Haƙƙoƙin ɗan'adam

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
(an turo daga Hakkokin ɗan'adam)
Hakkokin Yan-adam
convention (en) Fassara da harkar zamantakewa
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Haƙƙoƙi da convention (en) Fassara
Bangare na international law (en) Fassara
Hashtag (en) Fassara StandUp4HumanRights
Gudanarwan Mai kare ƴancin ɗan'adam
WordLift URL (en) Fassara http://data.thenextweb.com/tnw/entity/human_rights
Magna Carta ko "Babban yarjejeniya" ɗaya daga cikin kundin duniya na farko dake ɗauke da umurni daga cikakken shugaban ƙasa zuwa ga alummarsa dasu daraja hakƙoƙin doka

Hakƙoƙin ɗan'adam, kyawawan ɗabi'u ne ko hanyoyin tafiyar da rayuwa na yau da kullum[1] wandaƴan'adam na wasu kafaffun dabi'un ƴan'adam, sannan kuma akan basu kariya ako da yaushe amatsayin hakƙoƙin doka dana ɗabi'a a karkashin dokan kasa da na duniya.[2] Ana daukansu a matsayin hakkokin da ba'a iya tauye su,[3] tsararrun haƙƙoƙi "wanda kowanne mutum ke da hakki akansu badan komai ba sai don ya kasance shi mutum ne ɗan'adam"[4] kuma "kowanne mutum yana da hakki akansu",[5] ba tare da duba ga shekarun sa ba, ƙasar sa ta asali, wurin zama, harshe, addini, ƙabila, ko kuma kowane irin babbanci ba.[3] Ana iya wanzar da su a ko ina a kuma ko da yaushe a zaman hakki na duniya baki daya,[1] kuma sune rashin nuna bambanci akan cewa dukkannin mutane ɗaya suke.[3] Ana ɗaukar su a matsayin tausayin juna da kuma dokoki na shari'a[6] da sanya wajabci akan kowane mutum da ya daraja wadannan hakƙoƙi na sauran mutane,[1][3] kuma amince gabaki ɗaya akan ba za'a kore wadannan hakkoki ba face idan akwai wasu dalilai na tsari.[7]

Koyarwar hakkin dan-'adam yayi fice a tsakanin Kungiyoyin shari'a na kasa da ƙasa. Matakai da Jihohi da kuma Kungiyoyin da ba na gwamnati ba (NGOs) ne suka kafa tushen dokokin al'umma a duk fadin duniya. Ra'ayoyin hakkin dan-adam sun ayyana cewa "idan kungiyoyin al'umma zasu zauna su tattauna akan matakan zaman lafiya ga al'ummomin duniya, to wannan za'a iya cewa ya zamo harshen kyawawan dabi'u na gama gari, wadannan su ne hakkokin dan-adam". Mayan hujjojin kare hakkin dan-adam sun sabawa koyarwa da dama na addinai, kuma suna jayayya akan abubuwan da dokokin suka kunsa, tsarinta da kuma sharuddanta har zuwa yau. Anyi jayayya sosai akan asalin ma'anar kalmar hakƙi, kuma ya zamo darasi na jayayya wanda baya karewa,[8] a yayinda anyi amanna akan cewa hakkokin dan-adam sun kunshi hakkoki da dama, kamar yancin shari'a na adalci, kare dan adam daga zama bawa, da kuma yancin faɗar albarkacin baki,[9] da kuma haƙƙin samun ingantaccen Ilimi, akwai sabani akan wanne daga cikin wadannan hakkoki zai zamo daga cikin jigon hakkokin dan-adam;[1] wasu manazarta sun ayyana cewa ya kamata akalla hakkin dan-adam ya zamo karamin doka don hana mummunan cin zarafi, a yayinda wasu kuma suke gani cewa shine kololuwar sharadi.[1][10] Har ila yau, anyi jayayya cewa hakkin dan-adam doka ne daga Ubangiji; duk da cewa anyi suka ga wannan ra'ayi sosai.[11]

