Kafar Azaba

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Wikidata.svgKafar Azaba
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Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na punishment (en) Fassara
WordLift URL (en) Fassara http://data.medicalrecords.com/medicalrecords/healthwise/corporal_punishment

kafar azãba ko wani jiki azãba ne azãba wadda aka nufi da sa jiki zafi ga mutum. Lokacin da aka yi wa yara ƙanana, musamman a cikin gida da hukuncin makaranta, hanyoyinta na iya haɗawa da dirka ko fallaji . Lokacin da aka sa wa manya, ana iya yi wa fursunoni da bayi .

Hukuncin jiki na laifi ko rauni, gami da bulala, alama, har ma da yanke jiki, ana yin su a yawancin wayewa tun zamanin da . Tare da haɓakar ƙa'idodin agaji tun bayan Haskakawa, ana ɗaukar irin waɗannan hukunce-hukuncen azaman rashin mutuntaka a cikin al'ummomin da ke Hatsari . A ƙarshen karni na 20, an kawar da hukuncin cutar jiki daga tsarin doka na yawancin ƙasashe masu tasowa .

A karni na ashirin da daya, halatta hukuncin kamuwa a lokacin baya karuwan cututtuka a wurare daban-daban ta banbanta da iko . Bangaren kasa da kasa, a karshen karni na ashirin da farkon karni na ashirin da daya ya ga yadda ake amfani da dokar kare hakkin dan adam game da batun azabtar da kai a wasu fannoni:

  • Hukuncin cikin gida, hukuncin yara ta hanyar iyaye ko wasu masu kula da su, ya halatta a yawancin duniya, amma, ya zuwa shekarar 2018, ƙasashe hamsin da tawas 58, galibi a cikin Turai da Latin Amurka, sun hana yin hakan.
  • An dakatar da azabtar da daliban makaranta, ta hanyar malamai da masu kula da makarantar, a cikin ƙasashe da yawa, ciki har da Kanada, Kenya, Afirka ta Kudu, New Zealand da duk Turai. Ya kasance ya zama doka, idan ya zama ba sananne ba, a wasu jihohin Amurka da Ostiraliya .
  • Hukuncin kotuna, kamar su Pillory Stocks, a zaman wani ɓangare na hukuncin laifi da kotu ta ba da umarni, ya daɗe yana ɓacewa daga yawancin ƙasashen Turai. Koyaya, har zuwa watan Nuwamba 2017, ya kasance yana da halaye a sassan Afirka, Asiya, Caribbean da Anglophone da kuma indan asalin Ecuador da Colombia .
  • Hukuncin kota gidan yari ko horo na ladabtarwa, wanda hukumomin gidan yari suka ba da umarni ko aiwatar da shi kai tsaye ta ma'aikata, kamar yadda ake yi a yankunan mulkin mallaka na Australiya .
  • An yarda ko azabtar da kai a cikin wasu saitunan soja a cikin 'yan ƙananan hukumomi.
  • A da, ana koyar da masu koyon aikin ne daga iyayen gidansu.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A yawancin kasashen Yammacin duniya, kungiyoyin likitoci da na kare hakkin dan'adam suna adawa da horon yara kanana. Kamfen da kofur azãba sun nufin kawo karshen abun game da shari'a da sake fasalin domin ba da amfani da kofur azãba da mutane a cikin gidajensu da kuma makarantu.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Marubuci Jared Diamond ya rubuta cewa al'ummomin mafarauta suna son yin amfani da ƙananan hukunci yayin da al'ummomin masu noma da masana'antu ke amfani da shi a gaba. Diamond yana ba da shawarar wannan na iya zama saboda masu karɓar mafarauta ba su da wadatattun abubuwan mallaka na zahiri, kuma rashin mutuncin yaro ba zai haifar da cutarwa ga dukiyar wasu ba.

Masu binciken da suka rayu tsakanin mutanen Parakanã da Ju / 'hoansi, da wasu ' yan asalin Australiya, sun rubuta game da rashin azabtar da yara na zahiri a cikin waɗannan al'adun.

