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Haƙƙin Bada Shawara

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Haƙƙin Bada Shawara
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Ƙaramin ɓangare na Haƙƙoƙi da rights of defendants (en) Fassara

Haƙƙin bada shawara na nufin wanda ake ƙara na da damar samun taimakon lauya (watau lauyoyi ), kuma idan wanda ake kara ba zai iya daukar lauya ba, ya bukaci gwamnati ta nada daya ko kuma ta biya kudin da ake tuhumar. Hakkin yin nasiha galibi ana ɗaukar sa a matsayin wani ɓangare na haƙƙin shari'ar adalci . Kodayake, a tarihance, ba duk ƙasashe bane ke amincewa da ikon bada shawara. Haƙƙin galibi yana cikin kundin tsarin mulkin ƙasa. Na 153 na kundin tsarin mulki na 194 a halin yanzu ana amfani da su suna da yare don wannan sakamako. [1]

A duk duniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ostiraliya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A Ostiraliya, waɗanda ake tuhuma suna da 'yancin samun wakilcin lauya yayin bincike da shari'a. Dokar kasar Ostiraliya ba ta amince da haƙƙin ba da kariya ga shari'a ba a bainar jama'a, amma ta yarda cewa idan babu lauya wanda ake tuhumar ba zai iya samun shari'ar adalci kamar yadda doka ta tsara ba. Jihohin Victoria da New South Wales ne kawai ke da tsarin kare jama'a . Kotuna na da ikon dakatar da shari'ar lokacin da suka yanke hukuncin cewa akwai yiwuwar fuskantar shari'ar rashin adalci. Babbar Kotun Ostiraliya ta yanke hukunci a cikin Dietrich v Sarauniya cewa yayin da waɗanda ake tuhumar ba su da hurumin kare kariya a matsayin haqqin da aka ba da tabbaci, ya kamata alqali yawanci ya bayar da buqatar a dage zaman ko kuma ya tsaya a cikin manyan laifuka na laifi inda mai gabatar da kara ba shi da wakilci, kuma yakamata ya ba da izini yayin da aka bar wanda ake zargi da aikata wani babban laifi ba tare da wakilcinsa ba don ci gaba kawai a cikin yanayi na musamman. [2] Kowace jiha da yanki na Ostiraliya suna da Hukumar Taimako ta Shari'a don ba da sabis na shari'a a cikin lamuran masu laifi, na farar hula, da na dokokin dangi ga marasa galihu, amma za su taimaka kawai ga waɗanda suka cika ƙa'idodin ƙofar su, musamman game da kuɗin shiga. Duk wanda ake tuhuma da aikata wani laifi na Commonwealth, ko kuma wani laifi da ya fada karkashin ikon gwamnatin tarayya, yana da damar ya nemi alkali ya ba shi shawara a cikin makonni biyu bayan an yanke masa hukuncin, kuma alkalin na iya nada lauya idan har ya gamsu da cewa wanda ake ƙara ba zai iya ɗauka lauya ba. Hakanan akwai cibiyar sadarwar cibiyoyin shari'a na al'umma don bayar da sabis na shari'a kyauta ga talakawa waɗanda ba su cancanci Tallafin Shari'a ba. Kodayake suna karɓar kuɗaɗen tarayya da na jihohi, ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu ne masu zaman kansu waɗanda ke dogaro da lauyoyi don yin aiki da su bisa aikin sa kai. Yawancinsu ba sa iya ci gaba da buƙatun su kuma dole ne su juya wasu mutane. Wadanda ba za su iya samun kowane irin taimako na shari'a na iya zuwa ba tare da wakilci ba idan ba za su iya biyan lauya ba. [3] [4] [5]

Jamus[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A Jamus, ya zama wajibi duk waɗanda ake tuhuma da aikata laifi da ke dauke da hukuncin akalla shekara daya a kurkuku suna da lauya, koda kuwa su kansu ba sa so a same shi, kuma kotun za ta naɗa lauya da zai wakilci wanda ake kara wanda bai yi haka ba. [6] Babu wani tsari na kare jama'a a cikin Jamus. Kotun na iya sanya kowane lauya a matsayin lauya ga takamaiman wanda ake kara, kuma mai kare zai iya zaban takamaiman lauya. Ba za a caji wanda ake tuhuma don ayyukan shari'a idan an sake shi ba, amma zai iya biyan kuɗin lauya idan an same shi da laifi sai dai idan kotu ta ga cewa wanda ake tuhumar ba shi da kuɗi. [7] A cikin shari'o'in farar hula, jihar tana ba da wakilci na shari'a, shawarwarin shari'a, da taimako wajen rufe tsadar kotu ga waɗanda ba za su iya tara kuɗin da ake buƙata don ɗaukar lauya ba, amma sai lokacin da aka ga cewa akwai damar da ta dace ta nasara. [8]

Indiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mataki na 22 na Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Indiya ya ce "Babu wani mutumin da aka kama da za a tsare a kurkuku ba tare da sanar da shi ba, da wuri-wuri, kan dalilin wannan kamarsa kuma ba za a hana shi damar tuntuba, da kuma kare shi ba by, wani lauya da ya zaɓa. " [9] A shekara ta 2011, Kotun kolin Indiya ta yanke hukuncin cewa kotu ba za ta iya yanke hukunci ba tare da lauya ya gabatar da wanda ake kara ba, kuma ta ba da umarnin cewa dole ne kotu ta sanya lauya alhali wanda ake ƙara ba zai iya biya ba. [10] Ana bayar da taimakon shari'ar jama'a ta hanyar Hukumar Kula da Shari'a ta Kasa da kungiyoyin ayyukan shari'a na matakin jiha. Kotuna suna nada lauyoyi masu ba da taimakon shari'a a shari'o'in farar hula da na laifi. [11]

Isra'ila[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dukkanin waɗanda ake ƙara, wadanda ake tsare da su, da wadanda ake zargi da aikata laifi a cikin Isra’ila suna da damar samun wakilcin lauya a duk wata shari’a da ta shafi su kuma dukkan wadanda ake zargin suna da damar tuntubar lauya kafin a yi musu tambayoyi na ‘yan sanda. Koyaya, waɗanda aka ga sun cancanci ne kawai ke da ikon wakiltar kuɗin ƙasa idan ba za su iya biyan lauya ba. Ma’aikatar Shari’ar Isra’ila tana kula da bangaren Tsaron Jama’a don ba da shawarwari na shari’a ga wadanda suka cancanta. A shari’ar aikata laifuka, duk wadanda ake tuhuma da aikata babban laifi dauke da hukuncin akalla shekaru 10 a kurkuku da waɗanda ba su da laifi da ake tuhuma da aikata laifin da ke ɗauke da hukuncin akalla shekaru 5 a kurkuku suna da damar wakilcinsu ta bangaren Tsaron Jama’a, kamar yadda yara da matasa naƙasassu Duk fursunonin da ba su da karfi da kuma tsarewa wadanda aka gabatar da bukatar a ci gaba da tsare su har zuwa karshen shari’ar su ma suna da damar wakilta daga Hukumar Kare Jama’a, haka nan fursunonin da ke fuskantar shari’ar sakin baki, duk wanda ke fuskantar shari’ar tasa keyar, da kuma yanke musu hukuncin da ake nema na sake shari’a a lokacin aka samu. [12]

Duk wadanda ake kara da ke fuskantar ƙararraki na gari suma suna da damar ba da shawara. Ma'aikatar Shari'a tana aiki da Sashin Ba da Tallafi na Shari'a don taimaka wa wadanda suka cancanci ba da tallafi na shari'a a shari'o'in farar hula. Ana ba da taimakon shari'a a cikin shari'un farar hula don fannoni daban-daban, kuma masu nema dole ne yawanci su haɗu da gwajin cancantar kuɗi don karɓar taimakon shari'a. Koyaya, a wasu fannoni na shari'ar farar hula, ana bayar da taimakon shari'a ba tare da bincika cancantar kuɗi ba. [13]

Japan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Japan ya ba da tabbaci ga ikon ba da shawara game da doka. Idan wanda ake kara karami ne ko kuma aka ga bai iya biyan kudin lauya ba, kotu na iya sanya daya ba tare da an biya wa wanda ake kara ba. Hakkin lauyan da kotu ta nada kawai yana wanzuwa bayan an kawo kara. Bayan kamun wanda ake zargin yana da damar zuwa kyauta kyauta daga lauya mai aiki wanda zai ba da shawara a kan doka, ya bayyana doka da hanyoyin da abin ya shafa, kuma ya tuntubi dangin wanda ake zargin, amma dole ne wanda ake zargin ya biya domin karin taimako daga lauyan. Wadanda ake tuhuma ba su da ikon samun lauya a yayin da ‘yan sanda ke yi musu tambayoyi. [14] [15]

Peru[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mataki na 121 na kundin hukunta laifuka na ƙasar ta Peru ya ce kafin fara gabatar da ƙarar, dole ne alkali ya sanar da wanda yake kare hakkinsa na yin lauya, kuma idan wanda ake kara bai zaɓi lauya ba, to za a sanya mutum a cikin karar. Idan babu lauya, dole ne "mutum mai daraja" ya maye gurbin lauya. Wadanda ake tuhuma suna da 'yancin kin shawara sai dai idan ba su da ilimi ko kuma ba su kai karami ba, in da haka ne alkali zai iya sanya lauya a kan wanda ake tuhumar. [16]