Muhimman ra'ayoyin da suka janyo wannan kamfe na hakkin dan-adam sun samo asali ne daga sakamakon barnar da akayi a yaƙin duniya na biyu, da kuma abubuwan da suka faru a Holocaust. Wanda suka janyo zartar da hakkokin dan-adam a duk fadin duniya, a Paris, wanda Majalisar Dokoki ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (United Nations General Assembly) ta gabatar a shekarar 1948.[12] Mutanen da, basu da irin wadannan dokoki na kare hakkin dan-adam na zamani.[13] Asalin jigon hakkin dan-adam ya samo asali ne daga haƙƙoƙin asali wanda suke daga cikin Dokokin asali na tsakiyar zamani wanda sukayi fice a lokacin Ilimi na Turai tare da masana falsafa irinsu John Locke, Francis Hutcheson da kuma Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui da kuma tattaunawa a wajen taron na Juyin juya halin Amurka da kuma Juyin juya halin Faransa.[6] Daga wannan ne, hakkokin dan-adam na yau suka samo asali har zuwa karshen karni na 20,[14] tana iya yiwuwa a dalilin bayi, azabtarwa, kisan kiyashi da kuma ta'addancin yaki,[6] don la'akari da abubuwan da suka shafi rauni na dan-adam, sannan kuma a matsayin mataki na tabbatar yiwuwar Adalci a tsakanin al'umma.[5] Fafutukar neman hakkin dan-adam ya ciga har farkon karni na 21, inda ya mayar da hankali akan kara samun 'yanci na kasuwanci da na siyasa.[5]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

U.S. Declaration of Independence Continental Congress ce ta tabbatar a ranar 4 July 1776

Manufar hakkin dan-adam ta wanzu na tsawon karni da dama, duk da cewa mutane da dama suna la'akari da hakkin dan-adam na duka duniya kamar yadda mutanen zamanin nan ke yi a yau.[15][16][17]

Hujja akan hakkin dan-adam mafi tsufa itace Cyrus Cylinder wanda ya samo asali tun daga karni na 6 BCE, tana dauke da hakkoki kamar babu bautar da bayi, hakkin bauta a addinin da ka ga dama da kuma hakkin daidaito a tsakanin launin fata.[18]

Majagaban tattaunawa na gaskiya akan hakkokin dan-adam yana cikin manufar haƙƙoƙin asali wanda ya wanzu a matsayin dokokin asali na al'adun tsakiyar zamuna. Wadannan al'adu sun tasirantu sosai daga rubuce-rubucen Bulus Manzo da manazartan farko farko na addinin Kiristanci, St Hilary of Poitiers, St. Ambrose da kuma St. Augustine.[19] Augustine na daga cikin mutane na farko da suka fara tantance ingancin dokokin dan-adam, kuma yayi kokarin bayyana iyakoki akan wasu hakkoki da dokoki na asali dangane da hikima da zurfin tunani, a maimakon cewa mutane su gindaya dokokin da ka, kuma idan mutane zasu rika bin dokokin da ba na adalci ba.[20]

Wadannan al'adu na tsakiyar zamunai yayi fice a lokacin Ilimin falsafa na Turai (Enlightenment). A wannan dalilin ne, tushen hakkokin dan-adam fara daga tsakiyar karshen karni na 20.[Ana bukatan hujja]

Magna Carta wata yarjejeniya ce ta Ingila wacce aka isar a shekarar 1215 wacce tayi tasiri akan bunkasa Dokokin yau da kullum, da sauran dumbin takaddu na kundin tsarin mulki akan hakkokin dan-adam, irinsu Dokar Hakkoki 1689, Kundin tsarin mulkin Amurka na shekara ta 1789, da kuma Dokar Hakkoki na Amurka na shekarar 1791.[21]

Masanin falsafa na karni na 17 dan kasar Ingila John Locke ya tattauna akan hakkin dan adam na asali a cikin ayyukansa, kuma ya bayyana su a matsayin "rayuwa", "'yanci", da "gidaje (muhalli), kuma yayi jayayya akan cewa irin wadannan muhimman hakkoki bai kamata a barsu ga masu hanu da shuni ba. A Burtaniya acikin shekara ta 1689, Dokokin Hakkoki na Ingila da kuma Mallakar hakkoki na 1689 na kasar Scotland duka sunyi yunkurin kore wasu ayyukan gwamnati wanda basu bisa adalci.[22] Muhimman juyin juya hali guda biyu sun faru a cikin karni na 18, a kasar Amurka a shekara ta (1776) da kuma Faransa a cikin shekara ta (1789), wanda hakan ya janyo Sanarwar Dokar 'Yancin Kai na Amurka da kuma Sanarwa kan haƙƙoƙin dan adam da 'yan kasa na kasar Faransa bi da bi, dukkanninsu kuma sun kunshi wani nau'in hakkokin dan-adam. Bugu da kari, Sanarwar Dokar Hakkoki na Virginia na shekara ta 1776 ya ayyana wasu dumbin muhimman hakkokin 'yan kasa da 'yancin 'yan kasa a cikin doka.