Wilson ya rubuta:

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Birching, Jamus, karni na 17
Zane na bulala a kurkukun jihar Oregon, 1908

A cikin Yammacin duniya, a al'adance manya ke amfani da horon yara ga yara kananq. [1] Bugun ɗa a matsayin nau'i na horo har ma an ba da shawarar a littafin Misalai :

Robert McCole Wilson ya yi jayayya da cewa, "Mai yiwuwa wannan halayyar ta zo ne, aƙalla a wani ɓangare, daga sha'awar da ake da ita a cikin al'adun magabata don wasu dattijan na ci gaba da ikonsa, inda wannan ikon shi ne babban wakili na zaman lafiyar jama'a. Amma waɗannan kalmomin ne waɗanda ba kawai suka ba da hujjar amfani da azabar jiki a kan yara sama da shekaru dubu a cikin al'ummomin Kirista ba, amma sun ba da umarnin a yi amfani da shi. An karɓi kalmomin tare da wasu kaɗan; kawai a cikin shekaru ɗari biyu da suka gabata an sami ƙaruwar mahangar ra'ayi da suka bambanta. Abin mamakin, sau da yawa ba a kula da sassaucij Kiristi ga yara (Mark, X) ". [10]

Wafa bulalar mai laifi, Iran, 1910s

An yi amfani da azabtar da kai a cikin Misira, China, Girka, da Rome don kiyaye ƙa'idodin shari'a da ilimi. [11] tasa keyar masu laifi na Masar da suka lalace zuwa Tjaru da Rhinocorura a kan iyakar Sinai, yankin da sunansa ke nufin " yanke hanci ." An ba da umarnin azabtar da kai a Isra'ila ta d, a, amma an iyakance shi da bulala 40. [2] A cikin China, wasu masu laifi suma sun lalace amma wasu masu laifi sun yi zaune. Wasu jihohin sunyi suna saboda zalunci da amfani da irin wannan hukuncin; Sparta, musamman, tayi amfani dasu azaman ɓangare na tsarin ladabtarwa wanda aka tsara don haɓaka ƙarfi da ƙarfin jiki. [13] Duk da cewa misalin Spartan ya wuce gona da iri, hukuncin mai yiwuwa ya fi kowane irin hukunci. A cikin Daular Roma, iyakar hukuncin da dan Roma zai iya samu a karkashin doka shi ne "bulala" 40 ko "bulala" 40 tare da bulala wanda aka shafe a baya da kafaɗu, ko bulala 40 ko bulala tare da " azumin " ( kwatankwacin sandar birch, amma ya kunshi tsawon 8-10 na Willow maimakon birch) wanda aka yi amfani da shi ga gindi. Irin waɗannan hukunce-hukuncen na iya jawo jini, kuma ana yin su akai-akai a gaban jama'a.

Quintilian (c. 35 - c. 100) ya nuna adawa ga yin amfani da hukuncin azaba. A cewar Wilson, "mai yiwuwa ba a sami karin bayani game da shi ba a cikin shekaru dubu biyu masu zuwa". [13]

Plutarch, shima a cikin ƙarni na farko, ya rubuta:

Birching akan gindi

Tsakiyar Zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Tsakiyar Turai, Daular Byzantine ta makantar kuma ta ƙaryata wasu masu laifi da sarakunan da ke hamayya da ita. Imaninsu cewa sarki ya zama mai cikakkiyar fata yana nufin cewa irin wannan ɓatancin ba da ra'ayin shi ya hana mai karɓar daga ofis ba. (Mulki na biyu na Justinian the Slit-nosed shine sananne sananne. ) A wani wurin kuma, halayen cocin Katolika sun karfafa gwiwar mutum saboda azaba ta jiki, nuna flagel wata hanya ce ta horar da kai. Wannan yana da tasiri akan amfani da azabar jiki a cikin makarantu, saboda cibiyoyin ilimi suna da alaƙa da cocin sosai a wannan lokacin. Koyaya, ba a yi amfani da azabtarwa ta jiki ba; tun farkon karni na goma sha ɗaya Saint Anselm, Archbishop na Canterbury yana magana game da abin da yake gani a matsayin wuce gona da iri na azabtar da jiki a kula da yara.

Zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daga ƙarni na 16 zuwa gaba, ana ganin sabbin abubuwa a cikin azabar al'aura. Hukuncin shari'a ya ƙara zama jujjuyawar jama'a, tare da d beatkan jama'a da masu laifi da nufin hana wasu masu laifi. A halin da ake ciki, marubutan farko a kan ilimi, irin su Roger Ascham, sun koka da yadda ake azabtar da yara ba da son rai ba.

Peter Newell ya rubuta cewa wataƙila marubuci mafi tasiri a kan batun shi ne ɗan falsafar Ingilishi John Locke, wanda Wasu Tunani Game da Ilimi ya fito fili ya soki matsayin muhimmin aikin azabtarwa a cikin ilimi. Aikin Locke ya yi tasiri sosai, kuma mai yiwuwa ya taimaka ya rinjayi 'yan majalisar Poland don hana azabtar da kai daga makarantun Poland a 1783, ƙasa ta farko a duniya da ta yi hakan.

Hukuncin ɗabi'a a cikin kurkukun mata, Amurka (kusan 1890)
Batog, azabtar da kai a cikin Daular Rasha
Husaga (haƙƙin maigida ne ya ladabtar da bayinsa) a Sweden don manya a cikin 1858.

Sakamakon wannan yanayin tunanin shine ragin amfani da azabar jiki a cikin karni na 19 a Turai da Arewacin Amurka. A cikin wasu ƙasashe wannan ya sami ƙarfin gwiwa ta hanyar abin kunya da ya shafi mutane waɗanda suka ji rauni sosai a yayin aiwatar da hukuncin ɗanɗano. Misali, a Birtaniyya, fitattun masu adawa da hukunci sun sami kwarin gwiwa ta manyan lamura guda biyu, mutuwar Private Frederick John White, wanda ya mutu bayan bulalar sojoji a 1846, da mutuwar Reginald Cancellor, wanda malamin makarantarsa ya kashe a 1860 [3] Abubuwan da suka faru kamar waɗannan sun haɗu da ra'ayoyin jama'a kuma, a ƙarshen karni na sha tara, yawan amfani da azabtarwa a makarantun jihar ba shi da farin jini ga iyaye da yawa a Ingila. [4] Hukumomi a Biritaniya da wasu ƙasashe sun gabatar da cikakkun ƙa'idodi game da azabtar da jiki a cikin cibiyoyin gwamnati kamar makarantu, gidajen yari da wuraren kawo sauyi. A yakin duniya na farko, korafin da iyaye suka yi game da wuce gona da iri a Ingila ya mutu, kuma aka kafa hukuncin azaba a matsayin wani nau'i na ladabtarwar makaranta.

A shekarun 1870, kotuna a Amurka sun yi biris da ka’idar gama gari wacce ke cewa miji na da ‘yancin“ azabtar da matar da ta yi kuskure ”. A Burtaniya, hakkin gargajiya na miji ya sanya wa matarsa horo na matsakaici don ya kiyaye ta "cikin iyakokin aiki" an cire irin wannan a cikin 1891. Duba Rikicin cikin gida don ƙarin bayani.

A kasar Burtaniya, amfani da hukuncin alkalanci ya ragu yayin rabin farko na karni na ashirin kuma an soke shi gaba daya a cikin Dokar Shari'ar Masu Laifi, 1948 (zi & z2 GEo. 6. CH. 58.), inda aka haramta bulala da bulala sai dai a yi amfani da su a cikin manyan lamuran ladabtarwa na gidan yari, [5] yayin da galibin sauran kasashen Turai suka soke shi a baya. A halin yanzu, a cikin makarantu da yawa, amfani da sanda, paddle ko tawse ya kasance gama gari a cikin Burtaniya da Amurka har zuwa 1980s. A cikin yankunan karkara na Kudancin Amurka, da kuma a wasu ƙasashe da yawa, har yanzu shine: duba Hukuncin ɗabi'a ta Makaranta .

Yarjejeniyar duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yancin ɗan adam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abubuwan ci gaba masu alaƙa da azabar al'aura sun auku a ƙarshen karni na 20. An jaddada shekaru tare da muhimmiyar mahimmanci ga haramcin azabtar da jiki.

