Ƴancin gwaji

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Wikidata.svgƳancin gwaji
Hakkokin Yan-adam

Gwajin da alkali mai shari'a ya lura dashi ba tare da nuna bangaranci ba shine shari'a mai adalci. Hakoki daban-daban masu alaƙa da shari'ar gaskiya an yi shelar su a fili a cikin Mataki na 10 na Bayyanar da Duniya game da 'Yancin Dan Adam, da Kwaskwarima na shida ga Tsarin Mulkin Amurka, da Mataki na 6 na Yarjejeniyar Turai na' Yancin Dan Adam, da kuma sauran kundin tsarin mulki da shela da yawa a ko'ina duniya. Babu wata dokar kasa da kasa mai daurewa wacce ke bayyana abin da ba fitina ba ce; alal misali, haƙƙin shari'ar yanke hukunci da sauran mahimman hanyoyi sun bambanta daga ƙasa zuwa ƙasa. [1]

Ma'anarta a cikin dokokin kare haƙƙin ɗan adam na duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Haƙƙin fitina cikin adalci yana da matukar taimako wajen bincika a cikin maganganu da yawa waɗanda ke wakiltar dokokin ƙasa da na gargajiya, kamar Sanarwar Universalan Adam na Duniya (UDHR). Ko da yake (UDHR) ta ba da wasu haƙƙoƙin shari'a na adalci, kamar ɗauka cewa ba shi da laifi har sai an tabbatar da wanda ake tuhuma da laifi, a cikin babban tanadin shi ne Mataki na 10 wanda ke cewa:

"Kowane mutum na da cikakkiyar daidaito ga bahasi na adalci a bainar jama'a ta hanyar kotu mai zaman kanta ba tare da nuna bambanci ba, wajen tabbatar da hakkokinsa da wajibai da kuma duk wani laifi da ake tuhumarsa da shi."

Wasu shekaru bayan an karɓi (UDHR),[yaushe?] haƙƙin tabbatar da adalci ya bayyana a cikin Yarjejeniyar duniya ƴancin Siyasa (ICCPR). An kiyaye haƙƙin shari'ar adalci a cikin Labarai na 14 da 16 na ICCPR waɗanda ke ɗauke da dokar ƙasa da ƙasa kan waɗancan jihohin da ke cikin ta. Mataki na 14 (1) ya kafa ainihin haƙƙin tabbatar da shari’a, aya ta 14 (2) ta tanadi zato na rashin laifi, kuma doka ta 14 (3) ta bayyana jerin mafi ƙarancin haƙƙin shari’ar adalci a shari’ar laifi. Mataki na 14 (5) ya tabbatar da hakkin wanda aka yanke wa hukunci ya sami babbar kotun da za ta sake duba hukuncin da aka yanke masa ko hukuncin da aka yanke masa, sannan kuma doka ta 14 (7) ta hana yin hatsari sau biyu . Mataki na 14 (1) ya faɗi cewa:

"Duk mutane za su kasance daidai a gaban kotuna da kotuna. Dangane da yanke hukunci kan duk wani laifi da ake tuhumarsa da shi, ko game da hakkoki da wajibai game da kararraki a gaban doka, kowane mutum na da hakkin ya sami damar sauraren karar da ya gabatar a gaban jama'a ta hanyar kotun da take da iko da 'yanci ba tare da son kai ba wacce doka ta kafa. Ana iya cire 'yan jaridu da jama'a daga duka ko sashin shari'ar saboda dalilai na ɗabi'a, tsarin jama'a ko tsaron ƙasa a cikin al'ummar dimokiradiyya, ko kuma lokacin da sha'awar rayuwar keɓaɓɓu na jam'iyyun ke buƙata, ko kuma gwargwadon tsananin a cikin ra'ayi na kotu a cikin yanayi na musamman inda tallata jama'a zai nuna bambanci ga bukatun adalci; amma duk hukuncin da aka yanke a cikin wani laifi ko kuma a wata kara a shari'ar za a bayyana shi sai dai inda maslahar yara ba tare da bukatar hakan ba ko kuma shari'ar ta shafi rigimar aure ko kulawar yara. "