Mun riqi wannan gaskiyar da ta zama hujja ga kowa da kowa, cewa dukkannin mutane an halicce su daidai, cewa ubangijinsu ya halicce su da wasu hakkoki wanda ba'a iya koresu, cewa daga cikinsu akwai rayuwa, 'yanci da kuma neman farin ciki a duniya.

— Sanarwar Dokar 'Yancin Kai na Amurka, 1776

1800 zuwa Yakin Duniya na I[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayanin haƙƙoƙin dan adam da na jama'a Majalisar Dokoki ta kasar Faransa ne ta zartar a ranar, 26 Augusta 1789

Masana falsafa irinsu Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill, da kuma Hegel sun fadada jigon Universality a tsakanin karni na 18 da na 19. A cikin shekara ta 1831, William Lloyd Garrison ya rubuta acikin wata jarida mai suna The Liberator cewa yana so ya sanya masu karanta labaransa a cikin wani "babban al'amari na hakkokin dan-adam",[23] to watakila ta haka ne aka fara amfani da kalmar Haƙƙoƙin ɗan'adam a tsakanin maganan Paine Haƙƙoƙin ɗan'adam (The Rights of Man) da kuma wallafar Garrison. A cikin shekara ta 1849, wani dan zamanin Henry David Thoreau yayi rubutu akan Haƙƙoƙin ɗan'adam a cikin rubutunsa mai suna Civil Disobedience wanda daga bisani yayi tasiri akan hakkokin dan-adam da kuma manazarta. Kotun Kolin David Davis na kasar Amurka, acikin bayanansa na 1867 akan Ex parte Milligan, ya rubuta kamar haka: "Don kare doka, ana tabbatar da hakkokin dan-adam; idan aka cire wadannan hakkoki to suna a hannun azzaluman shugabanni, ko kuma a cikin rudanin rikitattun mutane".[24]

Kungiyoyi da dama sun sami damar cimma nasaorin zamantakewa masu muhimmanci a cikin karni na 20 da sunan hakkin dan-adam. A yammacin Turai da Arewacin Amurka, Kungiyoyin kwadago sun janyo dokar da ya bai wa ma'aikata daman yajin aiki, kirkirar ka'idojin lokutan aiki, da kuma haramta ko kuma tsara Kwadago ga yara. Kamfe na Haƙƙoƙin Mata yayi sanadiyyar samarwa mata 'yancin kada kuri'a. Yakoki akan 'yancin kasashe yayi sanadiyyar korar Turawan mulkin mallaka daga kasashe da dama. Daya daga cikin jagoranci mafi tasiri shine na Mahatma Gandhi akan gwagwarmayar 'yancin Indiya. Gwagwarmayoyi na kananan addinan da basu da galihu da wariyar launin fata sun samu nasarori da dama a yankuna daban daban na duniya, daga cikinsu akwai gwagwarmayar kare haƙƙin 'yan kasa, da kuma na kusa-kusan nan bayyana siyasa, wanda ya jibanci mata da sauran marasa galihu a Amurka.[Ana bukatan hujja]

Kirkirar Kungiyar Agaji Ta Red Cross Ta Duniya, Dokar Lieber na 1864, da kuma Yarjejeniyar Geneva na farko a 1864, yayi sanadiyyar kirkirar Dokokin 'yan-Adam ta duniya, wanda aka kara bunkasa ta bayan yaƙin duniya ta byu.