  • 1950: Yarjejeniyar Turai na 'Yancin Dan Adam, Majalisar Turai . [6] Mataki na uku ya hana " azabtarwa ko ladabi ".
    • 1978 : Kotun Turai na 'Yancin Dan Adam, da ke lura da aiwatar da ita, ta zartar da hukuncin da ya shafi keta haddin kananan yara Mataki na 3. [7]
  • 1985: Ka'idodin imumananan Ka'idoji don Gudanar da Addinin Matasa, ko Dokokin Beijing, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ( UN ). Dokar 17.3: "Yaran yara ba za su iya fuskantar hukunci na jiki ba."
    • Suparin 1990 : Dokoki don Kariyar Juan shekaru da aka hana Libancinsu . Doka ta 67: "... duk matakan ladabtarwa da ke haifar da zalunci, rashin mutuntaka ko ƙasƙantar da mutum za a haramta shi, gami da azabtar da kai. . . "
  • 1990 : Sharuɗɗa don Rigakafin Laifin Matasa, Ka'idodin Riyadh, UN. Sakin layi na 21 (h): tsarin ilimi ya kamata ya guji "tsauraran matakan ladabtarwa, musamman hukunci na jiki."
  • 1966: Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'Yancin Dan Adam da Siyasa, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, tare da jam’iyyu 167 a yanzu, masu sanya hannu 74. Mataki na bakwai: "Ba wanda za a azabtar da shi azaba ko azaba, azabtarwa, rashin mutuntaka ko cin mutunci ko horo. . . "
    • 1992 : Kwamitin Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam, da ke lura da aiwatar da shi, ya yi tsokaci: "haramcin dole ne ya kai ga azabtar da jiki .... Game da wannan ... ... labarin 7 yana kare, musamman yara,. . . " [8]
  • 1984: Yarjejeniyar kan Azabtarwa da Sauran Zalunci, Rashin Jin Dadin Mutunci ko Hukunci, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, tare da jam’iyyu 150 da masu sanya hannu 78 a halin yanzu.
    • 1996 : Kwamitin yaki da azabtarwa, mai lura da aiwatar da shi, ya la'anci hukuncin na jiki. [9]
  • 1966: Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'Yancin Tattalin Arziki, Zamantakewa da Al'adu, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, tare da jam'iyyun 160 a halin yanzu, da masu sanya hannu 70. Mataki na 13 (1): "Ilimi zai zama jagora zuwa cikakken ci gaban mutumtaka da sanin kimar sa. . . "
    • 1999 : Kwamiti kan Hakkoki na Tattalin Arziki, Zamantakewa da Al'adu, wanda ke lura da aiwatar da shi, ya yi tsokaci: "Hukuncin jiki ya saba da ka'idar jagora ta dokokin kare hakkin dan adam na duniya .... Mutuncin mutum." [10]
  • 1961: Yarjejeniyar Tattalin Arziki ta Turai, Majalisar Turai.
    • 2001 : Kwamitin 'Yancin Dan Adam na Turai, mai lura da aiwatar da shi, ya kammala: ba "abin yarda ba ne cewa al'ummar da ke haramta duk wani nau'in tashin hankali na zahiri tsakanin manya za ta yarda da cewa manya na fuskantar yara da tashin hankali." [11]

Hakkin yara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Tunani game da haƙƙin yara a Yammacin duniya ya ɓullo a ƙarni na 20, amma ba a magance batun azabtar da kai gaba ɗaya ba kafin tsakiyar ƙarnin. An jaddada shekaru tare da muhimmiyar mahimmanci ga hana azabtar da yara ga yara.

