama ko kuma aiwatar da wani babban aiki dangane da kisan kare dangi"; ga kuma yakin fyade A shekarar 2016, Kotun hukunta manyan laifuka ta duniya ta yanke wa wani hukuncin cin zarafin mata a karon farko; musamman, sun kara fyade ga hukuncin laifukan yaki na Mataimakin Shugaban Kwango Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo .

Babban kabarin USSR POWs, Jamusawa suka kashe. Kimanin POWs Soviet miliyan 3.3 suka mutu a hannun Nazi .

Laifukan yaƙi kuma sun haɗa da kai hare-hare da gangan kan 'yan ƙasa da dukiyar ƙasashe masu tsaka-tsaki, kamar harin Jafananci akan Pearl Harbor . Yayinda harin da aka kai kan Pearl Harbor ya faru yayin da Amurka da Japan suke cikin lumana kuma ba tare da wani dalili na kare kai ba, Kotun Tokyo ta ayyana harin don wucewa ta hanyar tabbatar da wajibcin soja don haka ya zama laifin yaki.

Laifukan yaƙi suna da mahimmanci a dokar agaji ta ƙasa da ƙasa saboda yanki ne da aka haɗu da kotunan ƙasa da ƙasa kamar na Nuremberg da Tokyo . Misalai na baya-bayan nan sune Kotun hukunta manyan laifuka ta kasa da kasa ta Yugoslavia da kuma Kotun hukunta masu manyan laifuka ta Ruwanda, wadanda Kwamitin Tsaro na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da ke aiki karkashin Kashi na VIII na Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya suka kafa .

A karkashin Ka'idojin Nuremberg, laifukan yaki sun banbanta da na cin zarafin zaman lafiya . Laifukan yaki da zaman lafiya sun hada da shiryawa, shiryawa, farawa, ko yin yakin wuce gona da iri, ko yakin keta yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa, yarjejeniyoyi, ko kuma tabbaci. Saboda za a iya muhawara kan ma'anar yanayin "yaki", kalmar "laifukan yaki" kanta ta ga amfani daban-daban a karkashin tsarin daban-daban na dokar kasa da kasa da ta soja. Yana da ɗan mataki na aikace-aikace a waje da abin da wasu za su iya ɗauka a matsayin yanayin "yaƙi", amma a cikin yankunan da rikice-rikice suka ci gaba har suka haifar da rashin zaman lafiyar jama'a.

A wasu lokuta ana zargin shari'o'in yaƙi da ƙunshe da fifiko ga waɗanda suka yi nasara (" Adalcin Victor "), kamar yadda ba a zartar da wasu rikice-rikice a matsayin laifukan yaƙi ba. Wasu misalai sun hada da halakar Allies na biranen Axis a lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na II, kamar fashewar wuta na Dresden, harin <i id="mwAbw">Ofishin Taro</i> a Tokyo (mummunan harin bam guda ɗaya a tarihi), da fashewar atom na Hiroshima da Nagasaki . Dangane da harin bama-bamai lokacin yakin duniya na II, babu wata yarjejeniya ko kayan aiki na duniya da ke kare fararen hula musamman daga harin jirgin sama, saboda haka hare-hare ta sama kan fararen hula ba laifukan yaƙi a hukumance bane. Allies a shari’ar a Nuremberg da Tokyo ba su taɓa gurfanar da Jamusawa ba, gami da babban kwamandan Luftwaffe Hermann Göring, don kai harin bam a Warsaw, Rotterdam, da biranen Biritaniya a lokacin Blitz da kuma hare-haren wuce gona da iri kan biranen kawancen tare da V -1 bama-bamai masu tashi sama da roket V-2, ko Jafananci don kai hare-hare ta sama kan biranen China cike da mutane. Kodayake babu wasu yarjejeniyoyi musamman game da yakin jirgi, Yarjejeniya ta 1, Mataki na 51 na Yarjejeniyar Geneva a bayyane ya hana yin ruwan bama-bamai a biranen da fararen hula za su iya zama ba tare da la'akari da kowace hanya ba. (duba bama-bamai na sama da dokar ƙasa ).