Tsakanin Yakin Duniya ta Daya da Yakin Duniya ta Biyu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An kirkiri League of Nations a shekarar 1919 a wajen muhawara akan yarjejeniyar Versailles bayan an kammala Yaƙin Duniya na I. Manufofin kungiyar sune janye dakarun sojoji, magance yaki ta hanyar hadin gwiwa ta tsaro, daidaita sabani a tsakanin kasashe ta hanyar sasanci, diflomasiyya da kuma inganta jin dadin rayuwa a duk fadin duniya. Tana dauke da yarjejeniya akan bunkasa hakkoki da dama wanda daga bisani aka sanya su acikin Zartarwa akan Hakkokin Dan-Adam na Duniya (Universal Declaration of Human Rights).

League of Nations tana da kudiri na goyon bayan da yawa daga cikin kasashen da Turawan Yammacin Turai suka mulka a yayin mika yanci daga mulkin malka zuwa 'yancin kai.

Kungiyar Kwadago ta kasa da kasa a matsayinta na hukuma a karkashin League of Nation, sannan a yanzu Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya ta na da kudirin bunkasawa da kare wasu hakkoki wanda daga baya aka sanya su a cikin Zartarwa akan Hakkokin Dan-Adam na Duniya (UDHR).

muhimmin kudirin Kungiyar kwadago ta kasa da kasa (ILO) a yau shine bunkasa damammaki ga mata da maza a wajen samun ayyuka masu armashi, a cikin yanayi na 'yanci, adalci, tsaro da kuma martabar dan-Adam.

— Rahoto daga Darekta Jenar na Taron kwadago ta Kasa da Kasa, kashi na 87

Bayan Yakin Duniya ta Biyu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

"ba yarjejeniya bace... [Anan gaba, tana] iya zamowa Magna Carta na kasa da kasa."[25] Eleanor Roosevelt dauke da Shella akan Hakkokin Dan-Adam a shekarar 1949.

Shella akan Hakkokin Dan-Adam na Duniya (UDHR) ta kasance zartarwa ce da ba'a tankwara wanda Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na gaba daya ta dabbaka a shekarar 1948,[26] wani bangare don martani akan abubuwan da suka faru a Yaƙin Duniya ta Biyu. UDHR ta bukaci membobin kasashe da su bunkasa hakkoki da dama na dan-Adam, ma'aikata, tattalin arziki da kuma hakkoki na zamantakewa, da kuma tabbatar da wadannan hakkoki a cikin wani bangare na "tushen 'yanci, adalci da kuma zaman lafiya a duniya". Wannan yarjejeniya itace yunkurin shari'a na farko a tsakanin kasashen duniya don iyakance halayen kasashe da kuma tabbatar da cewa sunyi hidima ga 'yan kasashensu ta hanyar bin koyarwar Rights-duty duality.

Template:Omission duba da muhimmancin martaba da kuma na daidaito da hakkokin da ba'a iya kore su da gabaki daya iyalin mutum shine tushen 'yanci, adalci da zaman lafiya a duniya

— Gabatarwa daga Shella akan Hakkokin Dan-Adam na Duniya, 1948

Kwamitin Hakkokin Dan-Adam ne suka tsara UDHR, tare da Eleanor Roosevelt a matsayin chiyaman, wanda ya fara tattaunawa akan Dokar Hakkokin Dan-Adam na Kasa da Kasa a shekarar 1947. Membobin kwamitin ba kai tsaye suka amince da dokokin da ke karkashin wadannan hakkoki ba, da kuma ta yaya za'a iya tilasta dokokin. Kwamitin ta cigaba da tsara UDHR da sauran yarjejeniyoyi, amma cikin sauri UDHR ta zamo mafi muhammanci.[27] Farfesan shari'a dan kasar Kanada John Humprey da kuma lauyan kasar Faransa René Cassin su ke da alhakin mafi yawancin bincike na kasa da kasa da kuma tsara takaddu bi da bi, a yayin da mukaloli akan zartarwar sun ta'allake ne akan gabaki daya dokokin da ke cikin tsokacin. Cassin ne ya tsara takardar don ta kunshi muhimman dokoki na daraja, 'yanci, daidaito da kuma kaunar juna a mukalu biyu na farkonta, sannan sai kuma hakkoki da suka shafe mutane; hakkokin mutane a tsakaninsu da sauran mutane da kumma tsakaninsu da kungiyoyi; hakkokin addini, na jama'a da kuma na siyasa; da kuma hakkokin tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da kuma al'adu. Sauran kasidu ukun, dangane da Cassin, sun kunshi hakkoki da suka shafi iyakoki, dokokin ayyuka da kuma na zamantakewa da na siyasa da kuma yadda za'a wanzar da su.[28] Humphrey da Cassin sun ayyana cewa a tilasta wadannan dokoki na UDHR a shari'ance ta wasu hanyoyi, kamar yadda aka nuna a mujalladi na uku a cikin kasidar.[28]