  • 1923: Sanarwa game da haƙƙin yara daga founderan kungiyar Save the Children . (Labari 5).
    • 1924 Soma matsayin World Child Welfare Yarjejeniya, League of Nations (ba enforceable).
  • 1959: Sanarwa game da Hakkokin Yaro, ( UN ) (abubuwan 10; ba masu ɗaurewa ba).
  • 1989: Yarjejeniyar kan Hakkokin Yaro, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (abubuwa 54; yarjejeniya mai ɗaurewa), tare da a halin yanzu ƙungiyoyi 193 da sanya hannu 140. Mataki na 19.1: "Statesungiyoyin Jihohi za su ɗauki duk matakan da suka dace na doka, gudanarwa, zamantakewa da ilimi don kare yaron daga duk nau'ikan tashin hankali na jiki ko na hankali, rauni ko cin zarafi, sakaci ko kula da sakaci, tozartawa ko amfani da su. . . . "
    • 2006 : Kwamitin Hakkin Yaro, mai lura da aiwatar da shi, ya yi tsokaci: akwai "wajibcin dukkan Partyungiyoyin Jiha da su hanzarta hanawa da kuma kawar da duk wani hukunci na jiki." [12]
    • 2011: Zabi na Yarjejeniyar a kan Hanyar Sadarwa wanda ke ba yara damar gabatar da korafi game da takamaiman take hakkinsu. [13]
  • 2006: Nazari kan Rikicin Yara da Kwararren Masani na Sakatare-Janar ya gabatar ga Babban taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. [14]
  • 2007: Matsayi na Wakilin Sakatare-Janar na Musamman kan cin zarafin yara da aka kafa. [15]

Amfani da zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dokoki a kan azabtar da kai a duniya 

Matsayin doka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Countriesasashe 59, galibinsu a cikin Turai da Latin Amurka, sun hana kowane irin horo na yara.

Attemptoƙarin farko da aka yi rikodin don hana azabtar da yara ta hanyar wata ƙasa ya koma Poland ne a cikin 1783. :31–2 Koyaya, haramtawarsa a kowane fanni na rayuwa - a cikin gidaje, makarantu, tsarin hukunce-hukunce da sauran tsare-tsaren kulawa - sun fara faruwa a 1966 a Sweden. Lambar Iyayen Sweden ta 1979 ta karanta: "Yara suna da hakkin kulawa, tsaro da kyakkyawar tarbiyya. Ya kamata a kula da yara ta hanyar mutunta mutumtakarsu kuma ba za a yi musu horo na jiki ko wani wulakanci ba. ” :32

As of 2018, corporal punishment of children by parents (or other adults) is outlawed in all settings in 58 nations (including the partially recognized Republic of Kosovo) and 3 constituent nations.

Countries that have completely prohibited corporal punishment of children:
Country Year
Template:SWE 1979
Template:FIN 1983
Template:NOR 1987
Template:AUT 1989
Template:CYP 1994
Template:DEN 1997
Template:POL 1997
Flag of Latvia.svg Laitfiya 1998
{{country data Germany}} 1998
Template:CRO 1999
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgairiya 2000
Template:ISR 2000
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg Turkmenistan 2002
Flag of Iceland.svg Iceland 2003
Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraniya 2004
Template:ROM 2004
Template:HUN 2005
Flag of Greece.svg Greek 2006
Flag of New Zealand.svg Sabuwar Zelandiya 2007
Template:NED 2007
Template:POR 2007
Flag of Uruguay.svg Uruguay 2007
Flag of Venezuela.svg Venezuela 2007
Flag of Spain.svg Ispaniya 2007
Flag of Togo.svg Togo 2007
Flag of Costa Rica.svg Costa Rica 2008
Flag of Moldova.svg MOldufiniya 2008
Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luksamburg 2008
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg Liechtenstein 2008
Flag of Tunisia.svg Tunisiya 2010
Flag of Kenya.svg Kenya 2010
Template:Country data Congo, Republic of 2010
Flag of Albania.svg Albaniya 2010
Flag of South Sudan.svg Sudan ta Kudu 2011
Flag of North Macedonia.svg Masadoiniya ta Arewa 2013
Flag of Cape Verde.svg Cabo Verde 2013
Flag of Honduras.svg Honduras 2013
Flag of Malta.svg Malta 2014
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil 2014
Flag of Bolivia (state).svg Bolibiya 2014
Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina 2014
Flag of San Marino.svg San Marino 2014
Flag of Nicaragua.svg Nicaragua 2014
Flag of Estonia.svg Istoniya 2014
Flag of Andorra.svg Andorra 2014
Flag of Benin.svg Benin 2015
Template:IRL 2015
Flag of Peru.svg Peru 2015
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mangolia 2016
Template:MNE 2016
Flag of Paraguay (reverse).svg Paraguay 2016
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Kingdom of the Netherlands (en) Fassara 2016
Flag of Slovenia.svg Sloveniya 2016
Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania 2017
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal 2018
Flag of Kosovo.svg Kosovo (en) Fassara 2019
Flag of France.svg Faransa 2019
Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa 2019
Flag of Jersey.svg Jersey 2019
{{country data Georgia}} 2020
Flag of Japan.svg Japan 2020
Flag of Seychelles.svg Seychelles 2020
Flag of Scotland.svg Scotland 2020
Flag of Guinea.svg Gine 2021
Flag of Colombia.svg Kolombiya 2021
Flag of South Korea.svg Koriya ta Kudu 2021
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Birtaniya 2022