Rikici ya faru ne lokacin da Allies suka sake sanya POWs na Jamusanci (a ƙarƙashin kariya ta Yarjejeniyar Geneva ta 1929 akan fursunonin yaƙi ) a matsayin Enungiyar Maƙiya ta ararya (ana zargin ba a kiyaye ta 1929 Geneva Yarjejeniyar kan Fursunonin Yaƙi ba), da yawa waɗanda aka yi amfani da su don tilasta aiki kamar share filayen ma'adinai . [2] Zuwa Disamba 1945, watanni shida bayan yakin ya ƙare, hukumomin Faransa sun kiyasta cewa har yanzu ana kashe ko raunata fursunonin Jamusawa dubu biyu kowane wata a cikin haɗarin kwance ma'adinai. An canza kalmomin Yarjejeniyar Geneva ta 1949 na 1949 da gangan daga na 1929 don Sojojin da suka "fada cikin iko" biyo bayan mika wuya ko yawan garkuwar makiyi yanzu an ba su kariya da kuma wadanda aka kama fursuna yayin yakin.

A karkashin dokar rikici (LOAC), mutuwar waɗanda ba sa yaƙin ba dole ba ne cin zarafi; akwai abubuwa da yawa don la'akari. Ba za a iya sanya fararen hula abin abin kai hari ba, amma mutuwa / rauni ga fararen hula yayin gudanar da hari kan manufar soja ana mulkinta ne a karkashin ka'idoji kamar na daidaito da bukatar sojoji kuma ana iya halatta. Wajabcin soja "yana ba da izinin halakar rayuwar ... mutanen da rikice-rikicen yaƙe-yaƙe ba za su iya kiyaye halakar su ba; ... baya ba da izinin kashe bayin Allah marasa laifi don ramuwar gayya ko gamsar da sha'awar kashewa. Lalata dukiya don halal ya zama tilas dole ne a buƙaci buƙatun yaƙi. ”

Misali, gudanar da aiki a rumbun ajiye makamai ko sansanin horar da 'yan ta'adda ba za a hana shi ba saboda wani manomi yana nome gona a yankin; manomi ba shine abin kawo hari ba kuma ayyukan zasuyi daidai da karfin soja. A gefe guda, fa'idodin soja na ban mamaki zai zama dole don tabbatar da aikin da ke haifar da haɗarin mutuwa ko rauni ga dubban fararen hula. A cikin "grayer" shari'ar tambaya game da ko cutarwa da ake tsammani ta wuce gona da iri na iya zama mai ma'ana sosai. A saboda wannan dalili, Jihohi suka zaɓi amfani da mizanin "a sarari" don ƙayyade ko keta haddin laifi ya faru.

Lokacin da babu wata hujja don aikin soja, kamar farar hula da aka sanya su abin kai hari, binciken kwatankwacin ba shi da muhimmanci don yanke hukuncin cewa harin ba shi da doka.

Kotun hukunta manyan laifuka ta kasa da kasa game da tsohuwar Yugoslavia[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Don bugun iska, matukan jirgi gaba ɗaya sun dogara da bayanan da ke fitowa daga kafofin waje (hedkwatar, sojojin ƙasa) cewa takamaiman matsayi shine ainihin abin sojan soja. Game da tsohuwar Yugoslavia, matukan jirgin NATO sun buge wani abu na farar hula ( ofishin jakadancin China a Belgrade ) wanda ba shi da muhimmancin soja, amma matukan jirgin ba su da ra'ayin yanke shi baya ga umarninsu. Kwamitin ya yanke hukuncin cewa "ba za a sanya wa jirgin saman da ke da hannu cikin harin ba saboda an ba su mummunar manufa kuma bai dace ba a yi kokarin sanya alhakin aikata laifi ga abin da ya faru ga manyan shugabanni saboda an ba su bayanai marasa kyau. ta jami'an wata hukumar ". Rahoton ya kuma lura da cewa "Mafi yawan kayan da aka gabatar wa OTP sun kunshi rahotanni ne cewa an kashe fararen hula, galibi ana kiran a kammala da cewa an aikata laifuka. Raunin jingina ga fararen hula da lalata kayayyakin farar hula na iya faruwa saboda wasu dalilai. ”