A yayinda take da muhimmanci, idan baza'a tilasta wa mutum ya nema taimako ba, a matsayin itace kadai mafita, da ya zama dan tawaye dangane da wani zalunci da musgunawa, cewa ya kamata doka ta kare hakkokin dan-Adam.

— Gabatarwa daga Shella akan Hakkokin Dan-Adam, 1948

Kwamitin kwararru na kasa da kasa ne sukayi bincike kuma suka rubuta wasu sassa daga cikin dokokin UDHR, wanda ya hada da wakilai daga kowacce nahiya, sannan kuma daga dukkanin muhimman addinai, da kuma koyarwa daga tattaunawa da shuwagabanni irinsu Mahatma Gandhi.[29] Shigar da dokokin mutane da na siyasa da kuma na tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu,[27][30] sun kasance a tsammanin cewa hakkokin dan-Adam ba kasafai ake gane su ba sannan kuma hakkoki daban daban da aka lissafo suna da alaka da juna. Duk da cewa babu wanda ya musunta wadannan ka'idoji daga cikin mambobin kasashe a wannan lokacin, (amma an zartar da wadannan dokoki ne cikin hadin kai amma banda kungiyoyi irinsu Soviet Bloc, Apartheid na Kudancin Afirka,da kuma Saudi Arebiya, wadannan dokoki daga baya sun fuskanci kalubale da dama.[30]

Dangane da lamarin "Duniya baki daya", dokar bata shafi nuna bambanci da wariyar launin fata na cikin kasashe ba.[31] Henry J. Richardson III ya musanta:[32]

Dukkanin manyan gwamnatoci na wancan lokacin a lokacin tsara dokokin U.N. da Shellar Hakkokin Duniya baki daya sunyi iya kokarinsu wajen tabbatar da cewa, ta kowacce hanya da aka sani na dokokin cikin gida da na kasa da kasa, cewa wadannan dokoki sun ta'allaka ne kadai ga kasa da kasa sannan kuma bata da wani doka na wajibci akan dokoki na cikin gida a tsakanin kasashe. Kowa da kowa ya lura cewa nuna bambancinsu akan masu karamin karfi don cin karensu ba babbaka akan yadda suke iya tilasta dokoki dangane da wadannan dokoki da zasu yadu zuwa wurare da dama zai samar da matsin lamba wanda zai tayar da hankula a siyasance.

Fara yakin Cold War jim kadan bayan kirkirar UDHR ya haifar da rarrabuwa na adawa akan shigar da hakkokin zamantakewa da na tattalin arziki da kuma hakkokin 'yan kasa da na siyasa a cikin dokokin. Kasashen jari hujja sun bada muhimmanci sosai akan hakkokin 'yan kasa da na siyasa (kamar 'yancin cudanya da kuma fadan albarkacin baki), amma basu da niyyar wanzar da hakkokin tattalin arziki da na zamantakewa (kamar hakkin yin aiki da kuma shiga kungiyoyi). Kasashen gurguzanci kuwa sun bada muhimmanci sosai akan hakkokin tatttalin arziki da na zamantakewa, kuma sunyi jayayya sosai akan dalilin shigar dasu cikin dokokin.[33]

A dalilin rarrabuwar da akayi, akan wadanne hakkoki suka kamata a shigar, sannan kuma wasu kasashe sun ki amincewa kuma sun goge wasu daga cikin dokokin, sannan kuma duk da cewa wasu daga cikin membobi irinsu Soviet bloc da sauran kasashe masu tasowa sunki amincewa da wasu hakkoki a zaman Yarjejeniyar hadin kai, an raba hakkokin da ke cikin UDHR zuwa alkawarori guda biyu, inda aka bar wasu kasashe da su wanzar da wasu dokokin sannan kuma suyi watsi da wasu. Duk da cewa hakan ya bada damar kirkirar wadannan dokoki, amma ya tauye dokar cewa dukkanin hakkoki suna da alaka da juna, wanda wannan shine zuciyar UDHR ga wasu masana.[34][35]