Rasha[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duk waɗanda ake zargi da aikata laifi da wadanda ake zargi a Rasha suna da 'yancin taimakon shari'a. Wanda ake zargi na da damar zuwa lauya tun daga lokacin da aka ayyana su a matsayin wanda ake zargi da aikata laifi. Codea'idar ƙa'idar aikata laifuka ta Rasha ta ba da umarnin cewa idan wanda aka tsare ba shi da lauya, to jami'in ɗan sanda, mai bincike, ko alƙali dole ne ya nemi ƙungiyar lauyoyi ta yankin da ta sanya lauya ga wanda ake zargin. Daga nan sai shugaban ƙungiyar lauyoyi ya rarraba alƙawura tsakanin mambobinta, waɗanda ba su da ikon ƙi aikin da aka gabatar. Lauyan dole ne ya tambayi dangin wanda ake zargin idan sun nada wani, kuma idan ba mai binciken ko alkalin ya ba su ikon lauya ba. Koyaya, tsarin kare jama'a ya sha suka daga lauyoyin Rasha saboda yadda yake aiki a aikace. Masu bincike sukan sanya lauyoyi da kansu ba tare da jiran waɗanda aka tsare su zaba ba, kuma sun fi son nada lauyoyi wadanda suke da kyakkyawar alakar aiki da su, don haka a aikace lauyoyin da aka nada a fili galibi za su taimaka wa masu gabatar da kara ta hanyar ba da karfi ga kare kwastomominsu da kuma sanya hannu kan takaddun da ake buƙata da kuma halartar shari'ar da ake buƙata, kuma masu binciken za su daina nada lauyoyi waɗanda ke damun waɗanda ake tuhuma. Waɗanda ake tuhuma na iya zaɓar shawara mai zaman kansa maimakon, duk da cewa akwai wasu matsaloli na gudanarwa. Game da shari’ar da Hukumar Tsaro ta Tarayya ko Babban Ofishin Bincike ke yi, akwai gamayyar rukunin lauyoyi da ke wakiltar wadanda ake kara. [17]

Ƙasar Ingila[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ingila da Wales[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kafin dokar Lauyoyin Fursunoni ta shekara ta 1836, wadanda ake tuhuma da aikata laifi ba su da hurumin wakiltar lauya a kotunan Ingilishi duk da cewa, daga tsakiyar karni na 18 ana yin irin wannan halin a inda masu tuhuma za su iya biyansu. An yi tunanin, a lokacin, cewa kasancewar lauyan da ke kare shi ba zai haifar da komai ba a yayin shari'ar aikata laifuka, inda abin da ke magana ke yanke hukunci: wanda ake kara ya kamata ya fada wa kotun gaskiya kawai, ba tare da sa hannun wasu lauyoyi ba. William Hawkins a cikin <i id="mwig">Littafinsa na 'Yarjejeniyar Sarauta: ko tsarin manyan al'amura, dangane da wannan batun, narkewa a ƙarƙashin shugabanninsu na ƙwarai</i> Vol. II. na 1721 rubuta.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Elkins, Zachary, Tom Ginsburg, and James Melton. 2013. Constitute: The World's Constitutions to Read, Search, and Compare. https://www.constituteproject.org/
  2. https://www.alrc.gov.au/publication/traditional-rights-and-freedoms-encroachments-by-commonwealth-laws-alrc-interim-report-127/10-fair-trial/right-to-a-lawyer/
  3. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-04-01/no-right-to-justice/6328790?nw=0
  4. https://www.findlaw.com.au/articles/5494/why-dont-we-have-the-right-to-free-legal-represent.aspx
  5. "Kwafin ajiya". Archived from the original on 2021-04-20. Retrieved 2021-07-13.
  6. https://www.howtogermany.com/pages/legal.html
  7. https://www.justiceinitiative.org/uploads/d9abc7b5-7f5e-4ad4-ac1a-7c4f1edbd42b/eu-legal-aid-germany-20150427.pdf
  8. https://e-justice.europa.eu/content_european_judicial_network_in_civil_and_commercial_matters-21-en.do
  9. "Kwafin ajiya". Archived from the original on 2021-07-13. Retrieved 2021-07-13.
  10. https://www.jurist.org/news/2011/02/india-supreme-court-finds-constitutional-right-to-counsel/
  11. https://scroll.in/article/877225/how-well-do-indias-free-legal-aid-services-work-not-nearly-well-enough
  12. "Kwafin ajiya". Archived from the original on 2020-08-09. Retrieved 2021-07-13.
  13. https://www.gov.il/en/service/legal_aid_application
  14. https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/04/10/call-eliminate-japans-hostage-justice-system-japanese-legal-professionals
  15. https://japan.embassy.gov.au/tkyo/arrests.html#legalaid
  16. "Peruvian Penal Code" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-04-28. Retrieved 2021-07-13.
  17. https://meduza.io/en/feature/2016/01/26/an-indefensible-public-defender-system