Don ƙarin bayyani game da faɗin duniya da hana azabtar da yara da yara, duba jadawalin da ke gaba.

Takaita yawan kasashen da ke haramta azaba ta jiki ga yara
Gida Makaranta Tsarin azaba Saitunan kulawa na madadin
A matsayin hukuncin laifi A matsayin matakin ladabtarwa
An hana 58 118 155 116 38
Ba a haramta ba 140 80 42 78 160
Ba a san doka ba - - 1 4 -

Horon ciki a cikin gida[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An overview of the Abolition of Defence of Reasonable Punishment Act 2020, which ends the physical punishment of children everywhere, including the home.

Domestic kofur azãba (watau azãbar yara da iyayensu) ne sau da yawa ake magana a kai colloquially matsayin " spanking ", "smacking", ko "slapping".

An haramta shi a cikin ƙarin yawan ƙasashe, farawa da Sweden a 1979. A wasu wasu ƙasashe, azabar jiki ta halatta, amma an ƙuntata (misali bugawa kai kai doka ce, ba za a iya amfani da kayan aiki ba, yara kawai a cikin wasu shekarun da za a iya lulluɓewa).

A duk jihohin Amurka da mafi yawan ƙasashen Afirka da Asiya, hukuncin mahaifa daga iyaye ya zama doka a halin yanzu. Hakanan doka ce don amfani da wasu kayan aiki (misali bel ko paddle).

A Kanada, duka da iyaye ko masu kula da doka suka yi (amma ba wani ba) ya halatta, matuƙar yaro yana tsakanin shekarun 2–12, kuma ba a aiwatar da shi sai buɗe hannu, ana amfani da hannu a hannu (bel, paddles, da dai sauransu.) an haramta su sosai). Kuma haramun ne a bugi shugaban a lokacin da za a yi wa yaro horo.

A cikin Burtaniya (ban da Scotland), duka ko buguwa doka ce, amma ba dole ba ne ya haifar da raunin da ya kai ga Barfin Bodily Harm (duk wani rauni kamar ɓarkewar gani, karyewar dukkan fatar, da sauransu. Bugu da kari, a cikin Scotland, tun a watan Oktoba na 2003, ya saba wa doka amfani da duk wani kayan aiki ko bugun kai a lokacin da za a yi wa yaro horo, kuma an hana yin amfani da horon da ake yi wa yara 'yan kasa da shekaru 3. A cikin 2019, Scotland ta kafa dokar hana azabtar da kai, wanda ya fara aiki a cikin 2020. Ita ma Wales ta kafa dokar hana shiga a shekarar 2020, wacce za ta fara aiki a 2022.

A cikin Pakistan, Sashi na 89 na Penal Code na Pakistan ya ba da damar azabtar da kai.

Hukuncin ɗabi'a a cikin makarantu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haramta azabtar da kai a cikin makarantu a cikin ƙasashe da yawa. Hakan yakan haɗa da bugun ɗalibi a kan gindi ko tafin hannu tare da aiwatarwa (misali sandar ɓoyayyiyar ruwa ko taɓar ruwa ).

A cikin ƙasashe inda har yanzu aka ba da izinin azabtar da kai a cikin makarantu, ana iya samun ƙuntatawa; alal misali, gwanintar makaranta a cikin Singapore da Malaysia, a ka'ida, an ba da izini ga yara maza kawai.