Taron Geneva[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yarjejeniyar Geneva (GC) da Proarin ladabi (APs) suna buƙatar duk wani fursunonin yaƙi da ke fuskantar shari'ar ya sami hukuncin da ya dace. [2] Misali, Labarai na 102-108 na Yarjejeniyar Geneva ta Uku ta 1949 dalla-dalla game da adalcin gwaji a kan fursunonin yaki. [2] Sauran tanade-tanaden na bukatar "gwaji na yau da kullun"; "tsare tsare na shari'ar da ta dace"; "kotun da ba ta nuna son kai kuma a kai a kai ana girmama ka'idodin tsarin shari'a na yau da kullun"; "Kotun da ake kafawa a kai a kai wacce ke tabbatar da dukkan alkawurran shari'a wadanda mutanen wayewa suka yarda da su ba dole bane"; da "kotu da ke bayar da muhimman abubuwan 'yanci da rashin son kai." [2]

Ma'anar a cikin dokar haƙƙin ɗan Adam na yanki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yancin yin shari'a mai adalci yana kunshe a cikin kasida 3, 7 da 26 na Yarjejeniyar Afirka kan' Yancin Dan Adam da Jama'a (ACHPR).

Hakanan an sanya haƙƙin fitina cikin adalci a cikin ƙa'idodi na 5, 6 da 7 na Yarjejeniyar Turai kan 'Yancin ɗan Adam da kuma ƙa'idodi na 2 zuwa na 4 na Yarjejeniyar ta 7 ga Yarjejeniyar.

Hakkin yin shari'a mai adalci ya kasance yana kunshe a cikin shafuffuka na 3, 8, 9 da 10 na Yarjejeniyar Amurka akan 'Yancin Dan Adam .

Dangantaka da wasu hakkoki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hakkin daidaito a gaban doka wani lokaci ana ɗaukar shi a matsayin ɓangare na haƙƙin shari'ar adalci. Galibi ana tabbatar dashi a ƙarƙashin wani labarin daban na kayan haƙƙin ɗan Adam na ƙasa da ƙasa . Hakkin yana ba wa mutane damar zama fitattu a matsayin doka, ba a matsayin abin adawa ba. Dokar 'yancin ɗan Adam ta duniya ba ta ba da izgili ko wariya ga wannan haƙƙin ɗan Adam ba. Dangane da haƙƙin tabbatar da adalci shine haramcin a kan dokar ta bayan fage, ko kuma dokar da za a sake aiwatarwa, wanda aka sanya shi a cikin kayan haƙƙin ɗan Adam daban da na haƙƙin shari'ar adalci kuma ba za a iya iyakance shi da jihohi bisa ga Yarjejeniyar Turai kan 'haƙƙin ƴancin Adam da Yarjejeniyar Amurka a kan 'Yancin Dan Adam .

Hakkin fitina na gaskiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An bayyana haƙƙin fitina cikin adalci a yawancin ƙasashe da na ƙasashen duniya game da haƙƙin ɗan Adam . Yana daya daga cikin mafi yawan haƙƙoƙin ɗan Adam kuma duk kayan haƙƙin ɗan Adam na duniya sun sanya shi a cikin labarin fiye da ɗaya. Hakkin samun kyakkyawan shari’a yana daya daga cikin hakkokin dan Adam da kuma babbar shari’ar shari’a wacce aka kafa akan fassarar wannan ‘yancin dan Adam. Duk da bambance-bambancen kalmomi da sanya wasu hakkoki na shari'ar adalci, kayan aikin kare hakkin dan Adam na kasa da kasa sun ayyana 'yancin yin shari'ar adalci a cikin maganganu iri daya. Manufar dama ita ce tabbatar da dacewa da adalci. A matsayin mafi karancin ‘yancin fitina cikin adalci ya hada da wadannan hakkoki na shari’ar adalci a shari’ar farar hula da masu laifi :

  • 'yancin a saurari ta kotun da take da iko, mai zaman kanta kuma ba ta nuna son kai
  • 'yancin sauraron jama'a
  • 'yancin a saurare shi a cikin wani lokacin da ya dace
  • daman nasiha
  • 'yancin fassara

Mayasashe na iya iyakance haƙƙin shari'ar adalci ko ragewa daga haƙƙin adalci na adalci ne kawai a cikin yanayin da aka ƙayyade a cikin kayan haƙƙin ɗan Adam.