Dokar Rendulic[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An tuhumi Janar Lothar Rendulic na Jamusawa da bayar da umarnin rusa gine-gine da filayen fararen hula yayin da yake ja da baya daga wani harin da ake zargin abokan gaba da shi a cikin abin da ake kira siyasar duniya da aka kona saboda manufar soja ta hana amfani da fili ga makiya. Ya wuce gona da iri da aka hango amma yana jayayya cewa Hague IV ya ba da izinin halakar saboda ya zama wajibi a yi yaƙi. An wanke shi daga wannan tuhumar.

Underarkashin "Dokar Rendulic" dole ne mutane su tantance wajibcin aikin soja bisa la’akari da bayanan da suke da su a wancan lokacin; ba za a iya yanke musu hukunci ba dangane da bayanan da suka zo a bayyane.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jerin ƙasar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jerin laifukan yaki
  • Zaluncin Bangladesh 1971
  • Laifukan yaƙi na ƙawance yayin Yaƙin Duniya na II
  • Laifukan yaki na Burtaniya
  • Laifukan yakin na Jamus
    • Sakamakon Naziyanci na Jamusawa
    • Holocaust
    • Laifukan yaƙi na Wehrmacht
  • Kotun Soja ta Duniya don Gabas ta Gabas
  • Kungiyar Daular Islama ta Iraki da binciken laifukan yaki na Levant
  • Laifin yakin Italiya
  • Laifukan yakin Japan
  • Tsoma bakin da Saudiyya ta jagoranta a Yemen
  • Laifukan Yaƙin Koriya
  • Laifukan yakin Soviet
  • Kwamitin Majalisar Dattijan Amurka kan Philippines
  • Amurka laifukan yaki

Matsalolin doka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Dokar Kariyar Ba-Amurke
  • Umurnin umarni
  • Dokar yaƙi
  • Dokar Doka a Tsarin Rikici na Rikici (RULAC)
  • Russell Tribunal
  • Kotun Musamman ta Saliyo
  • Kotun Laifuka ta Duniya da mamaye Iraki a 2003
  • Dokar Laifin Laifin Yaki (Belgium)
  • Dokar Laifin Laifin Yaki na 1996 - shigar da Laifukan Yaki a cikin dokar Amurka
  • Ikon duniya

Dabam-dabam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Tarihin Ta'addanci
  • Mai shiga tsakani na farar hula
  • Umurnin Commando
  • Commissar oda
  • Laifuka akan bil'adama
  • Laifi akan zaman lafiya
  • Laifin zalunci
  • Gwajin likitoci
  • Masana kimiyya
  • Garkuwar ɗan adam
  • Binciken Kotun Laifuka ta Duniya
  • Katyn kisan gilla
  • Jerin sunayen tsoffin citizensan asalin ƙasar Amurka waɗanda ba a ba su izini ba, gami da waɗanda aka ba su labarin don ɓoye hannu a cikin laifukan yaƙi don samun citizenshipan ƙasar
  • Kwashewa
  • Laifin Mass Laifi
  • Kashe mutane
  • Soja amfani da yara
  • Nazarin ɗan adam na Nazi
  • Kisan fursinonin NKVD
  • Babu kwata
  • Ka'idojin Nuremberg
  • Farancin
  • Razakars (Pakistan)
  • Aikin Sentinel na Tauraron Dan Adam
  • Kashe-kashen Srebrenica
  • Ta'addancin Jiha
  • Tashin bom
  • Adalcin wucin gadi
  • Mayaki mara doka
  • Tashin hankali lokacin tashin hankali
  • Binciken Sojoji na Hunturu

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sauran manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. highlights the first international war crimes tribunal by Linda Grant, Harvard Law Bulletin.
  2. S. P. MacKenzie "The Treatment of Prisoners of War in World War II" The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 66, No. 3. (Sep. 1994), pp. 487–520.