A Indiya, Koriya ta Kudu, da sauran ƙasashe da yawa, a zahiri doka ta soke horon jiki. Koyaya, azaba ta jiki ana ci gaba da aikatawa akan yara maza da mata a makarantu da yawa a duniya. Hasali ma ba a yi nazari da bincike kan al'adu game da azabar al'aura ba. Studyaya daga cikin binciken da aka gudanar ya tattauna kan yadda ake fahimtar azaba ta jiki tsakanin iyaye da ɗalibai a Indiya.

Kwararrun likitocin sun bukaci kawo karshen wannan dabi'a, lura da hatsarin rauni ga hannayen yara musamman. [16]

Hukuncin shari'a ko kuma na shari'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Map of judicial corporal punishment.svg
Wani memba na 'yan sanda na addini na Taliban ya buge wata mata' yar Afghanistan a Kabul a 26 ga Agusta 2001

Kusan kasashe talatin da uku a duniya har yanzu suna riƙe da hukuncin shari'a, gami da wasu tsoffin yankunan Burtaniya kamar Botswana, Malaysia, Singapore da Tanzania. A cikin Singapore, saboda wasu laifuffuka da aka ambata, ana yankewa maza hukuncin ƙawance baya ga ɗaurin kurkuku. Aikin Singapore na can ya zama abin tattaunawa sosai a duniya a cikin shekara ta 1994 lokacin da saurayi Ba'amurke Michael P. Fay ya karɓi bulala huɗu don ɓarna. Hakanan ana amfani da gwangwani da bulala a lardin Aceh a Indonesia.

Wasu kasashen da ke da tsarin shari'ar Musulunci, irin su Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar, Iran, Brunei, Sudan, da wasu jihohin arewacin Najeriya, suna amfani da bulalar shari'a saboda laifuka da dama. A watan Afrilu na shekarr 2020, Kotun Koli ta Saudiyya ta kawo karshen hukuncin bulalar daga tsarin kotun, kuma ta maye gurbinsa da gidan yari ko tarar da akayi. As of 2009 yankuna na Pakistan suna fuskantar rashin lafiya na dokar da gwamnati ta sanya, abu zuwa reintroduction na kofur azãba ta wucin gadi kotun musulunci. [17]Hakanan azabar jiki, wasu ƙasashen musulinci irin su Saudi Arabiya da Iran suna amfani da wasu nau'ikan azabtar da jiki kamar yanke jiki ko yanke jiki . [18] [19] [20] Koyaya, kalmar "azabtar da jiki" tun daga ƙarni na 19 yawanci ana nufin caning, flagellation ko bastinado maimakon waɗancan nau'ikan hukuncin na zahiri. [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]

A wasu ƙasashe, har yanzu ana yin bulalar ( bastinado ) a kan fursunoni.

Ibada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A wasu sassan Ingila, an taba buge yara maza a karkashin tsohuwar al'adar nan ta " Doating the Bound " inda aka gabatar da yaro a gefen gari ko Ikklesiya kuma aka yi masa duka tare da sauyawa ko sanda don alamar iyaka. [28] Wani shahararren "Bugun kan Iyakoki" ya faru a kan iyakar St Giles da yankin da titin Kotun Tottenham yake a yanzu a tsakiyar London. Ainihin dutsen da yayi alama akan iyaka yanzu yana ƙarƙashin hasumiyar ofishin Center Point.

A cikin Jamhuriyar Czech, Slovakia, da wasu yankuna na Hungary, ana aiwatar da al'adar kiwon lafiya da haihuwa a ranar Litinin ta Easter . Samari da samari za su yi wa 'yan mata bulala ko bulala a ƙasan tare da rassan willow masu ɗaure. Bayan da mutumin ya rera wakar, sai budurwar ta juyo sai mutumin ya dauki whacks a bayanta da bulala.

A cikin sanannun al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Takaitawa, daga Piero della Francesca.

Zane

  • A Flagellation, (c.1455-70), da Piero della Francesca . An yi wa Kristi bulala yayin da Bilatus Babunti yake kallo.
  • Yin bulala, (1941), na Horace Pippin . Wani adadi da aka ɗaura a bulala an yi masa bulala. [29]

Fim da Talabijin

Duba: Jerin fina-finai da Talabijin dauke da al'amuran azabtarwa .