A cikin aikace-aikacen jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kotun Turai na 'Yancin Dan-Adam da Kotun Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam ta Amurka sun bayyana cewa' yancin yin shari'a ta gaskiya ya shafi dukkan nau'ikan ayyukan shari'a, na farar hula ne ko na laifi. A cewar Kotun Turai na 'Yancin Dan Adam, Mataki na 6 na Yarjejeniyar Turai kan' Yancin Dan Adam da hakkokin shari'ar adalci ya shafi dukkan hakkokin jama'a da wajibai da aka kirkira a karkashin dokar cikin gida don haka ga duk shari'ar farar hula (duba Apeh Uldozotteinek Szovetsege da Sauran v. Hungary 2000).

A cikin ayyukan gudanarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dukkanin Kotun Turai na 'Yancin Dan Adam da Kotun Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam tsakanin Amurka da Amurka sun bayyana cewa yancin yin shari'a mai adalci ba wai kawai ga ayyukan shari'a ba ne, har ma da na gudanarwa. Idan haƙƙin mutum a ƙarƙashin doka yana cikin matsala, dole ne a ƙayyade takaddama ta hanyar kyakkyawan tsari.

A cikin aikace-aikace na musamman[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Turai takaddama na musamman na iya zama batun Mataki na 6 na Yarjejeniyar Turai kan 'Yancin Dan Adam . A cikin Mills v. 2001asar Ingila 2001 Kotun Turai na 'Yancin Dan-Adam ya nuna cewa kotun soja ta kasance a ƙarƙashin Mataki na 6 saboda an tuhumi waɗanda ake tuhumar da abin da kotun ta ɗauka a matsayin babban laifi, cin zarafi da makami da rauni.

Kwamitin Kare Hakkin Bil'Adama da 'Yancin Dan Adam na Afirka (ACHPR) ya kan yi magana ne kan wuraren da kotunan soja za su yi wa fararen hula shari'ar manyan laifuka. Kungiyar ta (ACHPR) ta tabbatar da cewa a gabanta kotunan soja don kada su gamsar da hakkin farar hula na yin shari'a mai adalci (duba Tsarin Hakkin Tsarin Mulki Tsarin mulki v. Najeriya ). Dangane da haka (ACHPR) ta sake tabbatar da ikon ba da shawara a matsayin mai mahimmanci wajen tabbatar da kyakkyawan shari'ar. Kungiyar ta (ACHPR) ta ce mutane na da ‘yancin zabar wanda za su yi shawara a kan sa sannan kuma bai wa kotun sojan yancin kin amincewa da lauya ya saba wa damar yin shari’ar da ta dace.

A Ingila[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yancin fitacciyar shari'a a Burtaniya an tabbatar da ita ta Mataki na 6 na Dokar ' Yancin Dan Adam ta 1998 .

Tsakanin 1971 da 1975, an dakatar da haƙƙin adalci a cikin Arewacin Ireland. An daure wadanda ake zargin cikin kurkuku ba tare da yi musu shari'a ba, kuma sojojin Burtaniya suka yi musu tambayoyi don neman bayani. Wannan galibi ana amfani da shi akan ƙananan Katolika. Gwamnatin Burtaniya ta gabatar da Kotun Turai na 'Yancin Dan Adam da gangan don yaudarar mutane lokacin da ta binciki batun a shekarar 1978. [3] Gwamnatin kasar Ireland da kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam ta Amnesty International sun bukaci ECHR da ta sake duba batun a watan Disambar 2014. Kararraki uku na kotu da suka shafi rikicin Arewacin Ireland da ya faru a yankin Biritaniya a shekarun 1975 da 1976 an zarge su da rashin adalci, wanda hakan ya sa aka daure Birmingham shida, Guildford Four da Maguire Bakwai . Wadannan hukunce-hukuncen daga baya aka soke su, ko da yake bincike kan zarge-zargen da ake yi cewa jami'an 'yan sanda sun karkatar da shari'ar ta kasa hukunta kowa da laifi.