Duk da cewa UDHR sansanci ne wanda ba'a iya tankwarawa, a yanzu ana daukar ta a matsayin wani bangare na tushen Dokoki al'adu na kasa da kasa, wanda sashin shari'a na gwamnatocin kasashe ka iya hakayowa a yayin yanke wani hukunci.[36]

Yarjejeniyoyi akan hakkin dan-Adam[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin shekarar 1966, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya tayi amfani da International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) da kuma International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) a tsakaninsu, inda ta sanya hakkokin a karkashin UDHR akan kowacce kasa. Duk da haka, an tilasta su ne kawai a shekarar 1976, a lokacin da kasashe da dama suka sanya hannu a yarjejeniyar (duk da cewa an cimma nasarar ICCPR, alkawarin da ya kunshi hakkokin tattalin arziki da na zamantakewa, kasar Amurka ta sanya hannu ne kadai a yarjejeiyar ICCPR a shekarar 1992. ICESCR ta sanya kungiyar kasashe 155 don suyi aiki a wajen tabbatar da samar da hakkokin tattalin arziki da na zamantakewa ga mutane.

Akwai sauran dumbin yarjejeniyoyi da aka gudanar a tsakanin kasashe. An fi saninsu da kayan aikin hakkokin dan-Adam - human rights instruments. Daga cikin wadanda sukayi fice sun hada da:

Salon Bunkasa Dokokin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dakarun Soja[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Alhakin bada kariya wani shiri ne na kasashen da ke karkashin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da su shiga tsakani kuma su kare mutane daga azzalumai. An ayyana ta a matsayin adalci a dalilin shiga tsakani da sojoji sukayi na kwanan nan. Misalin wannan shiga tsakani da akai ta suka shine Shigan Sojoji kasar Libiya a shekara ta 2011 a Yakin Basasan Farko na Libiya wanda dakarun NATO da Qatar sukayi, wanda kudurin kare kasar daga zalunci ya dauki wani fasali na musamman na tumbuke gwamnatin da ake hari.[38][39]

Tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai hukunci akan tattalin arziki ga duk mutanenda da ko kasar da ta saba dokar hakkin dan-adam. An soke wannan hukunci ta fuskar yadda ake hukuntar da gabaki daya mutanen kasa ta fuskar tattalin arziki don a dankwafar da mutuncin gwamnatin wannan kasa a idan 'yan kasar.[40][41] Har wayau anyi jayayya da cewa, hukunci akan wanda suka sabawa gwamnatin manyan kasashe na karawa gwamnatin wadannan manyan kasa ta fuskar tattalin arzikin cikin gida a yayinda wannan gwamnati zata kirkiri hanyoyi da dama na samun kudade fiye da kasashen da suke suka ko adawa, wadanda za'a kara dankwafarwa.[42]

Hadarin take hakkokin dan-adam na karuwa tare da karuwar talauci a tsakanin mutane. Ana daukar 'ya'ya mata daga iyalai masu karamin karfi a kasashe masu rauni na tattalin arziki a matsayin nauyi acikin iyalin a dalilin haka ana aurar da mata da kananun shekarun da nufin cewa za'a ciyar dasu a karkashin iyalan da ke da arziki.[43]

.Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 James Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, 13 December 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Human Rights, Retrieved 14 August 2014
  2. Nickel 2010
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Majalisar ɗinkin duniya, Ofishin babban kwamishina na Hakƙoƙin ƴan'adam, What are human rights?, Retrieved 14 August 2014
  4. Sepúlveda et al. 2004, p. 3"Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Burns H. Weston, 20 March 2014, Encyclopædia Britannica, human rights, Retrieved 14 August 2014
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Gary J. Bass (book reviewer), Samuel Moyn (author of book being reviewed), 20 October 2010, The New Republic, The Old New Thing, Retrieved 14 August 2014
  7. The United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights, What are human rights? Archived 19 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 14 August 2014
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