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Barathan, Gopal; Caning na Michael Fay, (1995). Wani asusun ajiyar wani saurayi Ba'amurke ( Michael P. Fay ) na zamani don lalata abubuwa a Singapore.
  • Gates, Jay Paul da Marafioti, Nicole; (eds.) ), Hukunci da Hukunci a Anglo-Saxon Ingila, (2014). Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer.
  • Moskos, Bitrus; A Tsaron Bulala, (2011). Hujja cewa bulala na iya zama mafi kyau fiye da lokacin kurkuku.
  • Scott, George; Tarihin Hukunci na Hukunci, (1996).

Wasu manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Rich, John M. (December 1989). "The Use of Corporal Punishment". The Clearing House, Vol. 63, No. 4, pp. 149–152.
  2. Deuteronomy 25:1-3
  3. Middleton, Jacob (2005). "Thomas Hopley and mid-Victorian attitudes to corporal punishment". History of Education.
  4. Middleton, Jacob (November 2012). "Spare the Rod". History Today (London).
  5. Criminal Justice Act, 1948 zi & z2 GEo. 6. CH. 58., pp. 54–55.
  6. This applies to the 47 members of the Council of Europe, an entirely separate body from the European Union, which has only 28 member states.
  7. Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children (2012). Retrieved 1 May 2012. "Key Judgements." The ruling concerned the Isle of Man, a UK Crown Dependency.
  8. UN Human Rights Committee (1992) "General Comment No. 20". HRI/GEN/1/Rev.4.: p. 108
  9. UN (1996) General Assembly Official Records, Fiftieth Session, A/50/44, 1995: par. 177, and A/51/44, 1996: par. 65(i).
  10. UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1999) "General Comment on 'The Right to Education'," HRI/GEN/1/Rev.4: 73.
  11. European Committee of Social Rights 2001. "Conclusions XV – 2," Vol. 1.
  12. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (2006) "General Comment No. 8:" par. 3. However, Article 19 of the Convention makes no reference to corporal punishment, and the Committee's interpretation on this point has been explicitly rejected by several States Party to the Convention, including Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom.
  13. UN OHCHR (2012). Committee on the Rights of the Child. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  14. UN (2006) "Study on Violence against Children presented by Independent Expert for the Secretary-General". United Nations, A/61/299. See further: UN (2012e). Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  15. UN (2007) United Nations General Assembly, A/RES/62/141. The United States was the only country to vote against. There were no abstentions.
  16. "Corporal Punishment to Children's Hands", A Statement by Medical Authorities as to the Risks, January 2002.
  17. Walsh, Declan. "Video of girl's flogging as Taliban hand out justice", The Guardian, London, 2 April 2009.
  18. Campaign against the Arms Trade, Evidence to the House of Commons Select Committee on Foreign Affairs, London, January 2005.
  19. "Lashing Justice", Editorial, The New York Times, 3 December 2007.
  20. "Saudi Arabia: Court Orders Eye to Be Gouged Out", Human Rights Watch, 8 December 2005.
  21. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1989, "corporal punishment: punishment inflicted on the body; originally including death, mutilation, branding, bodily confinement, irons, the pillory, etc. (as opposed to a fine or punishment in estate or rank). In 19th c. usually confined to flogging or similar infliction of bodily pain."
  22. "Physical punishment such as caning or flogging" – Concise Oxford Dictionary.
  23. "... inflicted on the body, esp. by beating." – Oxford American Dictionary of Current English.
  24. "mostly a euphemism for the enforcement of discipline by applying canes, whips or birches to the buttocks." – Charles Arnold-Baker, The Companion to British History, Routledge, 2001.
  25. "Physical punishment such as beating or caning" – Chambers 21st Century Dictionary.
  26. "Punishment of a physical nature, such as caning, flogging, or beating." – Collins English Dictionary.
  27. "the striking of somebody's body as punishment" – Encarta World English Dictionary, MSN. Archived 31 October 2009.
  28. "Mayor may axe child spanking rite", BBC News Online, 21 September 2004.
  29. [1]| Reynolda House Museum of American Art