Kasar Burtaniya ta kirkiro wani aiki - Dokar daukaka kara na Shige da Fice na Musamman a shekarar 1997, wanda hakan ya haifar da kirkirar Hukumar daukaka kara ta Musamman (SIAC). Ya ba da izinin bayyana sirri a kotu; duk da haka, yana bayar da tanadi don rashin sunan asalin da kuma bayanan da kanta. Alkalin yana da ikon share dakin taron daga jama'a da kuma dannan manema labarai, da kuma mai gabatar da kara idan akwai bukatar hakan, idan dole ne a sake yada bayanai masu muhimmancin. An samar da wanda ya gabatar da karar tare da wani Lauya na Musamman, wanda aka nada domin ya wakilci bukatunsu, sai dai kuma ba a iya tuntubar mai kara bayan ganin bayanan sirrin. (SIAC) galibi ana amfani da shi ne don shari'ar kora, da sauran shari'o'in da suka shafi jama'a.

Bayanin sirri ya ga ƙara amfani a kotunan Burtaniya. Wasu suna jayayya cewa wannan yana lalata tsarin shari'ar masu laifi na Biritaniya, saboda wannan shaidar ba za ta zo ƙarƙashin bincika dimokiradiyya yadda ya kamata ba. A yanzu ana iya amfani da shaidar sirri a cikin lamurra da dama da suka hada da saurarar kararraki, gudanar da umarnin umarni, shari’ar kwamitin sasantawa, aikace-aikacen daskare kadara, sauraren karar tsarewa a shari’ar ta’addanci, kotunan aiki da kotunan tsarawa.

A Ingila da Wales, asalin Hakkin Zuwa Gaban Kotu da 'Yancin Da Za a Ji ana iya gano shi a cikin Magna Carta Act, 1215. Art. 39 na dokar yayi magana game da shari'ar adalci da hukunci ta hanyar wata kotu mai iko bayan fitinar.

Alkalai da shari'ar gaskiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dalilin juriya shine cewa yana bayar da caki akan ikon jihar.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A karkashin Mataki na 6 na (ECHR), 'yancin yin shari'a mai adalci yana nuna cewa mai zargi da jama'a dole ne su iya fahimtar hukuncin. Gwajin da masu yanke hukunci suka yanke, saboda ba su ba da dalilan yanke shawara ba, saboda haka kar a ba da izinin wannan. [4] A cikin Taxquet v Belgium an sami keta doka ta 6 (1). Kotun ta kuma nuna dama ta yanke hukunci mai ma'ana, ba tare da la'akari da cewa alkali ko juri ne suka bayar da hakan ba.

A karkashin dokar shari'ar (ECHR,) yanke hukuncin masu yanke hukunci na iya zama matsala a cikin yanayi inda masu yanke hukunci suka jawo sharudda daga umarnin alƙalai game da saba wa Mataki na 6 (3) (b) da (c).

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Canjin wurin
  • Jus de mara evocando
  • Taimakon shari'a
  • Adalci na gari
  • Zato na laifi

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  1. Doswald-Beck, Louise. Fair Trial, Right to, International Protection, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Nehal Bhuta, Joint Series on International Law and Armed Conflict: Fair Trial Guarantees in Armed Conflict, EJIL: Talk! Blog of the European Journal of European Law (September 22, 2016).
  3. 'British ministers sanctioned torture of NI internees' (5 June 2014)
  4. Lemmens, P. (2014). The right to a fair trial and its multiple manifestations. In E. Brems & J. Gerards (Eds.), Shaping Rights in the ECHR: The Role of the European Court of Human Rights in Determining the Scope of Human Rights (pp. 294-314). Cambridge Books Online: Cambridge University Press.